Producción de hongos comestibles (Gírgolas) - Tercer EncuentroJul 09, 2022
hello, good afternoon, we are already connected, how are you? Well, you are greeting us from the Río Turbio rural extension agency for a new meeting the last of this week, this one to talk about oysters again. production say tails yesterday we had a professional who spoke to us about wild mushrooms from santa cruz and today we resumed the last meeting also to talk about plum production again but this time on good substrates we are very happy with the repercussion that these talks are having like this We want to thank you all for being there and being connected, leave your questions or send us your comments, and we want to say hello to all of you who are watching us on YouTube, let's say hello to Claudia Marino from Puerto Deseo de Río Gallegos, Guillermo, very cool, Entre Ríos, Cecilia.
Cesar is from Mendoza Alicia Alegre from Buenos Aires Elisabeth from Mar del P can fair of mendoza good they are the first we saw that were there connected surely there are already many more so we thank you all we greet you all I leave you with santiago balanced who will be talking to us then say balls in favor of the substrates santiago had some little problem with the connection so they won't see you there, the camera turned off so that you have better connectivity and can give the talk now they will surely give the presentation on the screen well later we'll return with the round of questions more or less In 40 minutes, so we'll meet again there and I'm letting Santiago know because he doesn't hear us well, but if we listen to him like that, hello, good afternoon from now on, I don't know if he can hear me, yes, yes, yes, you can be heard well, Santiago. welcome to see well thank you very much good afternoon everyone I apologize for the problems that the connection may cause well while I am sharing the screen as well Deborah already said today's idea is r Taking up the topic that we had left when we started on Wednesday was although we are not going to talk about crops on oysters on Wednesday we started talking about crops on logs and today it would be our turn to talk about crops on substrate so well let's start with this topic first I'm not going to do a review of some questions that had remained unanswered and I chose some others that will be answered directly in a brief review that we are going to do about what we saw the other day but well I chose some and they repeated that they were punctual some topic that I had not mentioned so we are going to start with these the first thing is how we market the production for now the production we are pointing out what is local marketing of fresh product and dehydrated product the truth is that up to now at the productive scale that is being handled that there are approximately a little more than 1000 trunks in production here in the old ones and about 300,400 trunks In production in Lago Posadas, the idea for this season is to double that entire area in the case of the old ones a little more and we calculate this year about 2,500 3,000 trunks in production so far, all that is fresh production that is already harvested before harvesting.
It's sold, so it's an advantage in the product, as well as work that continues to be discussed, which is quite important so that people get to know it so that people incorporate it. and for those who have never consumed it, learn to consume it and for what is marketing outside the locality we are working at this moment I will tell you about it a little later but we are working at this moment on what is the assembly of a packing room and at work with the first municipal authorizations to be able to pass things to the provincial authorization and the authorization of each corresponding product the v The truth is that demand and from many towns in the province of other neighboring provinces and well from another province of the country in fact this year they have even reached requests from Buenos Aires with which the contacts are and all this was discussed the idea is once that It is in all the qualifications and others to be able to reach those destinations.
They asked me how long it can be kept cool at hillside temperatures for sale. It is consumed more or less from the harvest. It has a useful life of approximately 78 days, which is what we recommend within the term. They gave the labels to the harvest date and from that moment it has been at hillside temperatures, that is also one of the reasons why it is sold fresh in the locality because that temperature can be maintained in an easier way, although it has been seen some in freight and others that there are refrigerated equipment with cold equipment but for the moment it is a fresh place and other locations such as posada are signing up the dehydrated product is also very much what regulations or permits are needed to be able to market well, the main thing is to enable, on the one hand, the production that includes the production that exists and that Senasa is aware of, in fact, authorization of which we inaugurated one of the production rooms that It was done with also inviting actions to bromatology and others after Rennes so that this step would be and to tell Senasa that they exist as producers of ovens is to have the authorization of the packaging spaces and the corresponding authorization of each product that is going to be commercialized and they ask me if the people system is very expensive and they consult it today and see that they are netafin distributors that are in commodores where we buy a lot of this equipment and they told me, for example, one of the systems that we were moving that was the one that I was telling you to create a mist we use in the substrate room, it is priced at two dollars with a massive 25 for each person and It comes in a hose with a weight so that people can hold it straight and with an anti-drip valve that is also important to prevent water from dripping inside the room or in a vehicle and the others that we are using that get less from the radius of wetting the diameter of wetting is much greater than what is requested now we are going to give it again they were some micro-sprinkler blades that distribute water much further at a price of three dollars with 21 massive this within what we are using irrigation system There are many, as I was saying, even with a little toad, there are not a few trunks or with a few people, only in the event that there are few bags.
In fact, we have also done some tests with room humidifiers and they also maintain humidity well if the place is well closed, I was asking. If the trunk is only good for one crop, the trunk that they sow will have it, at least it is not too small, this is related to the amount of food here from the fungus in That trunk can be there for more or less three seasons after the harvest. Ask about the mushroom, can you do it the same way? Caroline didn't say to do it. The mushroom is actually a fungus that needs a substrate with a side to start growing for someone who has never worked with mushrooms for me in the ambulatory is a good way to start from that opinion so as not to have a problem regarding the volume of harvest or how to manage the environment and others it has a few more turns it is not impossible but it has some more turns but it needs a substrate composted how good if the place is a necessary bags and we use the bag on the one hand to keep the trunk moist on the other hand because there is not so much gas exchange and on the other hand because it allows light not to shine inside the trunk that They are the conditions that the ministry removes to advance.
They asked that they have a lot of trunks. I think I call Eucalyptus. three very low and wood any soft white wood is suitable for this and any other substrate that has cellulose my cellulose link and well if it is necessary to inoculate again the trunks are not inoculated just once what can be done is after the season we store again so that they do not dehydrate, the mystery on the wood can continue advancing and for the following season remove it but it is not necessary to sow again to contact a referent what mycelia production the material that I told you the other day now I am going to return it to you In passing, he talks about the fact that the production of mycelia is not something so complicated and in terms of references and the white laboratory that Carolina de Esquel spoke about yesterday, they are dedicated to that. which is the mycology part, I will also leave you the contact and the people that we buy from you, we also many times from neuquén from the pyme-adeneu center all those laboratories Orios can be consulted and there is a bibliography like the one I told you about the other day, I am going to mention it again where a quarter is explained very simply as normal to multiply the bevel with respect to the plantings and the trunks can be placed not individually in the black bags, in fact many times we put them in several when they are smaller or the bag is very large or in the case that we do it like an envelope that we had the other day they are placed in several, it is not necessary to go to one As long as the problem is well closed and if they can be placed lying down and calmly, in fact, in what is that species on which I showed them, they are all lying down, there is no problem and getting more into today's topic, we are going to review it beforehand to finish answering some questions that we saw the other day review simply what is a fungus is a living organism that lacks chlorophyll that incorporates nutrients from the environment to survive is not a plant and it belongs to a separate kingdom called junji how it develops in nature from spores that are formed in that fruiting body that what we are going to harvest when it has the necessary stimulus that fruiting body begins to form that spore previously ends in a thread very finite of flame ifa and the set of and fas that begins to be made as a network like the one seen in the drawing, which is what we are going to see white in the bag or in the trunk, it is called my being in lines In general, what we saw the other day, we started with an inoculum that we bought in a laboratory, knowing that it is for, we bought what environment that strain responds to, what conditions it moderately needs, and we planted the softwood trunk, which is what we were just saying.
There are several methods we saw the other day. One of them had a lid, as seen in the image, a lid of about 5 or 6 centimeters is cut, removed, linen is placed in that place and the lid is nailed to the top again, it is put inside a bag for between 3 and 5 months, also depending on the area, when we remove the mycelium from the fungus, the whole structure that we said colonizes the fungus in vegetative growth takes the trunk and when we give it the conditions in the case of the natural trunk, there is a lot of temperature drop Humidity in diffused light and more oxygen the primordia begin to form and in about 10 days 7 days 10 days after the primordia are formed it is ready to harvest when the season ends what we can do is put it back in a bag Like what we did in the incubation stage, let's remember that the fungus in a vegetative growth and a reproductive growth, the vegetative growth is the linear growth of semis, the self on the substrate, to go dissolving components, it will go nourishing, for this it works with enzymes and when it is given or finds the right conditions of high humidity oxygen light a decrease in temperature we enter into reproductive growth the growth stops The growth of the mycelium as it had been advancing and begins to produce a fruiting body, in other words, it is repeating the cycle that it does in nature and what we have to do is manage the conditions of both moments of both stages well in order to harvest the fruiting bodies that In short, we are interested in that is what we have to do both in trunks and in the substrate.
In the case of the trunk, it is a much more seasonal crop and we depend on a more natural environment, and in the case of the substrate, now we are going to see how we handle these more conditions then simply what we said the other day to cultivate we have to be clear about the inoculum that we know we buy is doing well in our area what characteristics of the environment does the substrate that we are going to use need that what we saw the other day was the substrate the trunk or it was going to be something else and the environment the inoculum is nothing more than that mystery that grows on sterile grains there they are seen in semis helium developed on Grains that are usually used are oats, barley, rye, sterile, because the embryo is killed, they are boiled so that these seeds can develop before the fungus develops.
So, when we talk about the environment, we are going to make a difference when we talk about cultivation in logs, the natural environment of the crop is seasonal the trunk does not require disinfection that was also asked the other day and the incubation will be more or less depending on the area between 3 and 5 months and we are going to work on structures like the one seen in the photo below the left, which are called shade-boxes in cultivation on a substrate, instead we are going to work in a controlled environment. This is already telling us that the investment is different, also the cultivation.
We are going to have to invest in light temperature irrigation as a system and see how to automate it for this to work well. The idea is to produce fresh mushrooms all year round. cos and this demands a few more tasks than cultivating logs, which we are now going to see if you need disinfection, this is important and the incubation time is approximately 20 days, it can be longer, but an incubation time of 15 to 20 days would be ideal, notOnly at this moment the latest innovations that we made are within those 220 days and it is what allows when one establishes the time it takes to say well, we entered into a crop rotation knowing how long each stage lasts in general terms and we think we can produce the substrates think like this simple drawing on the one hand to choose which substrate we are going to use now we are going to see that there are an infinite number of substrates I am going to name a few but there are more than 200 substrates that can be used think that cellulose and as the main component of the structure of the plants so we can find most of the tissues, some of which we are not going to use, such as the ones we mentioned, pine or wood that have a lot of tannin because they will inhibit the development of this fungus, but mostly also we are going to select the substrate we are going to do a conditioning of that substrate we are going to do the disinfection the sowing the incubation the induction in es These temperatures and it will be very similar to what we saw in the trunk, but we are going to look for the optimal one and we are not going to depend so much on a natural environment that could also be, in fact, behind me, that image that you see in the shade would be a little bag. hanging because it is a bag of substrate that we put in an oracle and it works well and the harvest of the harvest has that little arrow the harvest in the case of cultivation in substrate is more orderly and tends to come in waves and 3-4 waves more or less Due to this substrate, depending on the size of the bag, the amount of food that the fungus has in order to develop, we are going to start talking about the substrate.
Let's remember again that we have an advantage: the cell degrades cellulose from lignin enzyme, so the we find them everywhere and again we are not going to use some of these other woods due to the fact that the crop is not going to prosper well, just to mention, I was wondering if we could use the waste from e brewery to produce balls I told him that if there are works that name it the little house of the source of this material that I told them that it is on the internet in Spanish and that for him to think about getting into the cultivation of mushrooms it is very interesting because he calls they are going to see many experiences that the source that is cited above and I am going to name some of the residues that we could use to produce because the reason a lot for naming something artichoke residues and dried banana leaves in barley straw bean pod bean straw the stubble of the brassicas since they are at rest the cauliflower the broccoli peel of citrus fruits in all this that I am naming it is not that they are cited but that there are works that have proven it the yields are diverse but it can be produced in the stems the leaves As a matter of fact, since yesterday an agronomist took out the old ones and he told me he is from Guatemala and he produced oysters in corn mud there they give it another name that is very common as well.
It is well that cotton seed hulls are mixed with low flax shells Peanut hull Legume straw Peanut stubble Lotus This or if there is someone in the area is a substrate that one could easily take advantage of Mint stem Name the stem itself as a remainder of what remains when the oil extraction is done on more daily use of that plant shredded when combined with straw with bran for sawdust lowered vein residue of the paper of willow wood the leaves of the potato plant it is not here we were using it low rice straw stems of soybean sugar cane waste cane and sunflower tea leaf waste from the textile industry all that remains of the so-called fabric can also be used brewery waste that That was what they were asking the other day, chopped tree bark, wheat straw, wood shavings, and all general harvest residues, cereals, legumes, and tree leaves.
As I was saying, there are more. There are 200 types of substrates and everything can be used for the question. It tells you that there are many yields, which is the best. The reality is that the best substrate is the one that is available in the greatest quantity nearby that does not represent a very high cost and get that substrate because if it does not start to go much of the cost in that and that allows them to obtain a yield within which we can prove that they abound in the areas, stay with the best, that is, if they are about to start, the ideal is to do a few tests not a bag sow a few bags of each one several times and evaluate in the same environmental conditions within which they are recommended appears to know what would be the best substrates to be able to implement with this is simply one of those that we have tested poplar chipping I was telling you about the forest curtains that are used for fruit growing cherry production, mainly we have very dense wing curtains. ces you can really take advantage of poplar shavings cleaned from cherry trees that we were also testing together with the quinoa straw poplar site we were testing something in bales of fodder good the substrate we can actually classify it into two categories the substrate is going to be composed no always, but it will be made up of a raw material that will be the main nutritional material and an additive that will mainly provide nitrogen to that mixture, which does not mean that we cannot have a substrate of only one thing, in fact many times a substrate of a single material is used without adding any additives and the additives are not things that are going to complicate us too much and when there is auditory now they will see but do not imagine that we are using in any chemical synthesis product but rather what it we are contributing is from another material and a source of nitrogen main raw material are those components as we said that are going to be richer in cellulose, such as barley straw, wood shavings, alomar, those of corn can only be used, they can also be used mixed with each other, we can here put some examples 50% straw 50% sawdust and 60% straw 40% marlos this many Sometimes it is due to the yield of the substrate and other times also due to the size of the particle to reach a more compact mixture that does not have as many air spaces between the medium and the additives as we said, mainly what we are looking for is the contribution of nitrogen and They are going to provide carbohydrates, phosphorus, vitamins, and we do not have to exceed 30% by weight when we talk about percentages, the same as in the previous case, we are talking about dry weight, we can know that for some cases we are talking about dry weight and for others things we are going to talk about based on weight place in excess this additive can cause an increase in temperature because this will have a great influence on the vegetative growth stage so it is not convenient It shouldn't go too far and it is advisable to check the temperature of the bags during the time that we have them incubating and logically we take into account that although we are wanting to make them grow, there are other microorganisms that if we do not work, good hygiene standards in the place It is easy for them to settle in that substrate and many times even when working with these standards they pass and begin to compete that we are adding a substrate rich in nutrients it is good for the circulation but also for the microorganisms that can compete many times they are moix they begin to see the bag the green color is that bag we are starting to write down that we have to take them out of the sector where they are incubating to prevent them from spreading even further into that space where we see encounters as additives we can use wheat bran which will require wheat seed oat bran cotton soy corn flour there are many additives and you can replace one another in fact there are tables that They talk about this nitrogen content, the same contribution to each one with the substrates with the raw material, so one can be replaced by another, knowing that the contribution that each one has is important when we work on the substrate, as I said before, to avoid spaces from arriving. empty to favor the growth of the mycelium and also that it is not too compact so that it does not lack air let's remember that the Serbian breathes boiling during the vegetative growth stage it is not so demanding oxygen the following stages let's remember that it breathes then there has to be an exchange funny, in this I am also going to include a lot of unity and now we are going to talk but the idea is to generate a balanced mass, a substrate that has a balance between the degree of compaction and the particular size that we have so that we do not even go to one side among so many empty spaces or for the other side that is too compact or with much more it is important to homogenize the material that we are going to use that is to say that it is well distributed throughout the mixture and for this it can be done manually as seen in the image on the left implements can be used this is simply a mixer to which a sheet metal lid was made barrel of these and metal so that it does not come out and inside there the different components of the mixture are thrown away and the machine is turned on to speed up this work a bit, although we put together that mixer, generally it is also worked manually, it is very important in the hydration of the substrate the other day we were talking about when we mentioned the cultivation in trunks in this case we are going to try to have a humidity between 65 and 70 percent remember that excess water due to lack of air will cause the death of the hemisphere because we are precisely replacing the air space with water in that substrate.
What will favor the development of some bacteria that do not need air are aerobic and that happens many times and they have been spent several times in inta bags when there is excess substrate water in the bottom of the bags the water accumulates in the upper part perhaps the design is prospering well but in the upper part Downstairs you begin to smell an ugly smell you begin to see how other organisms are advancing and that bag must be removed, it must be thrown away so taking care of all these steps beforehand is important and also taking into account again that we cannot go to the other side or excess water or very dry because the mystery is not going to coorganize substrate that is dry was what we were talking about the other day with the trunks when we said that it cannot be used online dry wood is not pressed and a very important step in what is the preparation of the disinfection substrate in which we are using its components are particles 2 that were outside in contact with the earth and we had them outside for a while and that it is very likely that they appear in other microo Organisms that compete then we are going to carry out some practices, generally it is through heat to prevent these competitors from continuing to exist in that mixture and try to put the no ass so that the mystery advances on a substrate that has practically no competition ideal apparatus to work would be to do a sterilization for that an autoclave is used logically it is not available to everyone and much less when we started so we are going to see now some other ways but so that they take it into account and know that it is used exists or in the autoclave that It works at high pressure and at temperatures above 100 degrees and its goal is to eliminate all microorganisms.
Another method that is widely used in substrate cultivation is the pasteurization tunnel with a chamber that has a door. Substrate is placed in carts and injected into drawers. steam is made to recirculate the air of some that circulates in the air and others not for 12 hours, for example if you work at 70 degrees disinfection method there is a lot varies according to the temperature time that we are going to use and there are also pasteurization tunnels that have the substrate entering from the dirty area, say from the place where we were, they will mix where we were hydrating the substrate where we were working without so much care and It has another door from the side of the clean area, which is where it is going to be taken to carry out the inoculation for sowing and that is very convenient.
It is generally in rooms that are logically distributed with these spaces for an already larger scale of production. After we disinfect, yes, it is very important all the hygiene standards that we take that the place is clean that no one enters the same, the hatchery and the production room have to enter only the operators on the people they are working trying to take care of the equipment the clothes with which they enter if they come with outdoor shoes perhaps a boot to work inside overalls or gloves, chinstraps, copies, make it possible to avoid carrying a contaminant yourself that substrate, some simpler, more homemade ways are wanted, for example, the use of, in this case, what you see in the images, a 200-liter drum to which a lighter from a section of the high recovery tank and the cage of the one you see above has an opening upside down to make it easier to remove the substrate, the substrate is loaded in that cage, it is placed in that drum, in this case it is not by immersion in water hot but what is done is the drum is filled to a little less than a quarter of the size that wire does not touch the cage and what is achieved is a disinfection with steam and the times will depend on the temperatures that we use but more or less you work with 23 hours of disinfection and the temperature is controlled another way that was the one you just named is by immersion in hot water and you work for example 80 degrees for one hour 60 to 65 degrees for 23 hours as Come, depending on the temperatures that we use, the times that we are going to use for disinfection will also vary.
In this case, what you see is that it is the pool that is placed in the drawers in hot water. We were lucky to do it thanks to the collaboration of the cooperative but fruti with the oasis ofHere is the town that lent us the space at a time when they were not using that drum that is usually used to make a bain-marie, as well as cans to put together the corner, so at a time when they were not using it, we were lucky to disinfect In larger quantities, this allowed us to disinfect 300 kilos of substrates in one day versus disinfection, it is in this drum that carries more or less 30 kilos, the same thing that I show you, so we did the first disinfection that we did with one of the products from here of the ancient we did it by immersion in hot water in a pot in a kitchen and and we started testing substrate from there you can go from the simplest to the most complex and minerals be careful and try to comply with these disinfection times and logically if to comply and not to treat With what is the hygiene part after the disinfection was carried out, another important issue is the pH approx.
The metabolic activity of the fungus itself tends to generate some acid. gone, and if the medium is very acidic, the fungus will not advance, so the mycelium will not advance, so for this reason, more or less 12 percent of the dry weight of the calcium mixture, which can be calcium carbonate, is always added to the mixture. That is why the idea One of this is to be able to correct that ph so that we do not lose an optimal decrease in the sowing, something important is after the moss is disinfected, do not sow immediately, remember that the fungus dies above 35 degrees, we were infecting 80 100 degrees 60 degrees so if we sow at that temperature we remove the substrate logically we are going to kill the mill as soon as we put it in the oven so what we have to do is wait for the temperature to drop to more or less 2025 degrees you can count on an ideal thermometer but trying to get the temperature down to a point that we can't grasp calm that we don't burn ourselves to avoid damaging that was inoculated unlike the planting that we did in pieces that we used We are going to use 12 percent of the wet weight of the trunk in its treatment, we are going to use 2 to 5 percent of the wet weight of the substrate, that is, for every 10 kilos of substrate we are going to be putting between 200 and 500 grams of seed, remember that the objective Here it is also to accelerate the growth of semi-serious that it takes faster from the inoculum that advances faster to make a more intensive production and sowing method there are also several because I am going to mention them 21 to sow in layers you can put a layer of substrate as shown see in the drawing a layer of inoculum a layer of goat substrate as well until the bag is filled.
Another thing that can be done is to put the substrate inside the bags and in terms of steam disinfection instead of putting the substrate in bulk Put the bag directly inside those cartridges where the steam will pass, which is a bag that tolerates that temperature. In this way, we avoid taking it out and that it continues to be in contact with it later, with the environment is a way that can also be used. It is used to sow another important thing before sowing if what you did is disinfection by immersion in hot water, remember that we need 65-70 percent humidity, with which we are going to have to let the substrate drain and until we get a good grip on the hand of We have to take samples of that substrate that we are now going to see how it is very similar to what we saw the other day with the trunk to see what percentage of humidity we are using to sow so that in some sowings we have gone too far, we will correct it over time. if more occurs or waiting for another form of planting, which is what we usually use, it is mass planting, this is for branches, all the substrate on a countertop or on a disinfected space when much is usually done on an island, even if it is well disinfected in the floor and work with logically clean tools also disinfected such as shovels and others with a lot of volume or it can be used and it is very clean Something similar to what I was showing with the mixer.
In fact, there are machines that are sowers that move the substrate while one that throws the ass wine. In our case, we use this, it mixes well with the substrate and then it begins to bag as you can see. At the time we said that it is important to control several factors, among them an important factor is the ph. The optimal ph value for the fungus to develop well is between 5 and 6.5. Now we are going to talk a little more about the ph, but in general terms we It gives an idea of how acid or how alkaline its medium is, the average ph ranges from 1 to 14, 7 being neutral compared to the ph of distilled water, and higher than 7 is basic, it is lower than 7, that's right.
If it is so acidic as a product of metabolic action, a little calcium carbonate or excess is added and we can measure it in the case of the substrate as it is humid. Too or a little bit of that substrate is squeezed and a few drops are dropped on the paper that paper has changed its color and as you can see in that circle there are a series of different colors by which it is compared and the paper is compared with the term color and it is the same look at what number it says and that is the ph value remember that 7 below is acid the lower it is more acid and 7 above it is basic the higher it is more base a way of seeing the humidity of which we were talking about as we did the other day with the trunks, a sample of that substrate is taken when it is ready to sow without haste, that is, the wet weight is removed and that weight is recorded.
The weight does not vary, that is to say, I put it, it was loaded and tomorrow, today, the day after, I weigh it, what they are in the morning, what they are, and in the afternoon, at a certain moment, you can realize that these notes no longer vary, practically reaching a constant weight. and he scored that final weight the difference between and the wet weight and that final weight is the water content that that substrate had, that is, it started at 100 grams and at the end it is at 30, the water content was 70 grams, therefore it has had 70 percent humidity, we are going well inside d the values that we were looking for to develop a vegetative growth that will begin in the incubation of michel for the incubation you usually look for shelves the bags are usually separated a little for this reason that we also said about the increase in temperature typical of shanty town of the fungus prevent it from getting too high and you can forget about it, that is, controlling those bags and not keeping a thermometer even if it is touching them to notice that the temperature is rising during incubation and the ideal conditions, as we said the other day, with logs, it is ideal, we are going to deal with this In this case, we continue to get as close as possible because we are going to work in controlled environments with a relative humidity of 75-85%, that is, to maintain a humid environment so that although they are When the bags are closed, they do not lose moisture because some of this remaining space is usually closed as seen in that image with a knot and a cotton plug is also usually placed at the end, which is often the only thing that is removed and begins to bear fruit. blood side a temperature of 20 25 degrees that is not so difficult to achieve in a closed environment does not need light although the bag you are seeing is transparent from that room that shelf is covered with a black nylon or is placed in a dark room or the bags inside a black bag you can use a directly black bag but at first the ideal is to work with transparent bags until you get an eye on how the mystery is progressing how it is leaving all that bag of substrate white that is the moment in which they will have to take the production out of incubation, then until they know how long it takes for it to be known that they are using it to take that substrate that they are using, the ideal is to use a transparent bag so that it is placed between a black one to be able to see how the seedbed is advancing and the ventilation in this case is not so demanding of ventilation but it is recommended to ventilate 12 times a day of the specific air in the room, the ideal for ventilation is the The air that enters passes through filters so as not to introduce any contaminants again, it can be done in a much simpler way to harvest safely.
In this case, we are talking about what would correspond to aiming to produce without major inconveniences, more or less, the incubation will last between 1520 You can reach a month or 40 days depending on the substrate, depending on the strain, but in that range it takes more or less to grow, that is to say, what we are using now takes more or less 20 days, the incubation stage is already starting to see one of the main differences because this is targeted for continuous production compared to the trunk of three to five months vs. 20 days as I was telling you to begin to see how it looks in the image on the right how the mycelium begins to advance how the bag begins to take over that is always much more like a transparent bag you don't have to open anything the substrate is not exposed to the air I don't know It simply dries out and another important thing is that the temperature does not have to exceed 26 degrees.
On the one hand, spaces are left between the bags so that this does not happen and, on the other hand, the temperature of the room environment is prevented from exceeding those 26 degrees with which we usually work at temperatures close to 20 22 degrees inside the room to make sure that this does not happen because above those 26 degrees plus the temperature of the metabolism of the fungus will cause death something important is to pay close attention during the incubation stage to what we were talking about, other competitors do not start to advance, which may be ways that insects do not appear, many times mosquitoes begin to be seen, they begin to be seen inside the bag some insect that is moving or some space that is not taking the mystery of the asylum the one that is white and begins to appear in the other color these bags must be removed the contaminated bag must be removed to avoid spreading this problem to the rest of what is and sown the truth does not take long to spread so think that we are providing the conditions for a bunch of microorganisms and other insect fungi to prosper so the idea is to be attentive during this stage and constantly visit periodically to see that the temperature is well that there is no presence of these individuals to be able to handle once the bag is completely taken it goes to the induction stage when the humidity of the environment is very good we are sure of that you can directly remove the bag that covers it and pass it to that room when that is not so, they can be cut to prevent the substrate from dehydrating, holes are made in the case of the bags that I told you they have with a cotton cap and you take that out directly and that causes more air to enter the temperature of the room where we are going to be working is much lower, about 10 degrees less than in the place of incubation, this complicates a little history when we work in an environment let's say a single space because we need about 20 22 degrees to incubate and between 10 and 18 degrees to induce or produce with which we put ourselves in the middle now the incubation is a little slower we go up a little the production is not so good or we start to see some problems with the color of the mushrooms the temperature usually affects the color is very high around 24 degrees the mushrooms are going to be paler and whiter as the vine is brown and if We go to lower temperatures, they will manifest their color, so we said, we move on to the induction stage, what we are looking for is to give the signal to the fungus to say that you have reached this far with vegetative growth. or it has already taken all the substrate now we are going to start producing notifications you can make cuts in the bags as we said about the bags it is one way it is made in long tubular bags it can be done in trays it can be done in many ways it can be done on shelves with a tray full of substrate the downside of that is the difference from what we were saying if a bag is contaminated I take it out and that's it it says it contaminates that entire tray it can be very large it is difficult to prevent it from spreading or that problem is in the photo you see Basically it is production on poplar leaves, although it is not noticeable at this time so taken in white, they are very well taken in the primordia on poplar leaves.
I think that the ideal conditions for induction are high humidity, as we said, a much warmer temperature. low incubation of incubation and we need light in incubation it does not need diffused light for at least 12 hours a day it is recommended to have an idea when we talk about light z diffuse that is not direct sun that could be a light that serves to allow us to see well in the space so that they have an idea of the lighting and it works very well with a fluorescent tube in fact we use the miranda fluorescents very well but we need for at least 12 hours of light a day, which in areas where we are where the days shorten a lot towards autumn-winter is also an important cost, as well as the temperature and how are we going to talk about it too and have those 12 hours of light to production conditions are very similar to induction keep in mind that what we made a cut to enter this stage we need high humidity temperatures that are between 15 and 18 degrees can also be less the same number of hours of light we were Just talking if we need much more ventilation more oxygen available for the fungus during the production stage when we have little air and dictates that the fungus breathe Therefore, carbon dioxide will increase in the room.
If I put a reference there, the concentration of carbon dioxide must be lower. If the parts per million, a sensor is used, it can be measured, but even if it is to renew the air.of the room using air that is filtered as far as possible four or six times a day because what begins to happen when we have a lot of carbon dioxide that we begin to have less oxygen in the room is that the fungus begins to produce the foot stipe is every longer and the one with the hat smaller and smaller so we didn't go to the extreme of seeing a fungus that is pure stipe what happens but we could be losing production we could be achieving with a better environment in the case of a substrate crop in which we manipulate well and keep in mind that as the temperature also rises in the room this will also promote the metabolism of the fungus to increase and therefore respiration increases then it begins to be a chain of which we do not have a high temperature that we said is not ideal because of the majok color if the carbon that is not ideal because the fungus deforms us then the idea is to take these factors into account and treat Go down with these ventilations with the temperature with that of the bush, which needs another problem when we are not getting it right with the humidity.
It is like what can be seen in the photo that the mushrooms begin to dehydrate and not only the mushrooms are Seeing that the substrate is practically all outside the bag and when the substrate is very dehydrated, it is very difficult to go back or at least obtain the yields that we could obtain, it is well noticeable on the edge of the mushrooms how they begin to dry logically they are losing commercial quality if it is for other consumption there is no problem it could be completely removed we could rehydrate and consume it but if we target a mushroom for sale we are still losing kilos of mushrooms due to environmental management errors production in In the case of the bags of the substrate, I say bags or however they are used, it is more orderly in the trunk.
In the harvests they are usually done or in waves, that is to say that they grow a a little more even within the batches of bags that we are removing more or less give between 24 read 2 and 3 inches, which does not mean that later we continue to produce perhaps for family consumption one can continue leaving the bag and some shoulders will continue to come out but when it is for production when that space between harvest and harvest is separated a lot and the yields begin to be lower it makes more sense to discard that bag and put in a new one than to have that space occupied with something that is not producing for us then that is why we talk about two three waves four waves in the case of fruit cultivation, as we said, something very important is the management of diseases, pests, diseases, different problems that we may have, for this, everything that has to do with hygiene at work is essential. place taking great care of what is the time of sowing to reach a substrate well that we have found a form of disinfection that works for us, that is, we start Let's see that if we disinfect in this way, we already have less and less contamination, so until we grab the hand, pay close attention to all these factors and the place where we work logically in those spaces and avoid opening doors or windows because we are working a space from the clean so that contaminants from outside do not enter in a place we have another reversal of the belt in the field and what we have been doing here the producers who are working on substrates to the production room to the planting, incubation and harvest part enters the producers and I include myself because when we go in and you have to go in with the dust cap on the chinstrap and others that you do to take care of that space that does not get contaminated so they are practical and interesting perhaps not getting everyone to see the crop the other day I told them and we are going to talk about irrigation of a simple system that named an idea that Fernando came up with, it is very practical for a system The issue of watering a few logs or a few bags is to remove a solenoid valve from an old broken washing machine or get that solenoid valve connected to a light timer a timer allows you to set times in which it will allow electricity to pass through or not at that moment it will allow that in the valve d allows the passage of water that is connected to a hose, a faucet and the outlet a little frog, that is to say that every time the light of the system gives water in a very economical way, very simple to automate an irrigation system and in In our case, to become independent of whether or not something is going to be watered, which is very important because many times the humidity conditions that we have are not optimal, so such an important factor is I did not forget to water.
I did not miss the video on the fumes. irrigation modifying the time another similar way for more sprinklers is to connect the centrifugal pump to that timer take into account this can be done when the pump the tank is higher than the pump because these pumps do not stop them and so the water that has to be sucked is lower than the level of the pump and the water line was cut, it was desired and noah for real it will be working passively that the tank is higher than the pump That pump connected to a timer and to the outlet, as they are micro teachers, we refuse and put a filter to prevent them from clogging all the time.
Check the exhibitors regularly. or several spaces that have several pathways are going to activate several valves and so on for a larger scale and in the case of environmental control but we were lucky to be able to work with him vicente and a technician died at the experimental de balcarce linda well they put together this controller that works with no arduino that controls what is humidity, temperature, hours of light and ventilation, that is, we put and fans that take in filtered air. we use a filter at the inlet we have a pump like the system we saw before lower than the tank to operate micro diffusers which was mist on that occasion that we saw the other day connected to the light so every time this is the program and we say Well, we have 12 hours of light, it turns it on for us, it turns it off only so many risks per day with so much humidity in built-in humidity sensors, it's a generally low-cost technology, and the same with ventilation, we want so many renovations per day, so so many times it turns on the fan and it does enter air into the room and in addition to that it saves the data and then we can download how the room has been working during all the days that have passed and if there is a problem or something we can attribute it to the temperature being too low in humidity that this works with three sensors and averages the temperature and humidity of those sensors and well, a sensor to measure the hours of daylight, the truth is that it is something accessible counted like this It seems prohibitive perhaps but it is an accessible technology and in this case we were lucky enough to have people who know how to design it to be able to install it in this case in a room that we previously planned in a room in a garage that we transformed into a pilot production plant about this this what I was telling you works with that pump there you can see on the bottom left in the room with the sensors the pump empties which in this case due to the type of micro diffusers we use has to work with a lot of pressure because they work close to 4 kilos of pressure that is quite good so far what are the general lines of substrate cultivation and we are going to start talking a little bit to tell you something about the local experience that was part of it what we also wanted to comment on to exchange at some point also with producers from here We are working in the area for those who are not from this area.
There is a group that was formed called Zeta del Viento for coal and Argentina, in case you want to write or contact them. be with them email is always down there zetas del viento at gmail.com this is a group of producers who work in the northwest area of the province of santa cruz for those who are not from here we are located where we are deep in patagonia And in our case, the old ones on the shores of Buenos Aires are producers of the Perito Moreno and Largo Posadas old ones. This work started here in the area in 2015.
We started working with the producers with Adrián and Patxi, who are the ones you see in the photo adrián and we have land for chile of work items and we began to work with them who had had an experience growing balls after a position that ninjas had visited and well, on the other hand, it also appears with the idea of taking advantage of the remains of wood and others for this we started in 2015 with this project doing a test with different types of wood that we have in the area that you see below we are marking different types of e poplar willows and others that are present and we ended up staying with the native poplar one because of the yields are acceptable good and due to the amount that is in the area we always work from the beginning of group sowing this was told to us the other day for those who They are about to start either in trunks or a substrate.
The fact of working in a group smokes a lot. The planting workshops or planting spaces are open to people who have never planted. It is very interesting. Many people usually join and participate for those who are planting. a very good hand and for those who are going it is a way of learning that all the elements are there to do it and not ass and trunks in 2016 we were lucky enough to visit the sir park cooperative accompanied by jorge sánchez a technician who works in the area of the high valley and that is also very involved in the subject of mushrooms that know a lot this is a cooperative that works very well in that area so it is good to also see some ideas with For example, adding tastings to the training that we saw with them when we visited at this time and also seeing the organization and the way of working, one of our objectives since we started with the subject of plum production was to make cost calculations. of production something that we continue to do lottery they asked what the profitability was there was talk of calculations that we made that we have to update at this moment we continue working all this will generate local prices and the profitability of the activity also according to the scale that we had done a year ago more or less and he gave me an estimate for a shade house of 200 trunks that for every dollar invested we would recover a dollar 30 but the idea until that moment was to teach or accompany the producers to improve what could be done on a scale of family self-consumption once that we asked that profitability did not allow it, we began to encourage producers to produce and for sale always working on the diffusion part and accompanying them in the technical part 9 in circo las dehydrated a product and the diffusion that was always an important leg so that people know the product as we said to learn what it is about in In general, many times it happens that the fungus is a little afraid of it when consumed, so to say that it is being done so that they can try it.
We have been with workshops and others in old perito moreno la posada gorda where dolores beak truncated Caleta Olivia for three in two to different places with a lot of people and it began to be noticed that not only people came to see how it was planted, but also people interested in a restaurateur in a business to see how they could acquire in 2017 we formed a local accessible group that is part of The pro-huerta problem is the purchase of materials together with meetings to strengthen that group a bit. In fact, the image you see below is with a sports technique.
And given with China, a social worker and she came to accompany us in group strengthening work, so trying to go also, that is, in that sense, although in the group, many people pass by and it is consolidating in different ways with training and from the technical point of view. and economical all the time we were working with internal discussion of the group with a sheet called the sheet sent that went out once a month for the producers of the eastern group with technical issues and with questions or applications of technical issues to their cultivation, that is, things that they can see and recognize problems and others in the crop and forms like the one you see below to organize production or keep track of being able to see the yields rot and see what happened to improve structures and others in 2018 the pilot production plant is inaugurated on substrate this is in a farm from now we are going to name it anyway it has a circular in this place a garage was transformed that you can see Lower left in the pilot plant and what is being set up now is in a room next to a processing and production room to be able to market the products at this inauguration, logically different institutions and all the food science council people were invited Inta provincial schedule of course and local channel producers the idea was to always work from the beginning with everything on the table so that they could also make a contribution to the rest of the institutions and I didn't think it was convenient and we started working with different substrates what you see there is checked for poplar chip I did not do that so well with the llado chip when it will be decided it is quite difficult to go back and hydrate them the particle size is coarser than the chip and tends to take longer to degrade over time It starts to take longer because of the process, in that the Provincial Agrarian Council also gave us a hand, which lent us the cleaner that you see up here.
To be able to clean in bulk, we work with different elements. Today we are using poplar shavings more than anything and we are thinking of incorporating it into a smaller particle so that there are not so many air spaces that we have named before, yes.well the yields are acceptable we are studying all the yields with which we are seeing everything that is the part of costs and others that is why it is something that I do not name the costs that we have in the substrate and that we are still not promoting it a profitable activity because all We told you the fine numbers and it is the objective until we do it, we are not going to promote it to create an investment of that size, although there is a space seen within that same farm to be able to take it to the other scale with sectors divided into six grow rooms of the size we have now, well, the cooperative is doing this in what produces a substrate, it also gave us an important hand in what is infringement of substrates this is the truth that it accelerated a lot but many times I told them that it disinfects we are going to 30 kilos here what you are seeing we disinfected 300 kilos in one day with which the times changed a lot and as a result of this something that was emerging that was good is l The visit of the people from the cooperative El Oasis, the producers who were doing this simple action, what they see in the image is pre-pandemic.
Others enter with chinstraps, hold on. In this case, since the mushrooms were not going to be touched, they were given the chinstrap even so that they could enter, always taking care of the hygiene standards within the place and, well, interesting to be able to exchange with people you have worked for many years. In a cooperative way, in this case, in the cherry cultivation that I am going to share a meal based on, I serve the different versions, so it is very enriching for all parties, as the group plantings did the same, trying to aim for open and joint work without believing. that we are discovering the gunpowder with what we do but opening the game and trying to add and they begin to form some groups these are two producers s They associated and formed the singular signature that the old ones are, they are producing on the substrate of that room that we saw and on trunks, increasing the number of trunks planted, but they point out that we are working on productive diversification also with other mushrooms that are located there. from sacyr or the rosé one that is the euro your love and some other strains more courtesy of the people from the white laboratory of esquel carolina spoke yesterday trying to diversify always with the strong one with the filed the traditional that they had been making in trunks aiming at the volume and something interesting that more and more demands are beginning to appear, with which, in addition to the fact that they already have sword roots, that processing room is being well regulated to aim for the authorizations that allow them to market this is another project that had already been born prior to the mushrooms regarding agrotourism and others in the inns since in the photo it is Lorena who works with her husband for her family in pr Ciro's production is produced by many hydrated herbs for dinner and in the asylum and fresh and something interesting about this is that they worked hard on the local consumption of this product, it will not be consumed in the area and it is beginning to be widely accepted, being such a nutritious so healthy and produced in the place so good to incorporate something into the diet that was not in the area and the nutritional value that the shoulders have no no we are not talking about any food that in its case works in these structures that we saw we it brings to the threshold but now very comfortable as it is armed it is a true one that has been transformed and good participating all the time also in what it does to the dissemination of urine activity in this case it is in a garden expo in gobernador gregores we also had working positions by chacra in the ancients a staging a treatment completely a shade room where the sprinklers were working the trunks producing bags producing r Schools received people from other localities of institutions received a lot of people reviewed it is very interesting for them to know what is being done and also give it a push in that which undoubtedly influences all these infusions in the interest after consumption meanwhile logically when the production to diversification and added value this is a product that they began to make looking for a more local value that is testing since last year that are the waters with cherry wood the old ones in the national capital of the cherry and for the few who We have tried it I can assure you it is worth trying and working on productive diversification and last year we started some tests with sita that the idea is to work with different species of pleurotus conchita that and see if last year like next year but we start to do some good ganoderma working on what we said and on the objectives and that we continue working on what are enabling tion of rooms to give space for packaging and products in terms of added value production costs and prices each price in the area in productive diversification and in the discussion well up to here what I wanted to tell you is the bibliography that I had consulting and that I recommend if you have the opportunity and visit to consult with the manual this from mus world is very interesting with alberto's book so that you also want to deepen the materials that the contacts will contribute a lot to the laboratories again so that they can acquire the inoculum not only ciro the or that doubts can be cleared like the ones we were talking about in some question that they asked me regarding what it has to do with how to produce the ass until the presentation I thank you very much for the time and the permanence of the who were also there for the three days and take the opportunity to thank all the team who worked hard these three days for this course now if you listen to me santiago prim oh how good I was worrying and you were thinking how I was going to send you the questions by carrier pigeons just edit it perfect great good first of all congratulate you on this one because the truth is that it has been a very clear exposition very interesting the truth that I think we have left A good collection material from all the talks that have been given in this cycle of my garden at home.
The truth is that at least for me they are all collectibles, but hey, I'm sure that people will agree that three days were good. very intense and that a lot of information has been shared in these three days about mushrooms, so first of all and again thank you because you have been very detailed and well, it has been covering all the topics in a workshop that was held on Wednesday, I think they were answered and they We remind everyone who is watching that this material is recorded on YouTube channel 20 Santacruz and that they can also consult us again. ar when when they need it when they are encouraged surely many weeks have been encouraging to try that perhaps probably and what we always tell everyone when we have the opportunity that it is always convenient to start little by little trying first by doing a test and then seeing how not I know how you get along with mushrooms in this case and well, to the extent that things go well, this can be expanded.
Also, this Santiago is surely a lot, as Carolina said yesterday, also for many it could be an alternative for some entrepreneurs who want to start one. economic activity, surely very useful information, but also for families who want to try self-production on a small scale, for what you mentioned recently that we are talking about a product that is nutritionally very good, yesterday because you mentioned that you did not see it, you can review it or it was rather, we invite you to also look at the talk that Carolina gave yesterday and talked about the properties ades not only nutritional but other beneficial properties for health such as anticancer antioxidant in short well a lot of information is very nice that we hope it will be useful to those who are watching I tell you that today 70 people followed the talk on YouTube but We are very satisfied because we know that more than approximately 1,400 people have already been able to see the talks on Wednesday and Thursday, so well, of course, we are in a complicated context for many families or in many cities, we know that not everyone is.
It is going well with this situation that we have to live, we are not oblivious to that but well, within our possibilities, the technicians of Pro Huerta and the sales agencies of Santa Cruz as well as the whole country are trying to give what we can. from our place so well I won't do it any longer and let me say hello I want to say hello to Julio here they are going to explain the urine of Quilmes Augusto de Córdoba Silvina from Bahía Blanca Louis and Grace from every part Leandro from Tierra del Fuego Daniela Barragán from El Calafate Lorena Child If I'm not mistaken about the production company you showed in the photos you enjoy the good I'm from her Gustavo Gasparini was also present Julián is interested in the old bibiana from san julián paco from the old nelly simanovich who said at one point I love how he explains everything is understood and well we know that there are many others that I am not naming but we still send them a greeting later they write to us by little message that they were watching Well, I'm sure that everyone who has commented in the chat has read us, but we start with the questions that seem like Santiago.
We have a few minutes left and we're going to try to answer the questions that arose. Now, the first question is from Enzo Red and I think It's difficult, he says, these fungi can be replicated in PDA, which I understand is good, and they have been clarifying to my colleagues that they are present since well, we thank them pda it's a dextrose agar culture medium something like that no and dad sounds good actually the culture medium you work when you start with let's say what the propagation is for and what they are going to produce the inoculum for what is productive work is actually looking for substrates that are easier to get that we can work in more quantity but as a nagar culture medium it seems to me that if I would have to look for it but for what starts in the culture for what multiplication in being the oculus it seems to me that although there are several questions I am going to try not to skip any but I was interested in this regard to the Martin substratum and fill with questions and bran and ravasi I am the same with all the difficult ones yes you have to doubt in the pulse with this mind I don't remember I thank you and I don't really say it how to make bran but honestly I don't remember nothing happens lying to you I'm going to tell you I don't remember p It can happen no we don't have either we can't know everything let's see there were some but with some questions about the substrate and they got lost here claudia marino I started with coffee substrate cardboard cocoa husks and vermiculite it worked but it was a small crop it could be grass in instead of coffee beans and there was also another question that thanks to sources I was also asking if the herbs can be used as a substrate yes I have heard no name there is among the substrates I have heard in a few places in fact today an acquaintance sent me a message from some people from Calafate who are beginning to try canned substrates and they have told me about some other places that have used it.
Honestly, I have not read my work on cultivation in grass enough to tell them only yields, as well as others, I understand that some other places have heard it, but I don't want to recommend it or to tell you that I'm trying well here, Jandro Sánchez. I think that the Galician river that was also there yesterday and the day before yesterday, ask, does the substrate have soil in the preparation for my eyes, it is only the mixed residues, it is not only the mixed residues of this fungus, remember that it is a fungus, luckily for us, it has that enzyme battery that allows it to degrade cellulose my Cellulose eliminates the structure that makes up the plant tissue so that is why we can give so many substrates they do not need to be composted 2 as in the case of mushrooms or portovello similar but it did not reach us on land what it takes are those proportions that we are going to go Seeing as I mean inhibiting performance, but no aggregate of soil reaches us, well, there was a question from María José García, I think it was the one you answered, it said of the 200 substrates you named, you have to use one by one or you can mix it.
I think this is that it can be mixed, yes, they can be mixed. In fact, there are a lot of mixtures. In our case, I told them, we use poplar shavings, we want to in incorporate some sawdust to have a smaller particle size so that we don't have so many spaces so that we share them in a bag so that there are not so many air spaces so large that they complicate the mycelium but after mixing there are many and in fact they can be replaced Knowing the nutritional content of each component, they are replaced by each other.
I return to the same thing. The ideal is to see what they get easily in the area and based on that, choose the substrate. an experience that a person who has a lot of experience in growing mushrooms for those who spoke of Galicians we sowed the pre-sowing that we did in Galicians and we did it in wood chips that passed us from lucas mondelo with luca who has a lot of experience in cultivation of mushrooms and is working with a group of students on that at some point we talked to see the possibility that it comes from Río Gallegos h Up to here it is nice to try but if we have to pay the freight of what the line is to travel a thousand kilometers it is expensive for us then we do not see it as useful as the good santiago chip if they go through each few comments and look for this Lucas Monelos for a sideHe said, first, that referring to another of the questions, and the coffee grounds is excellent for stirring, and he also asks if they tried waste from the production of sweet cereal seeds, now we use this, etc. expensive or cherries that are discarded in some places if we thought about it but we didn't do it yet we have been trying different things and honestly trying to combine a little what is the cultivation in trunk and the cultivation in substrate favoring the trunk because we know that it is profitable then As we are working slower, well, a statement made by Rodolfo Félix says to the well that they think he is smoking and he clarifies if the empty re is an oat product.
Interesting they have to do boxes type I calculate that I made pocket or not here is poker for those who want to have at home start domestic type he is from the largest province of buenos aires east before going on to another question of course no no no name nothing present to diana who is accompanying us here in that she was also answering me back through multifunction youtube from the san julián agency and today is that he is also accompanying us here on the zoom so thank you very much diana and also to lourdes who is also answering through well I continue with some other question thank you very much is there a treatment for reverse osmosis water treated sea water given The water with a lot of chlorine is very hard, the truth is, when it has a lot of chlorine, sometimes we have a lot of chlorine out there.
What we do is leave the tank open, let's say, looking for a little bit to be lost and that chlorine to volatilize a little. Likewise, what I was telling you in some cases, what can be used is not to spray directly with water in the case of irrigation, but to use humidifiers, and in that case, what we are doing is moistening Doing with water vapor is another alternative, you have to be careful to control the temperature well but there are some alternatives and another care that I did not mention with the water to check the ph of the water, remember that the ph affects the substrate and try to make sure if we go we are applying a water that can modify too much cph well keep it in mind to see how we correct it well so here taking advantage of rodolfo's clarification about the roller, martín ghirardi asks us if it would be useful in rabat and me and in having that type of product as well that the strawberries are not used alone as a substrate base, everything that is used as an additive is generally not good to use only because the fungus does not progress well or grows more vegetatively and does not reproduce us, it is useful for what What is reproduction?
That type of product serves more to complement the base substrate or the raw material that we are using as a base and we have precisely used it The fact we had a first time is that I was recounting an experience the other day with the bran that occurred to me to put the disinfectant bag in the water by immersion just in case I tell you, don't do it like that because it is like a vitina and all that absorbs too much then The idea is ok to feed it either by infecting it in an oven but dry and incorporate it into the mix later to avoid it being that paste which is because it was the type of balls like in Marco Salinas I was asking about the optimal ph but I ask before then you talked a lot about the ph to see this light stella jaramillo when it is disinfected with steam packed in bags as they are and not leather, that is, it must be distributed throughout the bag or it is placed on top as an incubation room can be technified to maintain the conditions optimal to see the first question what can be done is when the bags are placed, leave a little bit of substrate below and put a small wooden block something in the middle so that It looks like a hole so one leaves the substrate in the middle then throughout the entire bag that is one way another way would be adding and mixing they are not comfortable and the bag is very small the most practical thing to start with and if the infections It was well done, it is sowing or in layers or in mass, it does not have many problems because one always immediately after the temperature drops that it drained in the case of water in the case of steam, also control the temperature because many times that has happened to us Due to the temperature of the place, part of the water from the substrate also evaporates and then, in terms of actually making technology in a simple way, it would be at least to have a countertop that is easy to disinfect that does not have very porous places where it can get contaminants or pathogens disinfect the place well between work and work the room itself if you do planting batches you can get infected in fact it is done with bleach and although it is In fact, there are some countertops that assemble them with those 200-liter plastic drums, which are easy to clean, so one sows inside.
There are several images also on the internet where I return and to technify forward, there you can do everything, but I don't know. if it justifies the investment and even up to a scale and more interesting in fact there are machines and it is for those machines where one puts the substrate and they mix it directly with materials that can be easily disinfected well there is another question about light lights stella jaramillo what would it be The way to aerate the substrate during incubation should I open several holes in the bag or should I just leave the cotton cap on it? and in fact, it can be done with a pvc tube, bits are cut, then the bag is passed inside and the cotton is placed, then the bag remains stuck in that area with cotton this is very practical because it allows there not to be so much gas exchange something happens we do that it is used sometimes I don't know if you saw it in a photo if you didn't look for it again a little piece of wood with nails left with a nail comb so he declared finite Well, as we finished sowing, some little holes were made in the bag and we actually began to do that in the bottom part of the bags when a lot of water accumulated, later it corrected itself with the amount of humidity as well, but that is one In the same way, the cotton thing is very practical, very well, Martín López, questions, the induction should be repeated before each wave of production, what type of air filters is recommended to put in the ventilation? one does not save again and it may be that the vegetative development continues but in the case of the bag between waves I no longer do what is done sometimes if the bag is closed and one made cuts in the bag There was a little hole where they are going to start to bear fruit.
You can do new work in that bag, new little holes, but you don't have to repeat the incubation and the bag is completely taken over by the misery and it is not necessary to repeat it and in terms of filters there are many of us. As a matter of cost, we put together a homemade filter with different meshes to filter, but rather than tell you, I think if that's why today there are armed filters, there are some filters called epa, which are used in many stages to produce cool wine. or they are not cheap but as homemade filters we have even armed with a box and put something like foam that filters that prevents particles from entering more than anything what we were interested in in that case because of where it is located in the ground air intake and others but there are simple filters very well I am going to return to some questions about the substrate but before the question Martin Ghirardi tells us how good he is going to use the radish tomorrow he says he is making his first preparation of substrate so good many successes martín and it's as it is good we always tell them that the electronic contacts remain so that they can contact each other and ask the questions in detail that are necessary eduardo pérez and also elizabeth mosquera and good of bardo made a comment more than anything that he saw that coffee residues are used but that they advised him not to mix it he does not remember why almost terex residues from this espresso machine and elizabeth asked if it was convenient to get gastronomic residues such as coffee and production of beer and also the remains of carpentry shavings in terms of not mixing it I have seen some jobs where they are mixed with what to get I return to the same thing if it is very complicated in terms of the carpentry challenge look carefully again that the carpentry is not a sawmill that works pine eucalyptus something that and as for what to get if what they have nearby is that waste used The idea is to try to have a volume that helps them produce, not complicate their lives looking for a substrate, so not recipes or mixtures that there are many shocks to contacts and when they are starting they also want to write or ask a question in fact With several producers from different places we are accompanying them by mail, by phone and others, there is no problem in specific cases, but if what they have is that waste nearby, it is perfect, what I was going for is that it does not complicate their lives because they listened that goes well with coffee or with leftover brewery that you have to get that there is an infinite number of residues I named some for those who are from the area even with mary lotus they have obtained good yields with remains of newspaper a rest of cardboard paper very well another consultation of María José García after that wave we return to the topic of the meals that she said that she said that the bag that is made with the substrate is actually changed after those of the three waves that will give voice to 34 waves if it is family consumption and self-consumption leave the bag it will not continue to give you a few more mushrooms wait for it to continue giving everything it can, it is in no rush to put that place into full production and after it is exhausted, either in the negotiated case for family consumption or in those three waves in something that is more intensively used for composting, there are some some professions that even use it to produce other mushrooms, then it does not work for other software, but we estimate it at composting, well, if I do everything, let's say the useful life for what we are using and what we were talking about yesterday is a part of it, also a way of putting together a cycle that the producer, on the one hand, can have the sale of the fungus and if the volume is large, the substrate as well It is beginning to become an alternative, I composed some more questions referring to the cuts of the cecilia cesar bag and in the incubation you have to perforate things to facilitate the exchange of gases and l uz stella jaramillo was asking how the cuts are distributed to the good there are in different stages we go first with this one in the incubation period you have to plant incubation and another reproduction in incubation what we said you can make tiny holes like what we said the comb nailed or directly with the cotton plug in many cases even as the bag is closed, which allows a little gas exchange, that's it, it doesn't have to be very open either because it doesn't need as much oxygen and if it starts to move forward and has more air and the students come in light and more to bear fruit which is not what we want in this case in the case of the holes in production if one is going to be there even and rules to do it in that book that I told you about alberto they even have different types of disposition of holes, the idea is to put the ones separated by at least 35 centimeters between holes that are not next to each other or you can make a cut in some cases and the environment is very wet, it is not necessary to remove the entire bag and in other cases they use, for example, the rag with that cotton one at the end, he removes the stopper, I start to bear fruit, power and at what point do you ask until the primordia are seen? to open them or it is done before you remember that when the incubation ends that you see the white bag you have to give the signal to the fungus that the vegetative growth is over now we are going to start producing fructification is and we achieved that in this case by doing the cuts or air entering or removing the caps more air begins to enter there is more oxygen is one of the signs the temperature of the environment dropped almost 10 degrees to what it was it has light that not before so there we have and good humidity and there we have the signal complete that the fungus needed to be a good pass of reproductive vegetative growth of the pits when I leave the induction if they are correct for suggested to leave the moment what is it that p You can do not do them all together to do some and how do you manage to make other tracks and so that all the substrate does not dry out if the environment is not so humane well we are getting closer to the time so I am going to try to synthesize and rescue the questions that I think are more representative because there are still several, Martín López tells us that it has been a few weeks and he did some sowing tests on beer malt with the idea of starting to market laxative kaká, what precautions are recommended when using barley brewery because compared to tests on chips, growth has been very slow.
Honestly, I cannot answer you about my experience because it will not go to a brewery if we want to use it. What I was telling you on Wednesday about a brewery that is here did not like it enough to answer that I don't know if it is typical of the barley itself or the residue or the brewery itself or some environmental factor that is affecting it and Lucas is still around or nothing I already have two on substrates that, taking advantage of the fact that you are talking about these treatments, I transmit them to Gustavo Vascular and questions and they tried all of them from olmo and how can they let a chipper surrender to the malicious one like what they showed well the othercontext of the barley that I was wondering if you write to me through the mail, we are going to put you in contact with someone who has used it so that the answer made practical in my case for barley yields I would have to look for some work to read of those good ones used in terms of sawdust and shavings shavings more what we use the most we do not use the machine is that machine is a chipper it does a job of larger particles for the shavings what we are doing is with a carpentry planer we entrust them we carry the logs as evenly as we can so that it doesn't get complicated and in that they have given us a hand from the municipality also from the sawmill and they make us bags of shavings or large bags from the corrals what does ring do many times they get together with friends the logs are finished cutting the chip sorry but smaller with the chainsaw they are different sizes in reality the size of chip we are using would have to be a bit larger It is easier to mix it with something a little smaller and there are machines that are called hard shavings which are similar to the carpentry separator that like a drawer on top and is filled with logs and the drawer comes and goes well then constantly or making shavings And there, if you already work there with some granulometry that is more suitable, as I said, we have not yet made the calculations of the cost of production for this, nor does it occur to us to invest in a machine like that yet, so we are looking and we do not use elm here if it is use for production say hello we have not used it but if it is used and they also ask about the world and mob with the last two I would not know how to say really I can't again I can find out but no I did not notice or present everything now problem if you contact guns & francés looking for it punto juan es tu correo correo.inta.gov.ar 90 and now we write it in the first 3 santiago mar y mar there are already several more questions I am going to ask you two to see why I'm sorry but well let's go we are reaching the closing time chad chachi that you wonder if there is any non-thermal formula to sterilize the substrate that can be used and also martín generate vines asked for more information about thermal shock as to whether there is a non-thermal way like that, in fact there in that same work that I was telling you about mus world, it was mentioned a lot because it is a work that compiles experiences from different parts of the world.
Actually, the objective of this work is to promote the cultivation of mushrooms for self-consumption as a very nutritious food with a very low cost in residues and it even speaks to some substrates that do not use disinfection the yields logically due to the percentage of contamination will vary and there is some method that uses water with lime that is used to disinfect what The bad thing about this is that after that it takes a little longer for the mycelium to invade its treatment, let's say, and about the other question about thermal shock, I don't know particularly what information is what they want if they want to write less I have no problem actually the objective of both the thermal induction as well as the oxygen and the light is to induce the fungus to give it a signal to go from one stage to the next another that stops growing vegetatively and that begins to bear fruit, which is achieved as I was saying in this case with a difference, there are practically 10 different degrees of production induction venues, but if it is something more punctual out there if you want to believe me, the member query one He was commenting that he has 16 trunks but this year he gave him almost nothing, those who started dating dried up and well, he tells us that he is going to go for a rematch next year.
There was also another query at the beginning about a person who had done the experience and that I had had good harvests and that the laboratory changed unfortunately now I lost the question and well it said that by changing the laboratory I suppose that the inoculum changed and I was not having good results we also suggest that for such specific questions or particular situations that you communicate electronic photographs so we can help you with a little more detail and depending on the case that you have had in particular, this had been requested by de nelly and celia from laboratories in buenos aires i don't know if those were included among the ones you had left it does not include it but buenos aires have a well known place that offers the intent i did not put it there among what i mentioned personally i have not bought from them for a matter of distance we also try to work and look for the closest thing in patagonia now as if carolina we have the great luck that the laboratory has appeared this the ciefap that is in esquel which is very close to us is 600 km away versus us who are more far away but in buenos aires a known place is the inter if we have any good santiago we are going to leave if someone has youtube open that is echoing I don't know if not then well, we ignored an interference and we are going to close it because we already arrived at the stipulated time once again we thank everyone who was connected I particularly want to thank my colleagues Diana and Lourdes, Pepe and Pact who are there behind the camera making the connection possible to remind everyone that this talk is in the framework of a cycle of talks and that it continues throughout August we have a talk on August 21 on beneficial individuals pests and natural preparations for the garden and the 28 on the cultivation of strawberries on a family scale, so they are all indicated, of course, to attend these two talks, also sent through the same channel at 3:00 p.m.
Those who entered through a link on a social network know that we are on YouTube, they put 2 Santa Cruz and they go to find the experimental channel of course there are many experimental ones I don't know if all of them but several ink experimental ones that have their own channel, so if you are from other provinces, of course, we also invite you to search the channel of your province or of your closest soul. I'll let you say goodbye, Santiago. the people who were participating again, questions or doubts that remain or that we do not know have answered in any problem and we will look for or see to put in contact thank the whole team that there are many people working behind this that comes out impeccable that they are present at the steering wheel I thank you Also a lot of time, four of them come to be present and well, I just invite you to continue participating in this series of talks and joining them.
Diana to the greetings. I am very grateful if you do not answer we do not get to answer something that is calm that we connect them with Santiago for more information there are many people saying things wrong Very nice from Santiago everyone is very happy with the way I explain the clarity that producers have who highlight the accompaniment they have from Santiago and that is why it is so clear with everything because he works well everyone thanking the drawers very much the ones from again saying that very extreme very good level excellent level of the talks and excellent clarity so it's all fantastic because people leave very happy and very grateful so that's great and let's say like this sorry for something I didn't say I want to thank the producers of group z of wind because all the images that we show all the work that is being done and so on is because they are putting a barbaric effort and push into it with the aim of really producing and having a production to market and the time dedication and that they have also participated there was no forgotten and a very important pass thank you of course yes I also thank you and all those who were participating in these e In meetings, we leave you the link with the survey so that you can also make a return there, it is very useful for us and it is good to thank you all if we could not read any questions or comments, we apologize, this is running out of time and we could chat there. long hours so we ask that you please do not continue contacting us through the electronic means that we have, the social networks, facebook, the emails, as far as it is within our reach, we will try to continue accompanying you for now and so now without anything else thanking you to everyone again I say goodbye and a very good weekend to all
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