The Most Controversial Archaeological Discovery - The Lost Tomb Of Jesus - Archaeology DocumentaryNov 13, 2021
mostfamous death in history is the death of
jesusof nazareth two thousand years ago in the first century jerusalem was crucified by the romans the gospels tell us he was buried in a
tomband two days later mary magdalene one of his
mostfamous disciples nearby found the
tombwas empty but according to the gospel of matthew there was another story that circulated after the death of
jesusand although the gospel calls it a lie it was rumored that the disciples of jesus secretly took the body of their master presumably to give him a permanent burial if this is true according to first century burial practices in jerusalem the body of jesus would have been carried on a rock the human family also since he was crucified for insurrection the burial would have been done in secret by his closest disciples the body of jesus would have been wrapped and left to decompose a year later his disciples would have returned this time accompanied by r his family for the final burial ceremony jesus' mother mary would have attended the ceremony mary magdalene would have also been there his brothers simon joseph judah and james would have prepared jesus' bones for final burial by placing them in a limestone coffin called ossuary the name of jesus would have been inscribed on the side his ossuary would have been placed in a niche in the forever sealed inner chamber deep within his family also in the spring of 1980 in talpiot south jerusalem a construction explosion left uncovered entrance to a burial tomb Sunday morning under pressure from contractors a team of archaeologists were called in to excavate they only had three days before the tomb was sealed and cemented I could see this big slope with tractors, bulldozers and trucks rolling in different directions and right in the center of this slope was this huge hole that turned out to be the entrance to The Tapioca tomb above the entrance was a unique façade, a carefully crafted chevron and circle that puzzled archaeologists, there is no doubt that If those symbols on the façade of the talpiya tomb mean anything, it is unlikely that the person or family that came to carve the tomb just carved these things at random, they had to symbolize something, what they symbolize, not me.
I know, but it's pretty rare to find that kind of ornamentation on a simple tomb. Shimon Gibson, a young surveyor at the time, was one of the first inside. His job was to register the design. He was great. It was very exciting for me to enter the tomb. it's being carved out of the rock it has a central chamber it has arcasalia benches on the walls to place their bodies on it has um these locules extending in different directions it was incredibly important to get as much
archaeologicaldetail as possible in gibson's detailed plans the plan recorded every inch of the interior of the tombs extending from a large inner chamber where there are six deep cavities called loculi or kohim in Hebrew and within these cohen archaeologists found ten small limestone coffins also called ossuaries the ossuaries were rushed to the museum jerusalem rockefeller under the direction of israel antiquities department the bones and remains found inside were bagged and boxed and set aside for reburial the ancient israel authority made certain decisions that they would heed community requests ultra orthodox jewish in jerusal they would hand over bone material that has been analyzed and examined by anthropologists for small burials and then began the process of cataloging the ancient bone boxes in 1980 over 1,000 ossuaries had been found but only 20 of them bore the names of the dead here six of the ten ossuaries were found to have inscriptions they are not monumental inscriptions they are not meant to be seen by all and are not there to commemorate the dead they are there so that when family members come in and start shifting boxes for that they can place a new one they know which is which and which belongs to whom the
archaeologicalrecord shows that the custom of using ossuaries for burial in jerusalem only lasted about 100 years ending around 70 CE when jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans and thus the
discoveryof inscriptions on stone coffins such as these provide archaeologists with a catalog of names specific to the time of jesus and in one of the ossuaries discovered in the talpiot tomb written in aramaic it was an amazing name yeshua bar yosef yeshua or jesus son of joseph yeshua bar yosef now when this was found uh i think archaeologists didn't they were very excited about it, the public would have been very excited, but they didn't find out, you found an ossuary of the son of joseph of jesus, but there wasn't much talk about it nowadays the jesus the ossuary of the son of joseph is in the hands of the israel antiquities authority or iaa, just like the rest of the stone coffins removed from the talpiot tomb, most of them have been locked away and stored i in this massive warehouse, but why have we assembled a team of scientists, academics and journalists to investigate the ten ancient boxes of bones to find out why they have been ignored.
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the most controversial archaeological discovery the lost tomb of jesus archaeology documentary...
This is Felix, yes this is 543. This is this. of joseph today it takes an expert in ancient writing like the world famous harvard professor frank moore cross to examine the inscription because although it is one of the simplest ever found on an ossuary, its handwriting is so informal that it is very difficult to read this being pretty informal and this one in particular quite messy academics describe it as such superficial graffiti it's almost like it's meant to be read only by intimate family there's an x here before the name and then the name yeshua then the name of the father is perfectly clear yahoo sure joseph's son i have no real doubt this should read yeshua and then yeshua bar yehosthaf that's jesus son of joseph jesus son of joseph professor cross's photography exam has now shows us exactly what look into the royal coffin jesus son of joseph is pretty amazing amazing man is not the word to describe it can this stone coffin linking with jesus of nazareth to answer that question we have to examine all the archaeological evidence uncovered in this family also fits with christian tradition does it challenge certain articles of faith if the bones of jesus were found tomorrow in an osteoarium in jerusalem and certainly let's say they definitely agree they are the bones of jesus would that destroy the christian faith it certainly wouldn't destroy my christian faith i leave what happens to the bodies to god it seems christians can accept the possibility that jesus' remains were moved to a family tomb thereafter could have been resurrected and appeared to his followers as the gospel report according to christian faith jesus then ascended to heaven in theory the ascension could have been spiritual leaving his body behind in reality those who take a strictly historical approach of the gospels would also expect to find the remains of Jesus in his fa milia when he is first buried in a temporary grave and then, unless he somehow magically disappears and goes to heaven, which is a Christian faith position, but if it's going to be historical and realistic he was put in a permanent place of beryl as a good jew the tomb would be fine you have to have a family tomb the family tomb of jesus if the ossuary is located in the the tomb of talpion marked jesus son of joseph once contained the mortal remains of jesus then everyone the ossuaries in that tomb would have to belong to members of jesus's family in the other five ossuaries reported to have inscriptions we should only hope to find names from jesus's family tree jesus was the son of mary and joseph but what many people don't You know is that according to Christian tradition he had two sisters Miriam and Salome and the Gospel of Matthew tells us that he had four brothers Simon Judah James and Joseph his adoptive father Joseph was a descendant of king david but joseph most likely died in nazareth and would have been buried there not in jerusalem jesus mother maria maria in ancient times was also of davidic descent but unlike joseph according to later christian tradition she died in jerusalem and within the same tomb that jesus son of joseph a middle name was discovered first found in jerusalem the ossuary is now in the basement of the israel museum as you can see the script is very simple the hebrew letters that create this name are meme meme is for m presh like r you can be i or y and hey in hebrew is like h in latin english which makes maria and is one of the rare examples of that onoshuari name in israel berea mary found in the same family tomb as jesus son of joseph could be this is the ossuary of the virgin mary throughout history since the earliest greek writings of mark the first gospel the name of the virgin mary has come down to us in only one form maria it is a latinized version of the hebrew myriad after the death of jesus mary continued his teachings and must have gathered many followers in those times of religious transition the roman converts also began to follow jesus and as his popularity grew among his followers the mary's name was latinized that is why the new testament records her name as maria written in hebrew the name maria is very rare but it is exactly what was found in the talbot tomb ossuary if in 1980 archaeologists had considered even for a moment in that they had discovered the ossuary of the virgin mary what other members of the family might have expected to find next to her look matthew bless you mt you'd which is a short form of a nickname if you like of matitya or matityahu which is where we in english he got the name of matthew matthew the name at first does not seem to fit with the family of jesus the new testament is made up of the writings from four gospels attributed to matthew mark luke and john matthew the evangelist was a disciple of jesus but scholars do not believe he was a blood member of his family however there is reason to believe there were many matthews within jesus's family te they say something very interesting the two genealogies of jesus that everyone reads the formal genealogy of joseph his adoptive father is basically all the kings of israel and even big well known historical names but the other genealogy is embedded in luke uh people don't notice a lot it's luke chapter three you have to turn a few pages it's the genealogy of mary the mother and in her genealogy guess what you have five six seven eight matthews mattaya matthias it's a maccabean hashmanian name it's a fierce name of some kind of royal family it's a name priestly remember that mary is related to elizabeth the mother of john the baptist who is a priest so she has some priestly connections there as well as judah which is the tribe of davidic messiah so i don't think it's strange that we have a matthew in this tomb at all in fact it's kind of more of a congruence and it fits in fact unlike matthew, many biblical names like isaac or jonah would have pretty much disqualified the tomb as the jesus family tomb because they do not appear anywhere in jesus's genealogy there is not a single name that does not fit the gospel story every name and the same tomb connects each of these names is related to the gospel there is no name like daniel or another that just doesn't fit three ossuaries four names had been discovered joseph jesus mary and matthew and then on an ossuary found deep in the tomb another name was discovered this inscription reads yosa with a hay at the end and it is a dimunitive for yourself no doubt about it as an inscription on an ossuary this would probably be quite unusual if it is i am posting in english i said ok there is a hey joseph well there is not only the joseph it is you say now in hebrew you see in israel today it is quite common i ceo see joseph as joey but you say you will never hear and you didn't hear it in the ancient world or the yod the e becomes an assumption where we know the name in the gospel mark jesus has a brother people don't we all know jesus had brothers most scholars the roman catholic church says they were cousins and others Most people were half-siblings, but most historians and Biblical scholars had pretty well accepted that Jesus said that brothers are named in the gospels. the four brothers james joseph jude and simon but the joseph in mark only in mark our first gospel is not joseph it is jose jose or josie in English he was the brother of jesus but the gospels do not tell us much more than he disappears after the three appointments brief what happened to joseph is a mystery but if the ossuaries in the tomb of talpiya belong to the family of jesus then joseph has finally been found of all the ossuary inscriptions discovered there is only one with this unique spell ling of the nickname jose mira it's clear as days josie and that's kind of amazing because according to jewish law if someone has a nickname you have to put their nickname on their tombstone or coffin and it's the nickname that appears here right next to jesus son of joseph the brother was known as josie not joseph and it's in the exact same setup here josie yosa in 1980 archaeologists werecataloging the names of the ossuaries in lists of hundreds and from this tomb they now had joseph a weird nickname given to jesus's brother maria a weird latinized version of mary used in the gospels to refer to jesus as mother matya a version of matthew that just so happens to be it was common in the family of mary and jesus son of joseph all found together in one family tomb all cleaned and cataloged all skeletal material reburied together Here in a specially consecrated tomb outside Jerusalem all the ossuaries were packed and stored for decades on store shelves.
Why didn't anyone notice that? These names are reminiscent of the fact that the 1970s and early 1980s were the boom period for grave digging around Jerusalem, so there were suddenly huge numbers of Oshawa. The headquarters of the Department of israel antiquities and these inscriptions were considered common these are the most common names among jews in the first century common era these are extremely popular names in the period all the facts we have is that there is a group of names that resemble many of the names we find in the new testament the other fact is that we find these names in many other places so suggesting that this tomb was the family tomb of jesus is a far fetched suggestion and we should be very careful with that as you know all the tombs around jerusalem sadly with construction they are slowly being exposed and in some cases destroyed so that it is not so farfetched that a construction crew has discovered the tomb of jesus. you know i mean it can happen i think we have to consider it even though it has been argued that statistical probabilities have never been examined by statistical experts until now andr e feuerberger is professor of mathematics and statistics charnel houses and other sources has collected all the names known since the time of jesus by looking at how often each name appears you can statistically evaluate the names discovered at telbiat one of the things that is quite interesting about this particular tomb site is that from a simple point of view if one looks at the specific names that occur in the group and if one focuses only on the names individually one may very well come away with the impression that there is nothing unusual about this particular group, but the correct way to analyze this is to look at all the names at once. unison according to statistics if we were on a crowded street in ancient Jerusalem and shouted the jesus name most likely four percent of men would answer if we were to say the name mary 25 of women would probably answer that both were common names but what foyer berger explains is if we were to call a jesus w With a father named joseph, a mother named mary, and a brother named jose, the odds of such an individual responding are quite low from a statistical standpoint, we don't actually look at individual name incidences where we say each of them is a very common name we look at the way the factors combine with each other so sure a father named joseph is not a rare name a son named yeshua is not a rare name but when you combine those two together they are rarer so there really is a possibility that this particular grave site is in fact that of the new testament family it is a possibility that I think of be taken seriously taking the possibility seriously means we need to try to uncover more evidence and one way to do that is to find the talpion tool but over 25 years ago the tomb was buried sealed and cemented over a huge apartment complex that was built on the top even if the tomb can be located it may be impossible to enter or is under meters of concrete and the foundations are poured over decades old architectural plans and cross referenced to iaa archeology reports our team believe they have uncovered the underground location of the talpiyat tomb the talpiyat side is perfectly situated halfway between ancient jerusalem and bethlehem the two most important cities for jesus and his family would have been an ideal place for his family tomb considering the surviving members they would have traveled from both cities to visit the burial place if you think about it it is perfect it is right between jerusalem where it is and bethlehem is there this is where if i were a member of the family of jesus this is where i would like to be buried right so we know there is a grave right here our research shows that in 1980 two graves were discovered at the talpiot site, the roof of the second tomb had been partially destroyed by construction, but was resealed and not excavated due to time constraints and pressure from religious groups to keep it intact archaeological reports show that the second tomb is 20 meters north of tomb number one the apartment plans show that tomb number one is located under a courtyard and next to a bedroom wall this we believe is the tomb we are looking for now we know that one of the tombs is under the courtyard we know there are pipes coming out that is where you come from rough iaa sketches suggest both tombs may have had t access pipes installed before construction continued above them it is common for pipes like these to be added at the request of rabbis in response to the orthodox belief that spirits need a clear passage from a tomb, let us go down without matter how many feet it is until we hit bottom, I mean, once we're down there, if the drawing is accurate and we have that bend in that pipe, the camera will go down the bend, let's see what's there, my concern is that those pipes are fake whoever built them only builds pipes in there to make rabbis happy oh yeah souls can move and there is nothing ideally you put your camera on that thing yeah you confirm there is a tune indicating that there is a space between the tomb and the bedroom. we know how deep it is we cut a hole in the bedroom wall boom we're good in let's do it and then the fast food neighbors take an interest in what we're doing we got permission from the tenant to give us access to the topia the apartment will be identified in the blueprints you know I can't I can't believe someone lives anyway we've only been given two days this is this this is it yeah this is it listen we need a tape measure this is the real one look at this we're seven foot eight foot some resistance but that's not the bottom there's more that's blocking man this is not a fictional place bill tarrant is our expert with sonar and remotely operated cameras even if the access hole is as small as a quarter inch bill can get a camera inside is the video probe very light and you see your face in it look how clear it is see the camera on the tip the light is on the tip yeah come on let's see what it's wherever this camera is pointing that's it let's see what I can do is articulate I'll move in all directions that will be able to keep us in the center of the pipe so we can look and see what we're doing alright alright so I'm going to center it and i'm going to insert it into a tube ok ok this paper is rolling i can take a look at it so watch it with you i'll move the camera as we go down try to keep it in the center look how we go down it's still pretty clean and we're moving now we're about 10 feet down no debris what is that color change changing color because it looks like they use different colored pipes when they put this thing in how long is your camera 25 feet oh i see something no good no good i see it looks like some sticks in there i see plastic and i see something good w oden pieces some debris or something you know what this is a pretty serious blockage you have here i think people are reluctant to think you might run into the grave of the family of Jesus, and yet Caiaphas, the priest who had crucified Jesus, was found. his tomb by an excavator south of jerusalem a few years ago in december 1990 construction workers discovered an ancient first century burial cave inside there were 12 ossuaries two of them were named caiaphas this is the most ornate ossuary it has the inscription joseph son of caiaphas carved on it twice joseph son of caiaphas was the high priest of the temple who according to the gospels prosecuted jesus from his point of view jesus was a dangerous false messiah who was leading the jewish masses into a confrontation with the rulers from israel in rome the caiaphas australia was found so it's not like there wasn't anyone famous you know you say well it couldn't be anyone no matter what we find it couldn't be someone important why not?
It seems to me that there is a double standard. You say that kaifus is in all probability the high priest who prosecuted Jesus according to the gospels, while this entire group is written off. Well these are just common Jewish names. I mean, how are you so convinced that this is the kaifus? you find more charnel houses in that same less fancy tomb with the name kaifas not joseph son of kaifas but with the name kaephason so it's definitely the tomb as all the tombs were clan this is the clan kaifast tomb one of them might have been it should have been joseph son of caiaphas the one we know from the new testament and the ornament on the ossuary shows you very clearly that it is of a different standard so a fancy statement convinces you that this is the caiaphas of caiaphas not that common name is not as common a common name as jesus, joseph, john or mary is a rare name is a name we know from both jewish and new testament sources and is good for dating and timing r that period and it could be that one the fact is that we have never found anywhere else an ossuary with the name of joseph son of kyphus anywhere else you have a lot of unique things yosa that you find in this tomb and that variation specific to the name you only find it in the gospel of marks as a brother of jesus only in this tomb no other as rare as caiaphas in fact rarer because in the tomb of the kaifus family you found several kyphosis yosa appears once point of all the thousands of ossuaries that have been found yet no one says with all probability that it is the brother of jesus of nazareth no one says that the fact that the probabilities in caiaphas are very high does not say with all certainty that this is the one that there was no inscription inside saying that i have crucified jesus we don't know 100% we never know 100% in archeology but the experts seem 100% comfortable connecting some ossuaries directly to famous names in the gospels as long as they walk away from jesus's family at the fifth station on the way painful the path that jesus walked carrying his cross we find a dedication to simon of cirine it is here where there was a moment both historical and Intimate Moment Between Jesus and a Man Named Simon According to the gospels, Jesus stumbled on the way to the crucifixion and Simon, visiting Jerusalem from Cyrene, helped him carry his load.
Simon and his son Alexander became the first followers of Jesus. at the back of a university building we have a nice ossuary that was found in 1941 one of the inscriptions clearly says alexander son of simon alexandros simonos that one that is clearly inscribed is right here shimon you can see it very clearly well and apparently the chalk which is on the other side and is essentially faded, has the two names alexander at the top, simon below, which would indicate that both individuals on the lid of this ossuary were placed identically in this sanctuary the place called cyrene in modern Libya it is inscribed simon of cyrene it is mentioned in the new testament helping jesus carry his cross if scholars generally agree this is his box of bones this is it so this is one of the most important artifacts of christianity.
Why is it under someone's table? Part of it is that it was found many years ago in 1941, long before there were popular magazines on biblical archeology for the layman, so it escaped popular attention you've got to have a publicist you've got to have someone say boy this it's something let's fix this so it ends up sitting in a warehouse it ends up sitting in a warehouse maybe we can see that char that dark green coal if we turn on the light here on this and we can read it this time okay a little more oh okay , yes, bring it oh look at this simca come here look at this forget the green for a minute look t his is an incisor oh I don't think that this published is not published if it is not in any of the publications on the simon de cerrini ossuary the man who helped carry the cross of jesus we found the same symbol that is carved over the entrance to the tomb of telpyat the tomb that housed the ossuary inscribed jesus son of joseph i mean i have never heard this again look i am in shock wow well i didn't expect that i was trying to read the green letters i wasn't looking for signs of early christianity signs of early christianity is this a pre-cross symbol it is possible that the symbol that marks the tomb of talpia became thejesus movement symbol is yes the tomb belongs to jesus and his family nothing look nothing we think it's the plastic you know we're on point now i think we need to call a plumber let's break into the tomb with the plumber you have a better idea today we need a plumber no no no one will come now it's almost 9 p.m. so call it no w and bring it to more this is crazy start with the plumber what else do we have to do over 25 years ago archaeologists discovered four ossuaries directly linked to jesus and his family then in a fifth ossuary they discovered another inscription the inscription has two parts the second part reads mara well the first part is a diminutive of mariamne and although no one had ever seen this name on an ossuary it was translated as another version of mary mary also known as mara but it would make sense to find it in the tomb of de's family jesus two ossuaries with the name mary first mary the name used in the gospels to refer to the virgin mother and the second a unique spelling of both maria and the name mara could make sense if the second mary this mariamne was mary magdalene mary magdalene is reduced to us in the new testament as not just a name but a name and title according to scholars she is mary magdala mary magdalen Magdala was an important center of trade near the Sea of Galilee.
The people of Magdala would have spoken Greek and Aramaic. Christian traditions suggest that Mary Magdalene and her brother Philip were Greek-speaking Jewish preachers, and it is quite likely that the family and followers of Mary Magdalene may have written her name in Greek the ossuary of Mary Magdalene is the only one found in the tomb of Talpia with an inscription in Greek let's say that in this same tomb of Talpiot the second Mary on the right was clearly identifiable as Mary Magdalene, Let's say okay, what would your reaction be? So within this group it would be fascinating and it would certainly attract a lot more attention and raise a lot more questions, but it's not, we don't have Mary Magdalene in that tomb if one of the Oswary had said Mary Magdalene I would say wow and I would be much more impressed. if it were written maria maria coming from migdal or maria magdalena i must say very interesting i think if the mariamne inscription could be connected with maria magdalena it would be more than interesting it would be statistically convincing because we could create a combined probability equation for the talpiot cluster that include mariemony what happens when you do that is that the individual likelihood factors, while not terribly small in any particular case, when you multiply them all together it actually starts to build a picture that what you've seen overall is actually a very rare event because foyer burger takes a conservative approach, eliminates matia completely or, since he is not a known member of jesus's immediate family, foyerburger also divides the probability result by four to compensate for any unwanted bias in the historical data and further divides the number by one thousand representing all jerusalem tombs of the first century at the end, his model concludes that there is only a one in 600 chance that the talpia tomb is not the jesus family tomb if mariamne can be linked to mary magdalene but may she be one of the most famous tales associated with mary magdalene It is in the Gospel of John where Jesus stops the stoning of a woman punished for adultery, but there is no indication in the text that the anonymous W oman is Magdalene.
It is a later Christian tradition that has linked the adulteress with Magdalena just as he does with luke's tale of another nameless woman specifically labeled as a sinner who anoints jesus' feet by drying them with her hair today eru Many believe that Mary Magdalene and the two unnamed women in Luke and John are all different women. The tradition of linking Mary Magdalene with these so-called sinners dates back to a change in the church in later centuries when women were excluded from being consecrated as previous religious leaders at that time women were ordained and in many early christian writings mary magdalene is highly respected as a missionary i believe mary magdalene was an extremely important person in the jesus movement so important i think this is my opinion i know i am not representing no one else in this but i think she is actually the true founder of christianity mary of magdala was a senior apostle on par with peter in jesus time but later after new testament we say she is a prostitute , so that the opposition to Maria de Magdala within the New Testament and after the New Testament is the most Certain to me that she was very, very important, the strong leadership displayed by Magdalen would have been considered suspect by an evolving male-dominated church, so since the 2nd century, when the church fathers began suppressing dozens of of early Christian writings, the church rejected two texts that held Mary Magdalene in the highest regard: the gospel of Mary Magdalene and a text describing her brother's ministry. the acts of philip for centuries only fragments of these texts remained and some sections had been considered
lostforever in 1974 in an ancient monastery on mount athos in greece a harvard university professor francois bovonne discovered a 700 year old manuscript was the most complete copy ever found of the fourth century text the acts of philip in it beaumont claims to have discovered an early description of mary magdalene unmarked by later christian tradition the act of philip she is completely no mention of her earlier life she is seen positively as a christian missionary then she is completely on the same level as male missionaries she preaches she teaches she baptized she even carries the title of apostle if in the early christian movement mary magdalene was an apostle then the only alias mara in the ossuary of mariamne could be pointing to something extraordinary in Aramaic mara means teacher or mara the teacher even today if you go to the armenian quarter the archbishop or one of the priests would be like mar samuel or mar whatever sir teacher you can still hear so it is a sign of respect for a rabbi for a teacher related to the mara the lord the teacher is clear in philip's acts that mary magdalene is respected as a baptizing preacher and a strong and faithful apostle and close to jesus it would make sense then for her followers to refer to her as teacher mara but what about the s spelling from the first name in the inscription the only mariamne never found before or after in any other ossuary in the acts of philip mary magdalene the name is spelled m a r i a m n e mariamne mariamne is the same woman as mary of magdala or mary magdalene in the synoptic gospels and some non-canonical texts such as the gospel of maría bustis sofia, etc.
Felipe's acts seem to explain all the mysteries behind this inscription, but if this is really the ossuary belonging to Mary Magdalene, then there is one more thing that must be investigated in common. The belief based on medieval tradition is that after the death of Jesus the disciples were expelled from Judea and scattered to many countries traveling and spreading the word of God. After a while Mary Magdalene ended up in France where she spent the last of her days following this later christian tradition it would be impossible to find the coffin of mary magdalene in talpiya jerusalem however in the acts of felipe written in the 4th century the oldest known account of the travels of mary magdalene she does not die in france according to the acts of felipe at the end of the story it is said that mariamne must go home to israel to the jordan valley and the author has the illusion that where he would go to die and be buried felipe's acts tell us clearly that mary magdalene the most trusted apostle of jesus dies here in jerusalem would it really be that implausible to find her buried next to jesus in jesus family tomb the odds statistics s forces the group of names in the tomb of talpia extraordinary the connections to the gospels are too strong to dismiss armed with this new knowledge our team can now uncover new clues within the talpia if we can get in let's connect our stuff and see what he did right then let's see what we got now that the plumber cleaned it all this is it I'm still dreading the thought that maybe the blockage was the bottom here's about 14 feet here is the blockage we're at the point now yeah and it's not the bottom which is good now we're still going oh it's not the bottom which is good this is deep this is very deep it's 20 feet you're already 20 feet down you know it's cool look look look that's the bottom I think that's it you can see the bottom padding we hit another block or we are at the bottom i will move the camera what happened to i thought you were supposed to curve i will change the camera let me scroll to see if we can find something can you ?, we see nothing.
I am scrolling to the left. there it is we are there this is we are in the tomb we have the tomb we have the tumor right in front of the façade there it is that that that is the tomb you know what that is not that that is not the entrance to the tomb we are in the tomb you are in the tomb yes man we both find both but where is the gable itada you know w the gable the the yes well I think that's not that it's not that an estuary wait wait that's charnel houses those are charnel houses yes yes oh my God there is good news and bad news here nausea there well what does that mean what does it mean we are in the wrong grave our grave is empty you know what this could be the second tool the one we thought was 20 meters north we are in the second right tomb our tomb is 20 meters south of here the good news is that no one has ever been I have seen a tomb from the time of Jesus in perfect condition, even though we found ourselves in the wrong tomb.
Perhaps these finely crafted ossuaries, so close to the talpiot tomb, are somehow connected to Jesus or his followers. the pitch has to be facing 20 meters south it's going to be on the other side of this building this way where are you going where the hell are you going that's the parking lot it shouldn't be a big deal south is south 20 meters takes us in the garden 20 meters i is not much, we are ok in 1980, the iaa cataloged four of the ten ossuaries in the tomb of talpia as nameless, but these ossuaries were far from simple, several ornamental rose windows on their sides and on the rear panel of the ossuary cataloged 80- 506 they found a big cross ok look at this look at it some kind of mark it looks like a cross it looks like a cross to me but this cross was immediately ruled out as a mason mark it is theorized that mason marks mason were engraved on ossuaries. by coffin carvers as signatures or markings indicating how the lids should align with the boxes this has nothing to do with christianity it's just a scratch it's very common it's just a sign of the maison i think and that's because you're just not here accepting the process in any archaeological perhaps it was even before the 4th century the common belief among archaeologists and historians is that there is almost no archaeological evidence of early Christianity until the 4th century 300 years after the death of Jesus, when the Roman emperor Constantine, the great legalized Christianity, essentially allowed the acceptance of an underground movement into mainstream civil society.
His popularity exploded throughout the empire and Constantine became known as the first Christian emperor, but it is hard to believe that an early Christian movement strong enough to last through 300 years of persecution and then lay waste to the Roman empire would not have left behind archaeological evidence of its existence before its legalization you know what i noticed it cornered my eye yeah inside a circle what is that that's great i i love that question because this is not a cross this is four centuries before the cross was established as a christian symbol this is a rosette the most common design on first century oscars other ossuaries also have crosses but there are mason's marks to fit the placement of the box lid itself to prove the point that the cross was used as a christian s symbol much more evidence is needed in the first century than a poorly executed rosette today the cross is immediately associated with the crucifixion but that is one reference that would have been horrible during the years immediately after the death of jesus for anyone in the first century who wore a cross around their neck wanted someone today to use a small electric chair it was disgusting it was a symbol of torture and it was only when stopped the crucifixion that human imagination was able to move from reality to symbol but maybe people used crosses as religious symbols at the time of jesus crosses that had nothing to do with the crucifixion in the bible ezekiel there is a place where god says that go to town and put as we would say an x or a cross on the forehead of all the righteous people before this is a cross people are making x's or crosses but they are not thinking about jesus the cross what they are thinking about is the end the idea of finalizing the seal of the correct seal ed delivered and acquired an apocalyptic meaning then the last letter means that you are sealed that you havefinished that you are fine that you are waiting maybe the resurrection you know let's mark the people who are prepared with the ex or the tav the tav the last letter in the hebrew alphabet or tau in aramaic in the book of revelation jesus declares i am the alpha and omega the first and the last the beginning and the end alpha and omega are the first and the last letters in the greek alphabet jesus would have declared i am the alef and the tau while speaking in aramaic and in his time the symbol tau was drawn as a cross on the ossuary marked jesus son of joseph directly before the name jesus is a deliberate inscription from a towel which of course is absolutely part of the original inscription is the same depth and style of the inscription plus the mineral spray clearly going deeper into all the letters if this symbol this tau was a mark of righteousness at the time of je his first followers might have adopted it centuries later it would become the christian cross it is a Something terrible when a culture is wiped out and yet you know there is a sense in which that happened to Jesus and his followers and that sounds very shocking someone says that jesus and his parents became christianity are not wiped out but that original movement the way they were originally as jews here in this area believing their own version of the jewish faith but also following jesus that kind of disappeared and i think it disappeared for theological reasons although i think the material evidence is there if we open We close our eyes and see that it could be that there was a movement made up of Jews who saw Jesus as their messiah not their god and because this movement largely disappeared from history we are blind to the archeological evidence they have left behind if there is evidence From this Judeo-Christian movement, the logical place to look for it is here.
According to tradition, this is the view that Jesus had when he went up to the Mount of Olives and c onlooked at the holy jewish temple where now stands the golden muslim dome of the rock that was once the holy of holies there was housed the ark of the covenant according to luke jesus looked at the temple foresaw its destruction and wept where it wept is here dominus flemit a place sacred in which the franciscan monks built this monastery in 1891 this place would have been the perfect place for a judeo christian cemetery overlooking the temple they were sure that jesus would rebuild it again that goes in 1953 during the renovation the franciscans discovered a 2 000 cemetery of one year old this ancient necropolis was partially excavated by a well known archaeologist named bellaarmino bhagati bhagati claimed that these ossuaries belonged to some early followers of jesus if this is an early judeo christian burial ground then that means our grave is not sitting in some sort of archaeological emptiness is really part of a network of cemeteries is to can provide an archaeological context for our tomb in this n network of tombs the franciscans discovered a box of bones with an inscription naming one of the most famous early christians simon bariona i don't know if everyone will immediately recognize him but jesus told simon peter who is later revered as the pope and head of the church you are simon bar jonah blessed are you peter look his name is not peter that is a greek word his name is shimon shimon bar yonah today only a piece of the ossuary remains the Franciscans have kept it in a small museum next to their church.
It bears an indisputable inscription. The only one found spelling the name Simon Bariona. Simon was one of the original twelve apostles of Jesus according to the Gospels. Jesus renamed him Peter, in Aramaic, Kepha, which means Roca is considered a saint by many Christians and the first pope by Roman Catholics. According to church tradition, Simon Peter was crucified and entered. missed in rome so how could his coffin be here in jerusalem the fact is there has never been any credible archaeological evidence found in rome under the vatican pointing to simon bariona and here is an ossuary discovered on dominus flevit bearing his name, so if this is a Judeo-Christian necropolis, it's part of a network of cemeteries and tombs belonging to early followers of jesus, including the jesus family, okay you won't believe this you won't believe I'm imagining you can see i don't see it's a it's a symbol symbol of the grave in an oscar this is amazing because the angle and and the thing is identically identical the dot is deliberately inside the inverted v with the dot in the middle the symbol of our grave right in an ossuary of what is suspected to be a primitive cemetery of the followers of jesus to find this symbol displayed in an ossuary here in the necropolis abdominis flevit connects it directly You are faced with what is believed to be some of the earliest evidence for Christianity as to who may have been buried in this ossuary and whether or not you knew the Simon of Cyrine showing the same marks on his bone box or the son of Jesus. of joseph whose tomb has been emblazoned with the same symbol, we can only speculate, but when it comes to forensic science, modern science does not allow for much speculation by studying ancient DNA from bone fragments and human residue left in ossuaries now. they can determine the familial relationships between the various people in the Talpiyah tomb.
Stephen Fahn is the director of the Center for the Study of Early Christianity and is assisting Stephen Cox, a New York State forensic archaeologist. They have discovered valuable material within the inscribed ossuaries of Mariamne and Jesus son of Joseph. Within this ossuary we have some material that adheres to the surface of the stone in a very interesting circular pattern. It is worth picking up and taking, eh, take a look and see. what its composition, pattern or material is could give us a big clue as to who, what, when and where it seems to be outside. ndish that these samples may contain the DNA of Jesus and Mary Magdalene, but if there is enough material, these tests may shed new light on Jesus and his family.
This is the 80-500 sample. The samples have been numbered and sent to this DNA lab in Thunder. bay canada one of only five laboratories in the world that specializes in ancient DNA scientists do not know that the samples belong to a jesus son of joseph and a woman who could be mary magdalene so if these bone samples really belong to mary magdalena and jesus of nazareth we would expect tests to show they are not genetically related we would expect to find DNA representing two people with no family ties and that would be an extremely rare
discoveryin a family grave unless the people were husband and wife. so we received the samples that you sent us and when we first examined them they didn't look very good very dry very desiccated very small and very fragmented and for that reason it was going to be very and it's difficult for us to do the analysis then we process or start to process the samples and try to understand the quality of the DNA, will it be viable for analysis?
In this particular case, we found that the DNA was quite degraded, quite damaged. and so it limits what kind of work we can do the question now is there enough dna material to create a meaningful profile to get the maximum amount of information biologists will try to recover what they call nuclear dna from bone cells the extraction analysis showed that nuclear DNA was very difficult to recover. Then we have focused on mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited from mother to child and is inherited through the mother. It means that we can only identify those types of relationships.
The bone material is too degraded to recover the DNA. from the nucleus of cells, so DNA extraction now focuses on bone cells, mitochondria, mitochondrial DNA can only tell us if Jesus is like this or not. n joseph had the same mother as mary mariamne whether or not they were brother and sister if biologists cannot recover the mitochondrial dna from the bone cells the test will have to be aborted and we will never know the true relationship between jesus and mariamne we have in fact we could achieve results we obtained the mitochondrial DNA was very fragmented very small amounts of DNA we were able to amplify it we were able to sequence it then we went on to clone those sequenced DNA fragments and by cloning the DNA we can then compare many copies together and that increases the validity of the work and in this way we can compare the sequences between that individual and the other individual and that's essentially what we've done and I can show you the results here today okay what we have here is we have two sequences, just representative sequences, one from each individual, and what I'm going to show you here are some of the variations between the two individuals. and so we have a polymorphism here this polymorphism g and a is a variation between this sequence and another sequence or a variation between this sequence and the reference sequence we use a polymorphism to indicate or identify a mitochondrial profile and this polymorphism shows a difference between the two individuals as well we have another polymorphism here where we have a t and a c showing another polymorphism difference so we have a number of polymorphisms showing differences between the two sequences then we can conclude that these two individuals are not related or at least not maternally related they don't share the same mother they can't be mother and son they can't be brother and sister so for these particular samples because they come from the same term and we suspect it's a family term these two people if they weren't related would probably be husband and wife for centuries the people have speculated about the relationship of m aria magdalena with jesus mar and magdalena appear more frequently than other women in the canonical gospels always a close follower of jesus her presence at jesus's crucifixion and tomb is consistent with the role of grieving wife and widow, so perhaps jesus and mary magdalene married as dna results from the talpiot ossuaries suggest and perhaps their union was kept secret to protect a potential dynasty a secret hidden through the centuries a secret we can discover in the family tomb de jesus we have finally been able to contact one of the original builders of the apartments talpion efraim remembers the tomb but it is a bit ok he says it is right between these two buildings between the apartment complexes there is a large garden with high terraces and it is in this area where ephraim says that the tomb is but on which terrace is the question cement slab on the lower terrace but is interrupted by a almost prophetic visit from a blind woman which is all we needed if we could just remove th is an inconspicuous cement slab we might find ourselves looking up at the entrance to the jesus family tomb. on take a picture and compare man what's your first step okay okay no this is it definitely look there it is the chevron it's beautiful it's just gorgeous this is red it looks like in a book like in the picture look at it felix we actually found it found i'm going in ok let's go the opening of the tomb 26 years after it was found coincides with another twist in history one of the talpiet ossuaries has disappeared counting these one two three four five six seven eight nine ten we have ten archery here each, but visits to the bet shemesh warehouse have thrown a strange error in the logs.
I went to the israel antiquities authority storms in bat shemesh. They provided me with this computer sheet that states that for In this tomb, there are nine items, it clearly says, the items number nine and it has the description of these, these archery and where they are located in the warehouses. Somehow somewhere one of the talpiet ossuaries disappeared and it is with this
lostossuary that a new mystery begins maybe the ossuary was stolen maybe a worker on the site in 1980 had light fingers ossuaries can fetch quite high prices in the antiquities market and in October 2002 a calcareous limestone ossuary from a private collection appeared bearing the inscription james son de joseph brother of jesus golan impar a well known collector stated that he had purchased the ossuary from a dealer in arabic antiquities in the old city of jerusalem decades before but i had not been aware of the importance of the inscription it was one of the first oshawas that i have in my collection i did not pay special attention to this social world because the three names that are mentioned in the oshawa are yakov yosef y eshu yeshua is a very common name in the first century and therefore I could not even think that it could belong to the family of jesus and at the same time i never knew that jesus had a brother or brothers of any kind after jesus died his brother james took over his ministry and gathered a large following as the undisputed leader of the jesus movement later christian writings tell us he was respected by early christians as well as jewish pharisees and first century jewish historian josephus spends more time with james than jesus but like his brother jesus it was fear of his popularity and religious influence that led him to death in what was widely seen as an act of judicial murder the high priest of the temple ananus sentenced james and had him executed in jerusalem by stoning the numerous accounts of the life ofJames shows an early Christian of such importance that, if possible, he would surely have been placed next to Jesus in death.
It was not until 2002 that a highly regarded scholar saw the oded golan collection and suggested that the james ossuary might belong to the family of jesus of nazareth and thus began what is now a famous controversy, a battle of scholars and science over the authenticity of the james ossuary the james ossuary where it was found comes from the collector who owned it odedgalon well publicized says he got it around 1980. sometimes he said sooner or later but hey around 1980 our grave was discovered in 1980 missing a ossuary israeli antiquities can't find it now maybe they will find it in the back of a warehouse but i checked the dimensions.
I was just curious. Australia's foul was listed as just gone. The dimensions of that oshawa are the same as those of the james ossuary. it's a fake but no one says it's all a fake and the position now of the israel antiquities authority is they originally said james son of joseph would be fine with that i mean n think about it we have these six names if james son of joseph forget brother of jesus look what the oshawa says son of joseph brother jesus some people say well brother jesus maybe that was in that it wouldn't matter obviously it would be the brother of jesus you have a jesus a joseph a james son of joseph if it was from this tomb now we are speculating but the timing is right the name is correct and i think it would really make it pretty clear that this is jesus family but what would it take to determine if the james ossuary originated from the tomb from telpyot? and the sediments accumulate in the ossuaries.
This buildup is called a patina and could be scientifically analyzed to produce a specific chemical and mineral fingerprint of an ossuary or tomb. Each ossuary discovered in a particular tomb will have the same patina. a fingerprint samples taken from the james ossuary show certain traces of materials such as titanium and iron that are unique to the james ossuary if the patina of james matches the ossuaries in the talpyat tomb it will be strong evidence that the ossuary from jameses the box of bones that is missing and belongs to the jesus family dr. charles pellegrino has come to bet chemical warehouse in israel to collect patina samples from the talpiya tool charnel houses. it is 8503 the inscription of jesus son of joseph is just one of those moments where you are struck by a kind of silence knowing that you are holding the chemical history of the ossuary that may actually have contained the remains of jesus of nazareth in dr On request from Pellegrino, we commissioned the collection of random patina samples to determine if the patina of the talpia tool is really different.
This muscular patina is enough for Charlie to work on the electron microscope if the random samples don't match the talpid ossuaries while James' samples do. So the statistical odds that Jesus' family tomb was found will be overwhelming if we're able to get evidence that the James ossuary could be t his missing ossuary, then this would have a very strong additional degree of probative value, um , I would say that would be an absolute knock if that was proven to be the case. modern day crime mysteries will use his forensic expertise to determine how the patina of the james ossuary and the patina of random samples compare to the talpiot ossuaries did you see that piece that had some kind of tunnel going through it?
I want to take another sample from this container or is that yes I think that's enough ok yes I think it will do yes mount it as it is so that piece is good to look at right now we're just uh taking other samples from the accretion of the interior of the ossuary iron is part of the signature that gives the soil that distinctive color now we have it from this tomb we have it from the ossuaries of this term we are just taking another sample and we are going to look at them under the scanning electron microscope and ping them with the electron microprobe what we're looking at here now is the spectrum of the patina sample we just analyzed this is predominantly a limestone material correct charlie yes that's why it's called jerusalem chalk it's a limestone very smooth, but what I find interesting is the little trace materials we're locating here compared to the general limestone properties you'd expect to find, e We are noticing Iron, Titanium, Potassium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, so So far, the elemental composition that we analyzed with this particular section of patina is consistent with the trace materials that we found in the James Ossuary, the signature is the same, it matches with the patina samples from the talpia tomb, matches the james ossuary, but what about chance? samples as it turns out none of them match talpyat the same chemical and mineral peaks as those in the talpiya tomb are exhibited only by the james patina this is key evidence indicating that the ossuary inscribed james son of joseph brother of jesus is the ossuary missing from the wall tomb when the james ossuary is included in our statistical model the odds factor changes from 600 to 1 in favor of the tomb to 30,000 to 1 strongly suggesting that this tomb belonged to the family of Jesus of Nazareth so oh my gosh oh my gosh amazing isn't it?
Yeah it's like one two three these niches both here two here two here exactly six in total look at two still lifes where you put the body the body of jesus the body of mary would have been there look at this and then look here hey this is this is absolutely a gem of a tomb look that's pretty deep man yeah it does kojima really deep i didn't realize look at that felix what's that there's an incision there's an inscription here this is greek that's an s that's a green n n it's old two three four five six letters is greek or clear and wood certainly not he beer looking around we realized we were sitting on piles of decaying pages of scripture whats that glitter shining down look at that felix this is this it is full of holy books disintegrating holy books according to jewish law the biblical books cannot be discarded they have to be buried as humans it seems that in the weeks after the re motion of the ossuaries and before the tomb was sealed again a local rabbinical school filled the tomb with damaged sacred texts among them we found a book that Jesus refers to as the key to his ministry it is the book of jonah jesus says in the gospel if you want to know his apostle say what are you doing to master and he says you want to know what am i doing to read the book of jonah thats the code and right here i have the book of jonah the gospels record jesus constantly speaking in parables and codes Not surprisingly for a leader of what today would be labeled an anti-government movement, a man destined for crucifixion, and those who speak in the codes often hold big secrets. ossuary with an inscription the ossuary belonged to a child in the iaa rockefeller museum the inscription was translated yehuda bar comes to english as judah son of jesus judah son of jesus the new testament does not say jesus had a son but perhaps in this case archeology forces us to cast a different light on the new testament could this box of bones ever have contained the remains of the son of jesus and mary magdalene if judah was his son his existence would surely have been kept secret since jesus was perceived as a pretender to the royal throne the son of jesus would have been subject to arrest and crucifixion by the roman authorities was a time of great persecution anyone associated with jesus ministry was threatened his cousin john the baptist beheaded james jesus's brother stoned to death simon another brother crucified if they were the parents jesus and mary they would have known to leak knowledge of their son's birth would have put the child at terrible risk, so perhaps the unnamed beloved disciple referred to in the book of john is in reality the son of jesus who remains nameless in the text to hide the lineage of the child in john 19 26 jesus asks the beloved disciple at the base of the cross to contemplate his mother then he says to mary woman behold your son traditionally this scene has been understood as jesus addressing his mother mary but this may be a later theology could it be that jesus was talking to his wife mary magdalene asking her to protect their son on the other hand maybe the fact that there was a sun in the tomb of talpia means that the jesus found in this tomb is not jesus of nazareth therefore we would have to believe that living around the same time in the same place there was another jesus who also had a father named joseph and two male relatives nearby called james and jose and two women in their li one is called maria and the other mariamne oh what is that noise i think they are getting upset because we are here i will go to talk about one of the tenants uilinos in the talpion apartments works for the israel antiquities authority and even though we have permission from the board of tenant owners of the talpio apartment who, out of concern for the safety of their children, arranged for this tomb to be sealed a tomb that the iaa had left it open in 1980 getting permission from the iaa to open the tomb they never sealed seems unnecessary but despite our pleas we were asked to cover it up again ok let's rock let's go to the tomb that Arguably once held the remains of Mary, the mother of Jesus, Matthew, from the family line of Mary, Joseph, and James, Jesus' siblings, Mary Magdalene, her husband, Jesus, and Judah their son is sealed again who knows what secrets are inside and for how long they will be kept hidden under the talpiat you apartments
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