Quantenmechanik - Doppelspalt, Verschränkung und Nichtlokalität | DokuMar 11, 2022
why an airplane can fly the interaction of certain physical circumstances makes it possible to lift many tons of heavy steel into the air as light as a feather cause and effect are calculated in advance because you are a determining prince who rules our world they are a principle of classical physics with the help of which we get sick by nature according to logical criteria but this rule does not always apply a simple physical experiment with light revealed to us about 100 years ago that this logic cannot be applied everywhere in the world of In the smallest dimensions, laws appear that we find strange and absurd and that, nevertheless, have led to a new fundamental theory of nature.
The quantum theory. This experiment with light that shows all the essential elements of the new physics is the so-called experiment of The double slit structure is simply a light source that shoots photons at an opposite detector in the middle. za a partition wall that has two columns that can be opened and closed independently of each other that hides this simple technical structure reveals to us the simple light emission shows a special feature if you shoot the photons individually, each one lands in a different place point detector screen even though they are all shot down the same way and nothing changes in the apparatus or mechanism each photon lands in a different place despite the same physical conditions light particles behave differently if you want to predict the individual point it will land on this turns out to be the case this is simply impossible that is surprising because according to the rules of classical physics you would expect light to behave differently if, for example, we fired pistol bullets instead of photons, they always hit the same place as long as physical conditions such as momentum win do not change the strength of l to the direction of the wind, etc. the same starting conditions cause identical results now you might expect photons to behave in the same way, but they don't, even though the closing conditions of the light source always remain absolutely the same Same thing, light particles they hit the detector at most different points where the next photo will land. of the screen if you close a gap then those particles that go through the others don't end up in exactly the same place nor do they spread out in a narrow area of â€‹â€‹the screen you change the slit the same thing happens now only shifted to the right logically one would assume that the two patterns of distribution also arise if both slits are open at the same time, but if you open both slits there is a surprise, the photons are now distributed completely differently, there are places that you suddenly avoid even though you would expect hits there and in others they accumulate, on the other hand, you accept the fact that every photon lands randomly somewhere on the screen, it's so amazing that in the end, the general distribution of all photons no longer seems random, but rather a distinct pattern emerges, no matter what Often repeat the same experiment with both slits open, the exact same thing happens: each photon lands at a random location and imp rededictable on the screen, but all together they result in the familiar pattern if you count the number of hits and graph their distribution, as the number of photons increases, a histogram is formed which surprisingly reminds us of a wave.
What do they have in common photons with a wave you can get these waves also had to be gotten in a completely different way moves a wave of water through the egg a double gap develops behind the gaps two new waves meeting again two wave peaks meet each other intensify to form a high peak two wave troughs meet each other intensify to form a deep trough while the wave peaks and troughs cancel each other out this interaction of intensification and extinction is typical for all Types of Waves This phenomenon is called superposition or interference when water waves strike the catch pan, valleys, and ridges. these waves draw a typical interference pattern that looks very similar to that described by the frequency distribution of photons in the double-slit experiment, the double-slit experiment is therefore close to explaining the propagation of light with a wave, but how can light be composed of particles? the wave to be understood at all in the p In physics, the term wave has a different meaning than in everyday language.
A wave in the sense of quantum physics is not to be imagined as a water wave. Rather, it represents a mathematical description of physical processes because the behavior of a single photon cannot be accurately predicted, the probability of it hitting a given point on the screen is greater for bright points, the probability is greater for bright points. dark is smaller the photon itself does not know where it will hit until it reaches it only in the detector at the last moment when chance decides we find a new role played by chance in nature, in complete contrast to our everyday logic with that we try to justify a random event with a cause, for example, that I have two friends, a pilot and a mountaineer, at 3000 meters of altitude meeting because of one prescribed he completes a practice flight while the other takes a long trip planned to the mountains, both have their own reason why they are here right now in the quantum world, however this cannot explain why the location where it hits a photon is random, which is there is no need to give a reason for each process and thus two principles are revealed, first the principle of chance and then the principle of the wave with this the double slit experiment turns out to be one of the experiments most important in the history of physics because it reveals new laws that the behavior of the smallest building blocks in nature is governed by laws that seem strange to us unimaginable if the bullet did what it wanted and we didn't know where it was going until it hit somewhere but a photon behaves the same way it hits the screen where it wants it just does what i hm's probability wave asks but in the end it does what you want if you visualize all the likely places a photon can exist you get a diagram showing the behavior of light as it travels through the double slit, it has the possibility either through the left or the right slit to go after it or, its probable whereabouts is divided to generate the interference pattern on the detector screen.
This effect, that the probability of the wave going through both slits at the same time, leads to a new term in physics: the superposition term. position describes the physical system in a peculiar way there can be overlapping of different possibilities when it comes to playing doubles, these are the two possibilities of going through the left and right slits at the same time the location of the photon is described as fuzzy in this case, but a single photon can actually go through both slits come on, this question can be answered with a measurement, mount a detector on each slit that records if a photon goes through, then only one is always a passage, the slit question and so Therefore, about the whereabouts of the photon can therefore be answered unequivocally if one measures through the measurement the photon receives an exact location but only at t Through a measurement prior to the photon measurement there is no fixed value only at the time of the process it is a determined one and by chance it could equally be another location selected from the abundance all possible places that the whereabouts of an object is undetermined so far it is measured it is also new to physics normally we assume an object is always in a certain place in quantum physics but money is not measured that where indeterminate that means physical variables like location do not have a fixed value they are fuzzy whereabouts can only be indicated through a statistical probability through the wave thus quantum theory reveals an elementary law of physics the wave nature of matter but that is not the only surprising novelty it is measured through which slit the photon passes reveals the double slit experiment another surprising phenomenon the distribution of photons on the detector screen has changed the interference pattern has disappeared and the arrangement makes it clear which photon has gone through which slit was recorded half to the left half to the right slit one stops measuring the wave pattern appears again and again you don't know which slit they went through the individual photons you start the measurement process again the pattern changes again why does the photo contain information about your location as well as information? about its motion This means that its pulse is represented by a sine when the different possible pulses of a photon are described by different wavelengths because sine waves of different lengths amplify or cancel, the result is a wave that is limited to a small area, the so-called wave. packet is the same waveform with which it also indicates the probability of your whereabouts, this reveals a connection between location and timing, a broadwave packet is made up of a few sine waves, so timing information is more accurate and its sharpest value.
At the same time, a broad wave represents many possible locations of the photon and thus for more location blur in contrast to this, a narrow wave packet is made up of many sine waves, so that the timing information remains blurry but the location value is sharper so location and momentum are directly interrelated the sharper one size the blurrier the other hence that pattern of wave does not appear when the location is measured and reappears when the location is not measured. The double slit experiment was carried out not only with photons but also with much larger particles with electron atoms. and even larger elements, fullerenes, consisting of 60 carbon atoms, look like footballs and are not only huge objects compared to photons, but also have mass in contrast to them, which means they are matter in all experiments.
They also generated the wave. pattern meaning that the small particles of matter were in a superposition if their whereabouts were not measured, this confirmed the wave nature of normal matter at the level of the smallest elements of the atom, but it follows from these experiments that the behavior of the smallest particles of matter depends on whether we observe them our ng presentation of reality but deeply in question because according to our logic the world should exist completely independent of us and why we don't notice anything about it in our everyday life this question was also asked by albert einstein who vehemently rejected the probability interpretation of the quantum theory and tried to make it absurd when he asked if the moon was not there if nobody was looking, but einstein was wrong in the experiment with fullerenes, that is, with normal matter, shows that the wave pattern only occurs when the experiment takes place in a vacuum chamber, that is That is, in a vacuum, in a normal environment, these small particles interact with air molecules of similar size, as a result of which local measurements are constantly made and as a result there is no longer any wave pattern and therefore also it is clear why we do not notice anything in everyday life.
You can say that we don't notice anything because, in principle, every form of collision with air molecules or photons represents e An interaction is there and triggers a measurement process. Every radiation that occurs in nature also measures radiation that we can't see with our eyes, like infrared radiation, and that's why the moon is there even when no one is looking, but when the effects of quantum theory are in our world it doesn't matter then why can't we just ignore them quantum theory is one of fundamental theories of nature explain the stability of matter how elementary particles combine to form atoms and these form solids liquids and gases form the basis of modern electronics because it explains the behavior of matter under the influence of electric or magnetic fields and reveals the secret of the origin of light.
Only then did we understand why our sun shines, and it seduced us into wanting to control these processes. here on earth to this day does not have a single physical experiment. In order not to cast doubt on the validity of quantum theory, the double-slit experiment has brought us one step closer to the truth about the nature of nature. One of the most amazing phenomena in quantum physics is entanglement. Entanglement means that two particles are connected to each other. another standing even if they are spatially separated from each other is the same phenomenon as in the double slit experiment there too the photons end up at a point on the detector screen that cannot be predicted the photons themselves do not know this location until they they hit what point is that they end up that certaincoincidence is the same with the polarization of the photon coincidence determines its value at the moment of measurement the photon itself does not know this in advance the surprising thing is now if both filters are aligned in the same way the photons always behave in the same way either both pass and the green lights turn on or both do not pass and the red lights turn on they are connected in some mysterious way but if only chance decides how then if one entangled photon knows how the other has behaved it is possible that the particles somehow communicate with each other that one of the photons the information to pass through the filter is sent to the other photon, which then behaves in the same way the decision of whether the photons pass through the filter or not happens at the same time that it would mean that the information between the photons would have to be exchanged so fast that time would not elapse.
An infinitely high speed is required, but this contradicts the theory of relativity according to which the highest speed of the signal is that of light. the short distance between the first and the second, it still takes some time to exchange the message, information transfer is ruled out, however, since the decision is made for both photons at the same time. Another possible explanation would be that the two photons with the same properties are born in the crystal at the time it is created i properties are given and behave like identical twins having identical genes, but this explanation also has a problem: genes would have to provide a solution for every conceivable situation for each angular position of the two polarizing filters and for each of the two photons.
I would have to say if it works or not, but many attempts have shown that these solutions do not exist, there are no genes and the photons are not twins, but what is the only conclusive explanation so far for the phenomenon of entanglement of the two photons that seem us to be separate they are not quite separate they truly form a unit therefore a quantum system consisting of two or more particles is still a whole even if they are far apart even light years apart this view fundamentally changes our idea of â€‹â€‹space or spatial separation and shows that quantum mechanical phenomena also have an impact on the macroscopic dimensions in our everyday life and are not limited to only the smallest dimensions of nature.
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