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Naming Acids Introduction

Naming Acids Introduction
let's talk about

naming

acids

we'll learn how to look at the chemical formula for an acid and write a name for it this video is going to be an

introduction

to the topic and then the next video is going to be a lot of example problems so you can really get some practice doing this so if we're going to be talking about

naming

acids

let's start out by asking what's an acid in the first place well there are many ways to define

acids

but for what we're going to be doing here I
naming acids introduction
will say that an acid is a compound in which one or more H+ ions are bonded or connected to a negative ion now this isn't a perfect definition but it's going to work really well for what we're doing here so here I've got a list of some common

acids

and we can break each one of these

acids

down into an H+ part and a negative-ion part some of these negative ions are individual elements like f minus or f2 minus here other ones of these negative ions are groups of elements that
together have a charge these are polyatomic ions like this one and this one now just like in any ionic formula the positive charge and the negative charge has to balance out that means that the charge from the H+ equals the charge from whatever the negative ion is so in this case we have one H+ with a charge of 1 plus balancing out one F minus which has a charge of 1 minus they balance in this case the negative ion has a two minus charge so we have to have two H pluses to balance out the two
minus charge from this now why am I talking so much about ions if what we want to do is name

acids

well it's for this really simple reason and that is that when we're

naming

an acid the name of an acid is based on the name of the negative ion that's part of that acid so when I look at the formula for an acid and I want to name it I'm gonna separate it just like I did here into the H+ part and the negative ion part I've got to figure out what this negative ions then I figure
out what the name the negative ion is and then based on the name of that negative ion that I've figured out I can then write the name for the acid so let's talk about doing this with a few examples there are really two types of assets ones that have oxygen like these and ones that don't have oxygen there are different rules for how we name them so let's start out doing some examples with

acids

that don't have oxygen our first example is HCl definitely no oxygen here so the
first thing that I want to do is break this up into the two ions that it's made up okay one of these is obviously H+ because it's an acid and the second ion is CL - right I knew that it was going to be CL and it has to be one - because a charge on H is one plus and I have to balance each other out okay so the negative ion that we're going to be working with here is CL - the first thing that I want to do is figure out what the name of this is so here I've got this list CL - we
call this chloride so in order to name this acid here we're going to use these rules if the negative ion in the acid ends in IDE you take off the IDE and then you stick this name between hydro and it so this is chloride we take off the IDE and we put klore between hydro and ick so we call this HCl we call this hydro chloric acid let's do another hbr we're going to take this and break it up into the two ions it's made of one of them is H+ because it's an acid and the other is
naming acids introduction
going to be BR and it's going to be BR one - this is one - because it's got to cancel out the one plus charge that we get from the one H+ okay so the negative ion that we're gonna be working with here is BR - we take a look at this chart BR - we call it bromide so to name this acid that has bro in it we're gonna follow these rules we take the IBE off we take this stem be our om and we stick it between hydro and ick so we're gonna get hydro bromb kick acid hydrobromic acid so
that's how we name these

acids

without oxygen where the negative ion ends in ibe now let's take a look at how we name

acids

that have oxygen in them it

acids

with oxygen the negative ions are polyatomic ions like these that have oxygen combined with other elements and that group of elements together has a charge these polyatomic ions end in a te and ite 8 and it-- and these endings are what we're going to be looking at when we name

acids

that contain these polyatomic ions now
it's really important to be able to recognize the polyatomic ions so you know what to call them when you run into them I'm gonna be using this chart in the video but I recommend that you memorize a whole bunch of the polyatomic ions hopefully your teacher can suggest a list for you to learn so that you'll be able to do problems like these as we move ahead here's just a little review of what we did previously so here's our first acid with oxygen that work at a named hno3
we're going to break this up into the ions that make it up one of those ions is going to be an h+ here and the other one of the elements is going to be no.3 no.3 one - everything else and the negative charge here the one - balances out the one plus on the hydrogen now this no.3 is the negative ion that we're working with so what's its name it's a polyatomic ion so I'm going to look at my list of polyatomic ions this polyatomic ion is called nitrate so that means that I'm
going to be using this rule for name in the acid if the negative ion ends in a te we take off the a te and we add an IC so I'm gonna go from nitrate here - night trick acid ate - ech let's do another example here we have h2 co3 we're going to break this into the ions and make it up now there are two hydrogen's here so we're gonna do two H+ that's one part of it and then the other part of it is everything else so it's gonna be co3 and the charge on this is going to be
two - it's got to be two - to balance out the two plus charge that we get from the two hydrogens okay this is our negative ion so we want to name it it's a polyatomic ion and co three two - is carbonate i got that right here so now I have to read it in carbonate so now using these rules the name of the ion ends in a te so I'm going to take off that a te I'm gonna replace it with IC so I'm gonna call this car bond and then I see carbonic acid so that's how we name

acids

naming acids introduction
that contain ions that end in a te we take off the a te from the negative ion name and then we put it and we add acid carbonate goes to carbonic acid nitrate goes to nitric acid now the other type of polyatomic ion ends in ite let's look at how we name

acids

containing these here we have h no.2 we're gonna break this apart into h plus and then the polyatomic ion which is everything else no.2 with a one minus charge no.2 one - what's the name of it it is nitrite and the rules that we
use to name these alright if it ends an ite you remove the ite and then you put o us acid so we go from nitrite to nitrous acid so I mean I trust acid is what we call the acid that contains nitrite as its negative ion here's one more example of how we do this

naming

with ite we have this acid here we break it apart into H+ and then everything else which is going to be CR o2 with a 1 minus charge to balance out the 1 plus charge the name of this negative ion here CR OH - one - is chromite
which means that the name of the acid that contains it is going to be chrome I take off the ite I replace it with Oh us and then I add acid so it has chromite in it we call it chrome us acid so these are the rules for

naming

acids

based on the name of the negative ion that's in that acid how are you going to remember them here is a great mnemonic that I really like ok my ride has hydraulics this isn't actually how we spell hydraulics but you know whatever so IDE hydro ik so that's
how you name this type of acid and then I ate something icky because

acids

that contain ions with a te at the end are named with a I see okay and then finally sprite ite is delicious o us so remember these three sentences you'll never ever have a problem with

naming

acids

I love this it's great particularly this with a ride that has hydraulics it might be a la Mona gxl I don't know I want to talk about some important exceptions with

naming

acids

we learn these rules but there are a
few

acids

that don't quite follow them and there they actually turn out to be very common assets all right so they are these four

acids

here that contain the negative ions phosphate phosphate sulfate and salt fight ok so if we took this acid and tried to name it using the rules that we've learned we turn the a te from phosphate into it and so we call it phosphate acid that's actually not quite what it is the name of this acid is actually phosphoric acid you have to add this o R
before the I see I have no idea why it's like that but I just want to let you know because if you were being very logical about it and follow the rules that that we've learned you'd actually be wrong so I just want to make sure that you know how to name this asset and similarly this here which is phosphite you might think that it should be phosphorous acid but we do the same thing we add this ol R so it's possible for us acid okay now for sulfate down here it's not so thick
acid but we also add a little something here it's sulfuric acid we add the you are and for this which is sulfite we call this sulfuric acid so four phosphate phosphite we add our four sulfates sulfite we add the you are these are the only

acids

that have names that are a little bit different from the ones that the rules would suggest just learn these they still end in the right ending it's just this little bit that we got to add in between the ending and the end of the element name now
sometimes people get a little bit tripped up when they're

naming

acids

that contain polyatomic ions that start with hypo or pur because these are a little bit different and they don't start right away with element name but

naming

acids

that contain these ions is just the same as any other all we want to do is look at the ending on these ions so for example this acid here that has permanganate it ends in a te so that's the only thing you have to worry about we change the a te to an IC
and we call this per man Gannicus 'add this acid here contains hypochlorite but only pay attention to this ite we change it to an owe us and we name this hypochlorous acid so if you run into a hypo or a / polyatomic ion don't worry about it just focus on the letters at the very end so that's how we name

acids

we take a look of a negative ion that they have in them we look at the end of that negative ion and then we use these rules to figure out what we should call the acid definitely
learn this mnemonic so that you won't have to worry about

naming

it'll just totally make sense because you will memorize this stuff and then finally check out my next video which is a lot of example problems so you can get a lot of practice for this