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Alexander the Great (All Parts)

Jun 05, 2021
They began to adopt the rituals and clothing of their defeated Persian enemy, customs they considered effeminate and decadent. In Maracanda, modern Samarkand, after a furious and drunken argument, Alexander killed Cleitus the Black. Cleitus had been one of Alexander's best generals and the man who saved his life at the Battle of Granicus. Alexander was remorseful, but his growing arrogance alienated more and more old friends. When he attempted to force his countrymen to perform the traditional Persian ritual of proskynesis (bowing before the king), he crossed a line. For the Greeks this was blasphemy (only a god was worthy of such respect) and Alexander was forced to retreat.
alexander the great all parts
Another plot to kill Alexander was discovered in Bactria. This time the leader of the band was a royal page, one of the sons of the Macedonian nobility who accompanied the king. Hermolaus was furious with Alexander for what he perceived as an injustice. He and his accomplice were tortured and then stoned to death. Callisthenes, Alexander's official historian, was also involved in the plot. They put him in prison, where he later died. That summer of the year 327 - according to legend - Alexander was captivated by the beauty of Roxana, the daughter of a Bactrian lord. Her marriage was also a good political move, helping to end the local revolt against his rule and allowing her to continue his advance... toward modern Pakistan and India.
alexander the great all parts

More Interesting Facts About,

alexander the great all parts...

Alexander now prepared to subdue the easternmost provinces of the Persian Empire, which had not yet recognized his reign. To do this, he first had to cross the Hindu Kush mountains and reach the Indus River valley. Advancing in two columns, his army won a series of skirmishes against the Aspasii and Assaceni as they fought their way into what is now the Swat Valley in northern Pakistan. After a fierce siege, Alexander captured the Assacenian capital of Massaga. According to legend, it was ruled by a beautiful queen, Cleophis, who bore Alexander a son and was allowed to keep his throne.
alexander the great all parts
The ruler of Taxila, near present-day Islamabad, had formed an alliance with Alexander. Together they marched to confront Porus, king of the Pauravas, in the battle of the Hydaspes. It was the most costly battle for Alexander, as Poros's war elephants caused terrible casualties to the Greeks. But despite Porus's fearless leadership, the battle ended in a decisive victory for Alexander, giving him control of the Punjab. Alexander wanted to cross into India, to reach the

great

river that, according to the ancient Greek geographers, constituted the end of the world. But at the river Hyphasis, known today as Beas, his army mutinied.
alexander the great all parts
His men had marched thousands of miles, fought countless battles, and had not seen their homes in 8 years. They had heard rumors of gigantic armies awaiting them in India. They refused to go any further. Alexander was furious, but he had to drive his army back. He followed the rivers of Punjab to the sea, a journey that took 10 months. Along the way, he defeated the Mahlians, but while leading the attack on their capital, he was wounded in the chest and nearly died. Upon reaching the coast, part of the army, under the command of Nearchus, embarked and returned to Persia by sea... sailing through the Strait of Hormuz... and entering the Persian Gulf.
It was one of the

great

exploration voyages of antiquity, since until then these waters were unknown to the Greeks. Meanwhile, Alexander led the rest of the army overland through the Gedrosian Desert in modern-day southern Pakistan. But the extreme heat and lack of food and water caused terrible suffering and many deaths in his army. Upon his return to Persia, Alexander executed several of his viceroys and governors, men accused of unjust rule and plundering temples and tombs during his long absence in the east. In Susa, he organized a large mass wedding of Macedonian officials with 80 Persian noblewomen, to strengthen ties between his two kingdoms.
Alexander himself married two Persian princesses. He also paid all the debts of his soldiers and ordered that 30,000 young men from across the empire be trained in the Macedonian art of war. But at Opis his Macedonian troops rebelled. They were offended by Alexander's apparent preference for Persian advisors and customs. Alexander executed the ringleaders and gave a speech to the men, reminding them of the glories they had won together and eventually leading to an emotional reconciliation. At Ecbatana, Alexander's closest and most trusted friend, Hephaestion, died of fever. The king was heartbroken, went days without food, and ordered a period of public mourning throughout the empire.
Alexander carried out a successful campaign against the raiders of the Kossa mountains, whom not even the Persian kings had been able to subdue. Upon returning to Babylon, he encountered embassies from distant peoples who came to recognize his majesty: Ethiopians, Libyans, European Scythians, Lucanians, Etruscans, Gauls and Iberians. Alexander's Bactrian wife, Roxanne, was now pregnant... But while he was planning his next campaign, in Arabia and beyond, he caught a sudden fever and died a few days later, aged only 32. The cause of Alexander's death has never been determined. It could have been malaria, cholera, typhoid... or poison. Alexander died undefeated in battle.
His reputation as a brilliant, fearless and brave military commander remains intact. His decade-long campaign created one of the largest empires ever known, stretching from Greece to Pakistan. But it was big and unstable, and only held together by her brilliance and his name. Alexander left no plans for his succession and his generals soon began fighting among themselves to create their own empires. In the Wars of Succession, Alexander's widow, Roxana, and her infant son were murdered. Her golden sarcophagus, on its way to Macedonia for her burial, was hijacked and ended up in Alexandria, Egypt. Today, his location remains one of the world's greatest unsolved mysteries.
Few people have ever had as much influence on the course of history as Alexander the Great. The astonishing achievements of his short life led to the Hellenistic era, when Greek ideas spread throughout the territory of his ancient empire, merging with local traditions to bring about new developments in art, science, government and language. Some of the successor kingdoms to his great empire were short-lived, others lasted for centuries... but all, in turn, would fall to new forces... and in the West, to the growing power of Rome. The research and art in this video comes from a wide range of ancient history books from Osprey Publishing.
Each Osprey book examines a particular battle, campaign, or combat unit with authority and meticulous detail. And with over 3,000 titles, they cover everything from ancient wars to modern conflicts. Visit their website to view their online catalog. Thanks to all the Patreon supporters who made this video possible and to the 'Invicta' channel. Discover more about highlights from the past in their 'Moments in History' series.

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