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97% Owned - Money: Root of the social and financial crisis | Free Documentary

97% Owned - Money: Root of the social and financial crisis | Free Documentary
how is

money

created where does it come from who benefits and what purpose does it serve what is a

money

system what is the

money

behind the

money

system for centuries the mechanics of the monetary system have remained hidden and the prying eyes of the populace yet its impact both on a national and international level is perhaps unsurpassed for it is the monetary system that provides the foundations of international dominance and national control today as these very foundations are being shaken
97 owned   money root of the social and financial crisis free documentary
by crises the need for open and honest dialogue on the future of the monetary system has never been greater this economic

crisis

look is like a cancer if you just wait and wait thinking this is gonna go away just like a cancer is gonna grow and it's gonna too late what I would say to everybody is get prepared there's not a time right now to wishful thinking the government's gonna sort things out the government's don't rule the world Goldman Sachs rules the world we're on
the verge of a perfect storm in a position like corrupt and entrenched interests that lurk in the corridors of power the whom there are no reasons to relinquish privileges they feel are justly deserved own plan for the NHS has he got a police report has he got a plan to cut the deficit do you trust the government calm down and behave like an adult and eat you can't if it's beyond you leave the chamber get out there's no coincidence that boom ambassadors become a real cyclical
issue around about the 1700s when William Paterson founded the Bank of England only in your mind is it funny it's not funny at all it's disgraceful the system is inherently unstable as a result of the international power it provides to the dominant parties for at the heart of it lies the idea of how can I get something for nothing statistical analysis have found that every time an empire begins to near its own demise you'll find that its currency will be debates there is no guide to
how this whole system operates to give you an example a researcher at the BBC working on a roll the person

documentary

went to the Bank of England so can you give me a you know a guide to how

money

is created and they just said no this

documentary

will investigate and explain this ever-changing system and the impact it has both on a national and international level in 2010 the total UK

money

supply stood at 2.15 trillion pounds 2.6 percent of this total was physical cash fifty three point five
billion the rest two point one trillion or 97.4% of the total

money

supply was commercial bank

money

the three percent of

money

is created through the central bank and that

money

essentially if you created a ten pound note you could sell that to a bank to put into their ATM and the bank would have to repay that 10 pound or buy it for ten pounds there'd be no interest Mae charged on that

money

but that

money

is then essentially transferred to the Treasury and it's it's it's a form
of fundraising for the government is called sinirage when the Bank of England creates a ten-pound note it costed about three or four pence to actually print that note and it sells it to the high street banks at face value so at ten pounds and the profit the difference between printing the note and actually selling it for ten pounds goes directly to the Treasury so in effect all the profit that we get on creating physical

money

bank notes goes to the Treasury and it reduces how much taxes we
have to pay over the last ten years that's race about 18 billion pounds in 1948 notes and coins constituted 17% of the total

money

supply this was one contributing factor in the government's ability to finance post-war reconstruction this included the establishment of the NHS in only 60 years notes and coins have shrunk to less than 3% prior to 1844 banknotes were created by private banks and the government did not profit from their creation pre industrialization there was multiple forms
of

money

coexisting and so the kind of rise and kind of of government-sponsored fiat

money

it's a relatively recent phenomenon in the 1840s there was no law to stop banks from creating their own banknotes so they used to issue paper notes as kind of a representative of what you had in the bank account instead of you taking your heavy metal coins out of the bank and then going and paying somebody with them you could get your paper which said how much

money

you had in the bank and you could
give that somebody and they could use that to go and get the heavy metal coins from the bank now over time these paper notes became as good as

money

people would use the paper notes instead of going and getting the real

money

from the bank and obviously as soon as the bank's realized that what they were creating had become you know the dominant type of

money

in the economy they realized that by by creating more of it they could generate profits you know they can just print up some new notes
lend it and get the interest on top of that and they did that you know up until the 1840s in the 1840s they pushed it just a little bit too far and that caused inflation destabilize the economy so in 1844 the Conservative government of Robert Peel actually passed a law that took the power to create

money

away from the commercial banks and brought it back to the state so since then the Bank of England has been the only organization authorised to to create paper notes since then everything's
gone digital and what we now use is

money

is the digital numbers that commercial banks can create out of nothing the problem was that they did not include in that in that legislation their deposits the demand deposits held in banks by individuals or electronic forms of

money

which essentially what lays demand deposits are today most of the

money

in circulation is electronic

money

in its bank it's bank demand deposits that just that that's sitting on you know our account so in a way the
legislation has got needs to catch up with developments in him in electronic

money

and the way that banks actually operate

money

held in bank accounts are called demand deposits this is an accounting term that banks use when they create credit banks follow the same process when they create loans all

money

held in bank accounts is an accounting entry the reality is now that most

money

is not paper and it's not metal coins it's digital it's just numbers in a computer system you know
it's your Visa debit card it's your electronic you know ATM card it's this is plastic you know it's numbers in a computer system you move

money

from one computer system to another it's all a big database and this digital

money

is what we're now using to make payments with us what we actually use to run the economy I think a lot of people in the UK probably think that the government or the central bank is in control of most most

money

in circulation and issues new

money

into circulation but that's not the case it's private banks that create the vast majority of new

money

in circulation and also decide how its allocated the official terminology for this accounting entry is commercial bank

money

when banks issue loans to the public they create new commercial bank

money

when a customer repays alone commercial bank

money

is destroyed the banks keep the interest as profit there's a lot of misconceptions about the way banks work there was a poll done by
the Cobden centre where they asked people you know how how they thought banks actually operated around 30% of the public think that when you put your

money

into the bank it just stays there and it's safe and you can understand why because you know every every child has a piggy bank where you keep putting

money

in and then when it's a rainy day you smash it and you take that

money

out and you spend it so a lot of people keep this this idea of banking you know it's somewhere safe to
keep you

money

so that it's there for whenever you need it another the other 60% of people assume that when you put your

money

in that

money

saying being moved across to somebody who wants to borrow it so you have a pensioner who keeps saving

money

or her entire life and then her life savings have been lent to some you know young people who want to buy a house but actually banks don't work like that at the moment in the UK

money

creation and control is largely in the hands of private
banks about 97 to 98 percent of

money

that's that's created is created as Bank bank debt

money

you call it when banks issue

money

into circulation as as loans essentially this is very poorly understood fact it's not a conspiracy theory it's not a it's not a crackpot theory it's the way the Bank of England describes the process when banks make loans they create new

money

a few economists will realize the way the

money

system works but if you don't you don't realize
the way that

money

works and you think that you know everybody saving is going to work well for the economy what really happens once you understand the way the

money

system works is that if everybody starts saving the amount of

money

in the economy shrinks and we have a recession so most economists don't have this this fall picture they don't understand all elements of the system they rely on assumptions on you know receive knowledge without actually going into the details and you know

money

is

money

is the center of the economy if you don't understand where it comes from who creates who creates it and when it gets created then how can you understand the entire economy when the vast majority of

money

that we use now is not cash but it's electronic

money

then whoever's creating the electronic

money

is getting the proceeds of creating that

money

and obviously creating an electronic

money

is much more profitable than creating cash because you don't have any
production cost at all so while we've got eighteen billion over the course of a decade in profit from creating cash the banks have actually created 1.2 trillion pounds between 1998 and 2007 the UK

money

supply tripled 1.2 trillion pounds was created by banks whilst 18 billion pounds was created by the Treasury a lot of people think when I say this or when you say this or when positive

money

say this that we're all just a bunch of nutters but on the 9th of March in 2009 the government the
Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke gave the first ever broadcast interview the governor of the Central Bank of the United States of America ever given and the day before that he'd bailed out AIG and which is a insurance company even a bank actually to the tune of about a hundred and sixty billion dollars so the journalist system now mr. Bernanke where did you get 160 billion dollars to banks create new

money

whenever they extend credit by existing assets or make payments on their own account which
mostly involves expanding the assets when a bank buys securities such as a corporate or government bond it adds the bond to its assets and increases the company's bank deposits by the corresponding amount new commercial bank

money

enter circulation when people spend the credit that has been granted to them by banks I found that talking on the doorstep from August last year round to their August 2009 round to the general election or eight nine eight nine months I supposed knocking on doors
is that when you try to explain how the

money

system works there's an almost in built refusal of people to accept that such a bizarre situation could actually exist I can't possibly you know I mean you can't bring thanks can't thanks don't create

money

out of thin air that's ridiculous they can't do that they lend out their depositors

money

most people have an idea of how

money

is they're used to their own way of handling

money

and they try and implement their own
idea of how their small household economy works into the national economy and of course it just doesn't work out it just doesn't work out at all by 2008 the outstanding loan portfolio of bank created credit also known as commercial bank

money

stood at over two trillion pounds as recently as 1982 the ratio of notes and coins to bank deposits was one to twelve by 2010 the ratio had risen to one to 37 that is for every pound of Treasury created

money

there was 37 pounds of Bank created

money

in the ten years prior to the 2007

crisis

the UK commercial bank

money

supply expanded by between seven to ten percent every year a growth rate of seven percent is the equivalent of doubling the

money

supply every ten years the amount of

money

they're creating out of nothing is just incredible 1.2 trillion in the last 10 years and there's that

money

has been distributed according to the priorities of the banking sector you know not the priorities are Society bank sector itself grew
from nineteen eighty two point five trillion dollars to 40 trillion dollars by assets in 1980 global bank assets were worth 20 times the then global economy by 2006 they were worth 75 times according to the UN as the following chart shows total bank assets of UK banks as a percentage of GDP remain relatively stable at fifty to sixty percent up to the end of the 1960s after that they shot up dramatically and the real

money

in the world to be made today is not by producing anything at all it's
simply by forms of speculating basically making

money

from

money

that's the most profitable and and by far in a way the the biggest form of activity of economic activity that exists in the world today today banks are no longer restricted by how much they can lend and as such how much new credit they can create out of nothing they are restricted solely by their own willingness to lend the issue with allowing banks to create

money

there's two main issues firstly the fact that they create
this

money

when they make loans so it guarantees that you know we have to borrow all our

money

for the economy from the banks as such to have a healthy growing economy the government needs to put in place strategies to allow for ever-increasing debt the only way the government can create additional purchasing power is by getting itself and us into more depth the second big issue with allowing banks to create

money

is that they have the incentive to always create more you know they create more

money

if they issue a loan they get the bonuses and the Commission's and the incentives to create you know to lend as much as possible you have to develop a sales culture what did they do they recruited an amazing guy lovely guy Andy Hornby who came from Asda to turn the bank into a supermarket retailing operation if you trust bankers to control the

money

supply the

money

supply will just grow and grow and grow as well the level of debt until the point where it crashes when some people
can't repay the debt and then they'll stop lending you hear politicians and journalists saying you know we've we've been living beyond our means we've become dependent on debt we need to rein in our spending and live within our means it's not possible in the current system you know the reason why everybody's in debt now is not because they've been recklessly borrowing we haven't borrowed all this

money

from you know an army of pensioners who've been saving
up their all whole lives

money

in the current system is that you know it's created when banks make loans so the only way in the current system that we can have any

money

in the economy you know the only way we can have

money

for businesses to trade is if we've borrowed it all from the banks and it's a very opposite of what the Tory parties are doing today which is that you have to create savings before you can help the National Health Service and it's because economists have
completely confused those things both in monetary policy terms but also in economic thinking and because most people still Harbor the old-fashioned view that you need savings before you can unless that we have the mess that we're in today now one of the reasons why we find it difficult to understand the banking system and credit creation is that we leave school without any

money

and we go and get a job working as an apprentice to a plumber we work really hard all month and at the end of the
month somebody puts

money

in our bank and so for us logic is you work and then you get

money

you get savings in reality you would never have got that job if credit hadn't been created in the first instance it's a really important conceptual misunderstanding and it isn't something that the public just are guilty of economists don't understand this stuff

money

doesn't come out of economic activity a lot of people I've come across as kind of assume that if you've got
people if you've got businesses and you've got people doing things that somehow

money

somehow emerges out of the process of people doing things doing it making things and growing things and selling things and producing things that somehow

money

just emerges it's not it's like oil in the car you have to put it in and I see David Cameron talking about how we need an economy not based on debt but we need an economy based on savings he just doesn't know what he say it's
ridiculous it's absolutely absurd and it shows his complete lack of understanding of how our

money

system actually works what he's essentially saying is that we need an economy with no

money

if everyone was saving we'd have mass disappearing of

money

which is essentially what a bank write-off is essentially is people defaulting on their debt which which essentially is just

money

disappearing but if people weren't taking on the debt then it's just it's just such a such as
a amateur understanding of how our economy works and how the monetary system works and how

money

is actually created so I really do get a laugh out of watching what people are actually saying and they're all just regurgitating what they've learned off each other and you just hear the same things and it just makes me it really gets on my nerves when I hear people talking about yeah we need more regulations we need to regulate the way banks are actually and the bonus it's all just one
big smokescreen and working on all the symptoms of a greater disease which is really you need to look at the the

money

system that way

money

is created and if we don't want any debt then we're essentially saying we don't want any

money

and we want a

money

less economy with the exception of the 3% that's created debt-

free

you know it's a paradox under the current system if you if we as the public go into further debt then that's going to put more

money

into the economy and
we're gonna have a boom when you have a boom it's easier to borrow so people get into even more debt and eventually you know this the cycle continues it gets easier and easier to get into debt until some people get over in dead and then you know they default they can't repay their mortgage that's what happened in you know it happened first in subprime America and then you know that just brings through a wave of defaults which will ripple across the entire economy the bank's
going solvent then we're into a

financial

crisis

and then the bank's stopped lending and you know they were excessively lending in the boom and then they stopped lending and then that court makes the recession even worse people lose their jobs and then they become even more dependent on debt just to survive basically you know we have a system where we have to borrow in order to have an economy we have to be in debt to the banks and that guarantees you know massive profit for the banks
this is the boom-bust cycle and I've said before mr. Deputy Speaker North return to boo and bass net bank lending must forever increase we're paying interest on every single pound even if even if you think the

money

belongs to you somebody somewhere is paying interest on that

money

the banking system has such a huge impact on the world but only because it supplies our nation's

money

supply we have to protect them we have to subsidize them we have to allow them to continue because the
the disaster of a bank collapse affects our so in a huge way and anyone that says that we shouldn't have bailed out the banks doesn't quite understand the the nature of our monetary system that's like eliminating a huge chunk of our

money

but also bailing out the banks is perpetuating a system which is never going to work anyway so whatever we do we're always going to have this cycle till we separate how

money

is created and the activities are banking then the banks can do as
they wish they're a normal business like everyone else there's a a major Democratic issue here as well when you have these private profit-seeking banks creating up to 200 billion pounds a year and pumping that into the economy wherever they want basically wherever it suits them whether they've pumping it into unit least toxic derivatives or putting

money

into housing bubbles she's making housing more expensive two hundred billion pounds in 2007 of new

money

coming into the
economy create out an offic and where that gets spent determines the shape of our economy effectively so if we're gonna allow anybody to create new

money

or not and we should at least have some Democratic control over how that

money

to use I mean it would rather have had that

money

used for health care you have to deal with some of the environmental issues to reduce poverty or do you rather have it to make houses more expensive so that none of us can afford to to live in a house you can see
it as a subsidy special super subsidy to the banks for the right to create

money

which should be for the benefit of the public and spent through a democratic process there's also another form of

money

which is effectively an electronic version of cash and it's a type of

money

that the commercial banks use themselves to make payments between each other the high street banks don't want to be carrying around huge quantities of

money

because it's dangerous and it's inconvenient
and it's you know expensive you have to hire security guards for that type of

money

so what they do is they pay each other in what is an electronic version of cash which in the industry is known as central bank reserves they keep this electronic cash in accounts at the Bank of England but as a member of the public you can't access this electronic cash you can't get it an account with the Bank of England what they do is they they effectively sell this central bank

money

to the banks
97 owned   money root of the social and financial crisis free documentary
and they do this by creating it out of nothing and using this

money

to pay for bonds to buy bonds from the high street banks so the high street bank will come along with a bond which is you know effectively government debt and it will give it to the Bank of England and in return the Bank of England will type some new numbers into the bank's account at the Bank of England so effectively they're creating central bank reserves out nothing the Bank of England creates central bank reserves by
increasing the available credit in the settlement banks account with the Bank of England the settlement Bank in return post bonds or sells assets as collateral for the reserves a total of 46 banks hold central reserve accounts at the Bank of England smaller or foreign banks hold accounts with one of these 46 banks to allow them to accept or make payments in pounds sterling prior to March 2009 the Bank of England would ask each of the major settlement banks how much reserve currency they needed
the settlement banks would then swap a bond for the reserve currency and agreed to repurchase the bond for a specific amount at a specified future date the settlement banks would then receive interest at base or policy rate for the central bank reserves they held since the

crisis

settlement banks central reserves have shot up dramatically when bank customers transfer funds from their account to another person's account a process called intraday clearing occurs the amount of central reserve
currency Bank a has at the Bank of England is reduced by the corresponding amount that Bank B receives this is the importance of central reserve currency to banks before the credit

crisis

if a bank was short of central reserves at the Bank of England to meet its obligations then the bank would have to loan reserves from other banks with interest if you sell something on eBay you know that that deal is not complete until you get some

money

put into your account you know most people actually want
to see the

money

in their account before they're happy to close on a deal now the banks are pretty much the same but they want to see the

money

in their account at the Bank of England before they consider a deal complete so for example if you if you're buying a house from somebody who banks with a different bank then what will happen after you spent a quarter of a million on a house is you'll tell your bank to transfer some

money

to this house sellers bank and well the bank will do
is actually instruct the Bank of England to move two hundred fifty thousand from their account at the Bank of England to the bank of the house sound and that

money

will actually move across between the accounts at the Bank of England when that

money

's moved across and the banks will consider that that payment has been made you know it's been settled they don't really deal in the kind of

money

that we have in our accounts they deal in this special

money

that's can only be used at
the central bank there are millions of people across the country all transferring

money

to each other using only a few major banks these banks can keep a tally on their computer systems and usually many of the movements cancel each other out at the end of the day the five major banks RBS Lloyd's HSBC Barclays and Santander hold over 85% of all deposits as there are a limited number of banks in the system the central reserve

money

can only be moved around them in a closed loop the

money

is
just circulating through the system over and over again and if you think about it a one pound coin could be used to make a billion pounds of payments if it was circulated a billion times that's effectively the system that you have now is you have a small pool of real

money

that's just going round and round the system and it's been used to make a huge quantity of payments on our behalf just before the

crisis

that was only twenty billion in the accounts at the central bank if they
don't have enough of this central bank

money

then effectively they can't make payments and if that happens and pretty quickly the entire system seizes up so the Bank of England has the responsibility of making sure there's enough of this

money

in the system their requirements for banks to hold a specific amount of reserves has changed many times since 1947 at that time banks needed to hold a minimum ratio of 32% of reserves cash or Treasury bonds to deposits in 2006 the corridor
system was introduced in which banks could set their own reserve targets each month the rules changed again in march 2009 when the Bank of England introduced quantitative easing quantitative easing in effect gives settlement banks the central reserve currency for

free

the central reserve currency is what is referred to as the real

money

in the fractional reserve model but the fact is banks can have as much of this as they want and central reserve currency itself is a form of fiat

money

which is
backed by nothing as a consequence there is no longer a meaningful fractional reserve if you look over the history last hundred fifty years or so you start off with the development of a gold standard that really comes to for in the 1880s 1890s we're essentially countries paint themselves to a particular defined value of gold and then they have an agreement to fix that value to hold that value in to trade gold amongst themselves to make sure the balances are all there and also to try and
restrict or expand or contract activity in their own economies to make sure that the balance that particular fixed prices is maintained that disintegrates in after the First World War I mean this is where the whole thing breaks apart very major dislocation in the international monetary system at that point not really resolved until you get Bretton Woods agreements at the end of the second world war in which everything is paid to the dollar and the dollar is pegged to the gold so you kind of one
remove from gold backing or saying that there is a definite you know sort of a solid commodity

money

behind the paint the

money

in the credit

money

that we're all using over here you've kind of one removed from it after Hiroshima Tokyo wondered when the next atom bomb would fall they did that wonder along in 1944 at Bretton Woods the US and the UK began to negotiate how to govern the world economy the world monetary system and came up with the World Bank and the IMF in a series of other
institutions designed to manage the global currency and there was still a gold standard but this gold standard was going to be tied to the dollar all of the world's gold had moved from London to Fort Knox and all of the world's currencies were tied to the dollar this system was designed to manage the sorts of imbalances to avoid credit crunches or for countries that credit crunches are known as balance of trades deficits ie when they can't pay their bills and their currency collapses
the currencies were managed and the system was stable as long as the Americans played the role of oversight now who knows the great story about how that all came to an end so the quantity of

money

that was needed to pay for the Vietnam War that's exactly what I was trying to get at oil shocks was another one that meant that the Americans were no longer respecting their role or playing their role governing the monetary system they were inflating the value of their own currency but ostensibly
it was meant to be tied tied to gold into every other currency so what did the French do the French were a little bit worried that President Nixon wasn't entirely honest and they were worried that they were that precisely what we described that Nixon was printing

money

when he shouldn't have been was going on and they were worried there wasn't enough gold to honor the exchange rate of the French franc so they sent a gunboat to New York Harbor - ever so politely ask for our gold back
please did they get their gold back go on guess they didn't and the Bretton Woods system came to an end and this is the point in which we enter the modern era of the

financial

system historically

money

creation was pegged to a commodity often gold but today it is pegged to nothing which means there is nothing backing our

money

this piece of paper is just a piece of paper where does this leave us and if

money

is based on nothing why do we think it has any value sorry because we can still go
and exchange it what what somebody else was gonna shout great little lat in fact the word for credit comes from belief correct since the collapse of the dollar gold standard in 1971 and the deregulation of the

financial

system

money

creation has grown exponentially the World Economic Forum meeting in in Davos at the present time have called on a need for the credit within the economy the global economy to be expanded by 100 trillion dollars 100 trillion US dollars a trillion is 12 knots so
hundred trillion if you want to imagine is a 1 followed by 14 knots they believe this credit expansion will create a boom because there is now more

money

in the economy with which to make investments it's fascinating the this the emergence of digital currencies how its transformed everything really because it's just completely Unleashed private banks to dominate and create the

money

system that works for them and works for the people who run private banks if you want a growing economy
under the current sail we have to have growing debt you can't you know this is something that very very few people really understand especially not the politicians who are managing the economy which is a scary thought as the

money

supply grows more

money

is available which can be invested in productive avenues however it can also be used to gamble and drive up asset prices inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time when the
general price level rises each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services as the

money

supply grows and there is more currency available more

money

is available for investment which can lead to growth but more

money

is also available for purchases of goods and speculation which leads to inflation essentially inflation is what happens when too much

money

is chasing too few goods and services so there's too much

money

for the the actual output of the economy in the seven years between 2000
and 2007 the

money

supply doubled and the banks you know the central bank the Bank of England in this time was under the impression that they had it under control because they were saying you know prices aren't going up that much of course they were only looking at prices in you know in your local corner shop they weren't looking at the price of housing and housing is you know the biggest expenditure that most people will make increasing house prices and it may may make you feel like
you're you're becoming wealthier but as your wealth increases the effect is that your children's wealth is actually decreasing so in fact there's no net gain in wealth because your children are going to have to pay even more when they want to buy a house so in effect there's no there's no kind of net increase they're going to have to earn even more they're going to have to go into even more debt so the rising house prices do not create additional net GDP value to
the economy it actually what they do is they redistribute wealth towards those people who already have houses are you wealthier people and remove it from poor people who can't afford to get on the housing ladder so it's another example of a very regressive policy actually to allow house prices to simply inflate it makes everybody feel kind of like things that go well and people spend more

money

on other stuff they take equity out of their houses but it it's not creating new jobs
it's not enhancing the quality of the economy it's not helping our balance of trade it's not helping the public deficit it's a zero-sum game as of August 2011 85.5% of consumer bank lending was secured as mortgages on dwellings if you have somebody creating

money

that can only be spent on one thing which is housing then the price of that thing is going to go up between 2000 and 2010 they created over a trillion pounds of new

money

500 billion pounds just in the three years before
the

crisis

that's why house prices went up the way they were there's nothing you know special about houses it was just all this funny

money

being pumped into that market if

money

is spent into the economy into into a lot of

money

goes into houses for example into mortgages that's an increase in the amount of

money

in the economy without a corresponding increase in activity in output in GDP it's non GDP based spending that's what causes inflation and in the UK we've
we've had it in spades we've had you know this massive housing boom and that the main cause for the housing boom in my opinion is the huge amount of speculative credit created by the banks to go into houses if houses were cheaper they would be easier to build more a bit more of them would be built there would be less huge houses with hardly any people in them London would not be the centre of a kind of very rich speculative orgy where all the richest people in the world wants want to get
a property in London because it's seen as a great asset you know houses would be seen as places to live primarily rather than places to invest important thing to think about is if you're a bank and you've got to make a loan you have choices you can you can give that loan to a small business and you'll know that the risk to you of that loan failing defaulting is actually quite high because that small business the owners of that business have limited liability which means if the
business goes bust you as a bank getting nothing back essentially you know that that's it so that's kind of high risk compared to you loaning your

money

to somebody with some collateral with a house behind them like a mortgage so there's a there's a kind of simple incentive for banks to prefer putting

money

into housing than into a small business now that's a real problem or if you if you if you widen that out across a whole economy because it means there's an incentive
you know to put

money

into speculative rather than productive investments so again we have to think about how we create a monetary system that is more balanced between those two kinds of speculative and productive investment the government showing very little enormous reluctance to regulate the housing market and to again regulate the amount of

money

that that banks put into houses we don't decide who creates credit for what now we leave that to a couple of chaps in a bank to decide
basically a bubble occurs when there is very high inflation in the price of a specific good or service over a short period of time the idea of the tulips and their relevance is that we've saw the first-ever

financial

bubble and crash the craze for tulips black tulips being a mythical ideal of what somebody could genetically engineer through cultivation after many generations became a mania in the Netherlands in the 1630s what they didn't realize was that many of the very very rare
patterns on tulips were caused by a virus and weren't genetic at all but they traded in them to the extent that tulip bulbs got to the point where they were worth ten times the average annual salary of a person working in the Netherlands there was a futures market in tulip bulbs because obviously you plant them now but you don't know what's gonna come out of the ground so we see already four hundred years ago that a

money

system or a

financial

system is not something that exists in
the abstract somewhere out there in the ether but something that was to do with states power trade and how they interact with each other unlike tulips which are a disposable luxury houses are both a necessity and a luxury and as such they are ideal as a vehicle for

money

and bubble creation a dwelling is perhaps the most prized possession of value most people aspire to inflating house prices in this way allows the nation to expand its

money

supply without affecting inflation data the additional
purchasing power created increases the perceived wealth in relation to other nations and thus it creates relative power it is a way of increasing monetary power without investing in the productive growth of industry but certainly if you look Britain and America as outstanding examples of this these are countries with very high rates of private home ownership so you've got a good base to try and perform this sort of policy off the back of I think was quite deliberate in the case of the u.s.
always explicit as Alan Greenspan as head of the Federal Reserve when confronted by a stock market crash at the end of the 1990s quite deliberately slashed interest rates to almost zero everyone can borrow very very cheaply in particular it's very easy to borrow against a house because this isn't a set and is potentially something that a bank can say well okay we're not just lending your

money

and secured you actually do have a house and that's great because you know we can
repossess it but I'll tell you this when you take them always but they can do this and that bothers them what fuels expansion such as it is inside the US and inside the UK where something similar takes place for the next decade or so putting it also a reflection of an underlying weakness of these governments that they simply like the will and possibly the ability but forget more comes down to a will to challenge

financial

markets to challenge big capital and say we're going to do
something different now and you're going to have to go along with it because we've been democratically elected and you lot frankly haven't and we have a mandate to do this we're going to make this happen all part of the plan what are you yapping about you holding foreign in Holland or in the Netherlands what we had over a period of trying to get independence initially from Spain and trying to raise

money

to get an army to

free

themselves was

financial

innovation they innovated
public lotteries to get

money

together they had public subscription this was the idea that led to the idea of public shares a piece of the action that anybody could invest in that meant that something like two thirds of the population was investing in tulip bulbs by the 1630s after independence these these instruments were applied to financing expansion why was such a small country able to hold its own against so much bigger countries for example Spain and Portugal that had the benefits of their
empires for over a century in respect of the Netherlands why could they compete on what resource basis well they had a more efficient a more involved and a broader based

financial

system with these instruments that they'd innovated that I love them to bring more

money

to bear at one point than anybody else more quickly now inflation can be avoided if the amount of

money

that goes into the economy is regulated in a way that it doesn't exceed the actual activity that's happening in the
economy now the best way to do that in my opinion is to make sure that

money

is issued into the economy only for productive investment for productive goods and services so

money

goes in to help a small business startup which creates jobs which creates additional purchasing power which means there's no inflation during their history almost all central banks have employed forms of direct credit regulation the central bank would determine desired nominal GDP growth then calculate the necessary
amount of credit creation to achieve this and then allocate this credit creation both across the various banks and type of banks and across industrial sectors unproductive credit was suppressed thus it was difficult or impossible to obtain bank credit for large-scale purely speculative transactions such as today's large-scale bank funding to hedge funds the World Bank recognized in a 1993 study that this mechanism of intervention in credit allocation was at the core of the East Asian
economic miracle there's all sorts of things that governments have done in the past very successfully in it in a number of cases and not often not unsuccessfully in this country but you know the examples that spring to mind like South Korea and Japan often in East Asia where governments be quite targeted about how they're going to rebalance the economy and picking sectors and deciding where the investments should take place I think that has to start happening the UK because we're in
a demand-side recession rather than looking at

crisis

of supply you you have to have a system where credit is put into productive avenues where credit is put into building high-speed rail links where credit put into building houses rather than giving people

money

to inflate the prices of houses so it's it's quite simple really in that way and the current system is simply set up not to do that basically the creation of

money

by private banks for non-productive usage causes real inflation
and as such it is a tax on the purchasing power of the medium of exchange the fingers feel you care that are quite stark actually that's average medium real incomes for us and that's you know what bit in the middle for most people declined over the last eight years has cut also they're now in quite sharp decline as as we go into the recession meaning the sharpest really since it looks like since about the 1930s but it that way so real income is declining bank created fiat currency
allows the private banks to suck Wells from the economy and over time results in a gradual decrease in the standard of living as people become poorer they become even more dependent on debt and this at a time when efficiency and machination have improved dramatically you know you go back to the 1960s and we were expected to we're looking forward to an age of leisure what will people what they were talking television programs saying once people can do with all their spare time you know and
97 owned   money root of the social and financial crisis free documentary
now we've got more people working harder than ever spending more than ever which looks great you know when spending more there was his oil you know but if you're not actually benefiting from what you're spending if you happen to spend the

money

on childcare costs on commuting costs you know and so forth just you know the cost that people didn't in the past used to have to pay because you know you could walk to work and you know one member the family remains was able to stay at
home and be a permanent homemaker then you're actually much you're not actually any better off unique ones under it when got to such enormous pressures there are days you know I unconscious that the same I four nephews and nieces are facing difficult times she's gonna find themselves having to work you know very hard just to keep just to keep a roof over there just to get a roof over there just to keep a roof over there people are getting poorer in real terms is because price is
always going up because all this new funny

money

's being pumped into the system by the banks and they're creating it all this debt so at the same time as price going up and things are getting more expensive we're getting further and further into debt um you know our our wealth and the return that we get from actually working is getting less and less all the time when you can't deal with poverty when you have a

financial

system and a

money

system that distributes

money

from the
poor to the very rich any distribution that you try and do in the opposite direction is you know it's effectively person in the wind we look at issues like you know increasing inequality one obvious way to tackle inequality is to have say for example a redistributive tax system you know you tax the rich you give some

money

to the poor you move a bit

money

down down the scale that's all very well but if you completely overlook the fact that there's another redistributive system which
is taking

money

from the poor and giving it to the rich then you're not really going to tackle this inequality and the way a debt-based

money

system works it guarantees that for every pound of

money

there's gonna be a pound of debt now that debt is typically gonna end up with you know the poor this sort of lower middle classes those people end up with the debt and they end up paying interest on that

money

which then goes back to the banking sector and gets distributes for people working
in the city or in Wall Street and what this what this system does overall is it distributes

money

from from the poor to the rich essentially distributes

money

from you know the poorer regions of the UK back to the city of London and it also distributes

money

from all the small businesses you know all their little factories around the UK and distributes that

money

back into the

financial

sector we have a system whereby the activity of actually supplying occurs under the very same roof as the same
organization that's responsible for profiting from putting together borrowers and lenders ie a bank so a bank creates our nation's

money

supply as well as making loans for profit the government cannot allow the banking system to fail because if it did over 97% of all

money

would disappear this is why in the event of a crises the risk is transferred to the taxpayer but even during normal times banks received numerous guarantees and benefits beyond the right to create

money

well by the way
I know the Bank of America is a very big bank it happens I've got $32 a myself just between us what assurance do I have that this

money

is safe well all deposits up to $10,000 are assured are insured by the federal government in Washington that's my guarantee yes have you heard that the federal government is about two hundred eighty billion dollars in the hole banks receive large safety nets from the government the taxpayer guarantees eighty five thousand pounds as deposit insurance and
the Bank of England provides liquidity insurance in case the bank runs out of reserve currency someone wrote that a big investment bank is like a giant vampire squid wrapped around the face of humanity hypnotizing politicians who throw

money

at the bank's no strings attached no matter what damage is done trashing the planet forcing cars to things that make life better goodbye schools goodbye playgrounds goodbye jobs the bankers that we bailed out then gave themselves bonuses that were bigger
than the first wave of public spending cuts Britain alone gave the bank's more

money

than it costs to put a man on the moon six times over where did our

money

go who let the banks get away with it why can vampires squids ever be useful no government yet is brave enough to tame them perhaps they need a plan the spending-cuts agenda is an attempt by the government to shift debt from its account to that of the public this is the government's response to the bank bailouts and is necessary in
a debt based monetary system where increased purchasing power is the result of growing debt and we're a diversification of debt provides overall stability and market confidence policies such as student fee increases and the privatization of public services assets and Industry follow the same model the problem we're facing I think is that there's been business transference from the public debt to the private debt which is a which is essentially a way of transferring risk actually away
from sort of UK plc in the government on to the heads of individuals and it's going to be the most vulnerable individuals who are going to have the most debt thus it's a very unprecedented policy framework that the government's embarking on where the risk is moved on today's who are most vulnerable and if there is another

financial

shock if there's an oil shock for example the people who will pay the penalty are those are the poorest people in society or homeowners for
example they will fall into negative equity if interest rates go up even one or two percent they'll be real really big problems so I don't think it's a sensible way forward at the moment at all and it's is regressive and it's certainly not fair in the terms that that the government is talking about and it's certainly not a case of we're in this together as more of the country's resources and industries are privatized the private sector takes on more debt as a
result more

money

is created and there is a boom some private equity companies have taken this theory to the extreme engaging in a practice known as a leveraged buyout where a company is purchased at an often inflated price and the purchase price is transferred to the business as a debt the company becomes responsible for the funding of its own purchase these debts are often so great that the company needs to reduce staff salaries and research activities when you have to factor interest as a
business if you have to factor interest repayment into your goods and services then you have to charge a perpetually higher price as you take on more and more debt an increase in the diversification of depth results in an increase in the

money

supply when the

money

supply increases more

money

is available for productive activities and consumption which is the condition for a boom it's questionable whether we're going to get out of this recession or whether we'll just keep taking
along the way that we are now however if we do then when we come out of this recession when growth starts again look at what happens to debt it will rise and it will keep rising and the faster the economy is growing the faster the debt will rise and then give it another 3 to 5 years we'd be back where we were you know the debt will become too much people start defaulting again it's kind of the system that we're locked into now is we can't we can't grow the economy without
growing the debt and the debt is a very thing that will bring down the economy the only option going forwards is to reform it to stop banks from creating

money

as debt by fixing the monetary system we can prevent the banks from ever causing another

financial

crisis

and we can also make the the current you know public service cuts and the tax rises and the increase in national debt are necessary the current monetary system allows the banking sector to extract wealth from the economy whilst
providing nothing productive in return why is it that we've got all this technology you know all this new efficiency and yet it now requires two people to finance a household whereas in the 50s it only needed one person working and the reason for that is not because you know these washing machines and everything are more expensive it's because of all the debt and it's because you effectively the banking sector screaming it off from everybody else so a growing banking sector isn't
a sign you know it's not a good thing if the banking sector is growing it's either that it's becoming a less efficient or it's becoming a parasite on the rest of the economy and that's you know we can talk about the banking sector becoming 4% 5% 6% of GDP what's happening to the rest of the economy is becoming 96 95 94 percent of GDP we've got to get switched on to this now you know if we want to if we want to have a chance of tackling any of the other big

social

issues you've got to figure out the

money

issue the poorest in the world pay for crises even when they've not benefited from the often reckless and speculative booms like the housing boom in Ireland that the preceded that

crisis

you know over the last 30 years we've seen income differentials increase so that the rich have got much much richer and ordinary people haven't they've stayed the same or they've they've got poorer and one of the ways that the economy was kept
going was by providing cheap credit was provide providing debt to those very people who couldn't really afford things anymore and so they kept buying and when it collapses it's those same people that they have to pay once again even though in many ways they were the victims the first time and as a result of the crises the Bank of England has brought corporate debt and repackaged it at lower rates of interest yet the average person is being asked to pay more than ever to borrow on
overdrafts and credit cards depths between the very wealthy or between governments can always be renegotiated and always have been throughout world history there are not anything set in stone it's generally speaking when you have debts owed by the poor to the rifts that suddenly debts become a sacred obligation more important than anything else the idea of renegotiating them becomes unthinkable can you pin down exactly what would keep investors happy make them feel more confident that's
a tough one personally it doesn't matter that that's you can see I'm a trader I don't really care about that cuz if I see an opportunity to make

money

I go with that so for most traders we don't really care that much how they gonna face tea how they're gonna fix the economy how they're gonna fix the the whole situation our job is to make

money

from it and personally I've been dreaming of this one for three years if you know what to do you can make a lot of

money

from us I might I had a confession which is I go to bed every night I dream of another recession I dream of another moment like this I dream of another recession I dream of another moment like this you can make a lot of

money

from the way in which you can look across Europe now and see that the new prime minister is not selected essentially imposed Papademos former employee of Goldman Sachs the new prime minister and finance minister of italy Mario Monti former employee of Goldman Sachs the new
president of the European Central Bank former employee of Goldman Sachs it's quite you know they need college to see these people popping up absolutely everywhere that's the way to change what we have what's been interesting out of all this I suppose is the question of democracy that's being opened up very starkly in Europe then you have a government of bankers essentially imposed on you bankers who more or less got us into this mess to put it rather crudely but that's a good
first approximation to it and then you say okay bankers the people who therefore gonna get as out of it and its deadly they're gonna run your country now if there's a serious question democracy that's opened up here by the way the banking

crisis

drove more than a hundred million people back into poverty the mortality statistics of people who go into poverty rise hugely for a whole range of reasons so the banking

crisis

isn't just about becoming poor it was about killing people as
well and guess what we haven't really clutched the bottom of it we never held anybody to account and we haven't done the radical reforming job that we really needed to do because we mistakenly thought if we destabilize the position any further it will make matters worse and guess who took the decisions all the people who were there in the first place I think you ought to know that the business of one of these businessmen is murder their weapons are modern they are thinking 2000 years
out-of-date look I was there when the secretary and the chairman the Federal Reserve came those days and talked with members of Congress about what was going on it was about September 15 here's the facts and we don't even need to talk about these things on Thursday at about 11 o'clock in the morning the Federal Reserve noticed a tremendous drawdown of

money

market accounts in the United States to the tune of 550 billion dollars was being written and drawn out in a matter of an hour
or two the Treasury opened up its a window to help a pump 205 billion dollars in the system and quickly realize that they could not stem the tide we were having an electronic run on the banks they decided to close the operation closed down the

money

accounts and announced a guarantee of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars per count so there wouldn't be further panic out there and that's what actually happened if they had not done that that their estimation was that by two o'clock
that afternoon five and a half trillion dollars would have been drawn out of the

money

market system of the United States would have collapsed the entire economy of the United States and within 24 hours the world economy would have collapsed when

money

is withdrawn internationally from one currency to another the reserve currency shifts from the National Bank of one country to the reserve account of the foreign bank foreign banks have relationships with local banks that allow them to hold
foreign reserve currencies whilst not being a part of the central bank scheme at the local central bank for example when 1,000 pounds is transferred into euros a UK bank will agree an exchange rate with a euro area bank perhaps 1.15 euros to the pound the UK bank will then transfer a thousand pounds of the central reserve currency to the UK partner Bank of the European Bank whilst the European bank will transfer 1,150 euros of reserve currency to the European partner Bank of the UK bank what
happens when currencies and the exchange rate system is no longer managed what are some of the first consequences devaluations speculation imbalances where some countries would accrue more and more and more what what would they accrue are there currencies other currencies the reserve currency needs to be spent in the country of origin or exchanged into other currencies most foreign banks do not have deposit taking accounts outside of their national borders and as such the foreign reserves they
hold do not come back to them in the form of deposits when a country accumulates trade imbalances it either accumulates foreign reserve currencies in the case of surplus or spends its own reserves in the case of negative trade balances palace' trade is is basically due difference between what you're selling abroad and what you're buying from abroad now the feature on the UK is that for a very long period of time its heard a deficit and something called a visible balance of trade
which is trade in things but things that you can see so that is goods that you'd recognize stuff you can point containers it's cars computers things that you'd see in a shop that's been a substantial deficit for I think it opened up in India did open up in the early 1980s and essentially it hasn't it hasn't gone away since and if anything has got wider and wider foreign exchange was there cannot be directly used for domestic spending the

money

can only be spent abroad or
on imports a country with a large balance of trade deficit relies on its creditors to spend the imbalances accrued in its own market without the have been proposes in the past to try and create a mechanism for those imbalances to too much help so Keynes for instance John Maynard Keynes at the end of the Second World War his original proposal for what became Bretton Woods in a set institutions settled there like the IMF and the World Bank was that there'll be a kind of international clearing
Union this is particularly relating to the trade side rather than didn't saw the

financial

side directly but the principle was that you know once trade balances had opened up everybody would bank through an international clearing bank and that's what kind of force everyone to eventually reconcile the imbalances that appeared in the real economy but no such mechanism exists the accumulated net trade imbalance for the UK is around 800 billion pounds in essence what has happened is that
over many years some countries have had big trade surpluses and others big trade deficits the countries with trade deficits have been spending more than they've been earning so they've had to borrow from abroad and they've been doing this year after year countries like that of the United States ourselves and some other countries in Europe I cannot go on and there are two ways in which this can come to an end either and we're seeing this or some other countries in Europe if they
can't find new ways to become competitive then their ability to repay the debts it's called into question another way of doing it which we've followed is that we are a credible plan to repay our debts and the value of sterling has fallen by 25 percent to make our exports more competitive and attractive to overseas buyers and it to be more attractive for British consumers to buy from British producers rather than overseas producers that is what we have done to put in place a framework
to rebalance our economy and I'm sure that's the right way to do currency war also known as competitive devaluation is a condition where countries compete against each other to achieve a relatively low exchange rate for their currency as the price to buy a particular currency Falls so too does the real price of exports from that country domestic industry receives a boost in demand both at home and abroad it's made British exports appear rather cheaper so they've kind of recovered
a little bit but because the rest of the world is now looking really quite ropey decided to fall back down again so what we're looking at is something that we've almost kind of anarchy and in a way the increasing alikum this is what's happened over the last few years where even Brazilian finance minister has been most vocal about this and talking about currency wars talking about the desire of national governments when confronted by a major recession they think if we could export
more we can dig ourselves out of this recession if we want to export more we depreciate our currency that makes huggers cheaper everyone else buys them we'll all be better off now the issue here is if you depreciate it's like everybody else against their stuff becomes more expensive so they're not too happy about that they also want to depreciate and this is where you can see a competitive rounded evaluations breaking out to decrease the value of its national currency a national
central bank sells reserve currency into the market it creates this currency out of nothing by typing numbers into a computer during the long phase of commodity

money

the exchange rate would depend on the amount of gold silver or copper contained in the coins of each country similarly after the advent of paper

money

and the gold standard the exchange rate depended on the amount of gold the government promised to pay the holder of the banknotes these amounts did not vary greatly in the short-term
and as such exchange rates between currencies were relatively stable after the Second World War currencies were pegged to the dollar and the dollar was backed by gold this system came to an end in 1971 so we have a modern

financial

system where

money

is now chaotically organised there is no exchange rate because there's no gold standard system to sustain so we don't need it in fact we believe the market will resolve all the problems of exchange whether your currency should be worth more
than mine is a reflection of your cut economy relative to mine and if that changes the currency and the exchange rate can change and if we need that to happen it will happen magically by the efficiency of market and profit seeking and you guys know the rest I think a currencies value in relation to another currency is determined by the market if more people want to buy a currency than sell it its value increases if more people want to sell its value decreases the value is set by individual banks
as they buy and sell currencies they will adjust the exchange trait in the last study I read in 2007 each day on currency markets three point two trillion dollars are traded each day who knows what the global GDP is fifty again brucey higher sixty that's closer the point is think about that exchange happening every single day there's about 260 business days a year it takes a few weeks to match the global value of every economic transaction that happens everywhere every day in a year and
it takes a few weeks obviously all of this trade currency and very very regular if you go abroad you exchange into another currency that's a form of currency trading you you're swapping your pounds into whatever your rose or yen or whatever it might be that happens fairly regularly and that's a conventional part of the trading process and they're large corporations have to do this are on a regular basis where it becomes something that people question and where you get people
saying well hang on this is speculation is when you get people realizing that currencies move around mixed to each other and if they move around in value next to each other there's always an opportunity to try and make

money

out of those changes in value and therefore you can speculate on it and that's that's more sort of questionable end of the market that's the bit in the market that things like a

financial

transactions tax will try and chop way out because the assumption there
and it's it's kind of not incorrect is that this just produces instability for everyone else but these people want volatility in the market because that's how they make their

money

they want to encourage it and they do encourage it by trading and speculating in the way that they do by 2010 the foreign exchange market had grown to be the largest and most liquid market in the world with an average of four trillion dollars of currency being exchanged every day volatility creates a need
what does it do to countries especially perhaps small ones like developing countries if there are suddenly huge and instantly fluctuating

financial

flow what do they have to do to cope increase their production and sell more lowering the price and becoming possibly even poor once you sell to him at the international system it becomes really quite a peculiar quite peculiar thing in a lot of it depends on simply sentiment and beliefs about what an economy is like rather more depends aiding the
economy might or might not actually be doing and that can shift very very rapidly because you know if it's just some these belief about currency is supportable then they can carry on believing this until well till whatever if that belief changes it can change very rapidly in a

financial

market the process of

financial

contagion can can take place here in just minutes seconds even then you can just move from being apparently quite a stable robust economy to being one that suddenly sentiment
has turned against you and you find the markets are picking on you and it can often be not much more than you're simply the next-door neighbor of you know a country that's currently in trouble many of the world's

financial

crises in the past 30 years have been caused by rapid withdrawals of the nation's currency or the currencies of an entire region this type of activity is often referred to as

financial

warfare it's benefited major institutions really quite substantially
then Goldman Sachs if for example or any large Bank has done somewhat better out of this set of arrangements than it would have done in a formal regulated environment it's made people very very wealthy it's a loud

financial

markets to expand absolutely enormously anybody involved in that this keen on seeing a deregulated world in the case of the UK you have a government which has been quite overtly and deliberately and aggressively arguing against any forms of regulation being imposed on
those

financial

markets but it's not the case that someone's behind the scenes pulling the strings it's it's the this is this is how the thing works quite deliberately quite either a Vernie in front of you that's the world as it is it's making some people very rich they're quite happy with it I think it is a form of economic warfare much of the the change in the in the way that the global economy works over the last thirty years results from this this debt this
third-world debt because it's given rich countries and banks and the

financial

sector enormous amounts of power and control over the poorer bits of the world where a lot of the resources are that we like using and that's being used in a way that many people have compared to a form of colonialism it's a very real direct form of power that's been used over those countries to force those countries to do order really in the interests of the richest segments of the world that they do
and as a result of that not only have corporations become absolutely in very you know made huge amounts of profits and become absolutely enormous and and all-pervasive but the

financial

sector has become even bigger than that and the and the real

money

in in the world to be made today is not by producing anything at all it's simply by forms of speculating basically making

money

from

money

that's the most profitable and and by far in a way the the biggest form of activity of economic
activity that exists in the world today to protect themselves vulnerable countries need to accrue currency from rich countries you create these currencies out of nothing the Netherlands first governor-general of Indonesia the man who built the trade routes fortified them what I mean by that is built forts along them and fought Spanish fleets and British fleets said about the development of the spat of the of the Netherlands Empire Netherlands trade was we cannot make trade without war nor war
without trade

money

and power so reserves have become the way in which you can insure yourself against what speculation who you set speculation speculative attack falling markets bubbles when a country succumbs to a speculative attack it is asked to deregulate its markets and conform its

financial

system to that of the dominant party the big problem that's faced by most developing countries who got into a debt

crisis

was that they were told by the powers that be in the world the
International Monetary Fund which is in many ways governs the global

financial

system that the way to get out of debt actually is first of all to restructure your economy especially to increase your exports so you're earning more more dollars and then you can pay off your your debt which is normally in dollars or some other foreign currency unfortunately time and time again that was proved to to not be the case at all actually countries cut back their public spending to the bone so they
stopped growing they stopped having any potential for growth and what they did produce was was was aimed at the export mark it was aimed at creating dollars and so on so they were paying off their debts but they weren't developing their own economy at all they were paying far far far more in debt repayments than they were spending on health or education or anything else and their debts just kept getting bigger and bigger and bigger the country becomes a vassal state allowing large
corporations to exploit its natural resources and workforce it's not it's not even shadowy there's no great mystery about about what's happening caring about the way the world operates it's light it's it's quite blunt I mean for the last thirty years you've got something pretty much everywhere well it certainly spreads pretty much everywhere that generally gets labeled neoliberalism this idea that you should have floating exchange rates see a weak regulation
particularly

financial

market it's minimal government interference our involvement with what market does and that's that's more or less how the world operates and then there are institutions and the after spending one at this point is the IMF that they were actively try and enforce this state of affairs so it's not greatly shadowing if you see what I mean that there are people behind the scenes somewhere trying manipulate stuff is actually this is quite this is quite overt this
is happening and this is how for entire my entire adult life actually is where it starts to look like this is how the world of the world is operated and it's made some people very very wealthy it's produced enormous concentrations of wealth so when the International Monetary Fund comes in in order to try and alleviate a country's and debt problems it imposes a set of conditions and in the 1980s and 90s they call that set of conditions structural adjustment structural adjustment
program and it tends to take very similar forms wherever it happens and indeed we can see structural adjustment programs in essence happening today in countries like Greece and Portugal and Ireland where countries are instructed to decrease the amount that they spend on the public sector they are instructed to liberalize their trade market and liberalize their capital markets so

money

can much more easily come in and out of their economy and the idea is that this will encourage investment to
come in from richer parts of the world and that all of their problems will be solved from this investment and in actual fact this has proved time and time again to be completely without foundation in actual fact what happens is it destroys fledgling industries and capacities in these developing countries and developing countries become completely dependent on goods and services from developed countries and also from capital from developed countries one of the things the International Monetary
Fund is very is very keen on is telling countries to lower the taxes that should be paid by multinational corporations when they come and operate in a country because then you'll encourage more multinational corporations to come in of course what it also means is the profits that are made by those multinational corporations leave the country just as quickly and the country itself doesn't benefit and today you have many developing countries which have got almost no tax base they've
not developed a tax base at all and so they're even more dependent on international capital markets on the

money

markets on creating debt and that's why you have so many countries in the world that have really been robbed of their sovereignty it's very difficult to see how democratic societies can evolve or function when actually a government is more dependent on the diktats of the International Monetary Fund and the

money

markets then it is on their own people what we've seen
since the 1970s is a dramatic increase in a series of phenomena that have had a serie a simulated effect on the changes in the

financial

system that have brought us to the gleaming shining metal in steel business that's over there in case you don't know that's the City of London I'm putting up to compensate for the lack of a defined commodity based value underlying currencies

financial

institutions developed securitization as a means to manage risk you know you develop
securitization as a means to try and stabilise the whole system this is a set of

financial

processes and

financial

innovations that really accelerate from the 70s 80s onwards you had a chaotic system that needed to manage risk and you had to innovate you needed derivatives options futures you have new markets in volatility management tools who knows where the term hedging is spreading your risk managing your risk insuring against your risk precisely until very recently you know up until the
1960s the Securities and Exchange Commission would be quite clear that Co derivatives that weren't based on real products like agricultural products so pork belly futures or whatever would in fact be essentially cutting gambling and therefore you weren't allowed to trade with that and that changes in the 60s and everybody can trade you know currency futures things that are not based on real products being traded at some point in the future but are based on movement some of currency
prices once you have the system of fixed exchange rates breaks down obviously this thing accelerates enormously so as you get the rollback of government regulation here you get the market taking over with its own products here and the theory is that the market is better at regulating itself it's more stable than if you have a government interfering all the time the efficient market hypothesis the idea that you know you set up a

financial

market they're fast everybody in them is
well-informed they all keep a very careful eye on everyone else's doing your therefore be very stable and it reflects real changes in the economy it's not only driven by you know panics manias and speculative bubbles on that's really gonna happen if you've there is movement up and down it's because something real is happening and in traders and investors in

financial

market responding to that's the efficient market hypothesis the practice but I think what you see in 2008
is a kind of end of that process the appearance of this

crisis

so major the the belief that it will simply be self-stabilizing self-regulating really calm carry on I mean the practice carries on anyway but you can't really argue in the same way they used to that it's good or it's necessary or this is okay for the world in the last decade we had a new innovation something called the credit default swap a way of buying insurance against the company you've invested in going bust and
in 2002 they were less worth in total less than a trillion dollars in 2007 they were worth sixty trillion dollars that's five years everybody suddenly sitting down thinking oh these CDOs we've made don't in fact provide the kind of stability that we thought the maths that's inside of the risk is complete nonsense it turns out there's a far more risk attached to trying to securitize risk and securitized debt in the way that we have done this than we thought and we think these
things are now worthless the attempt to get more and more complex ways of regulating and shaping influential markets and try to make a quick buck out of it as well actually helped produce the opposite effect of what it's kind of apologists said which is it led to led to a spectacular crash what we saw as a result of this very different situation was one phenomenon above all one sector above all grew and that was the

financial

sector while the

financial

sector benefits enormously from the
current monetary system the system is neither stable nor fair the assumption in what the Bank of England does right now is that the cash that we hold is backed up by government debt the government can back up as promises by the fact that it can tax the public so what they're implying is that cash is backed up by government debt when government debt is backed up by the ability of government to get cash from the public time and time again over the last 30 years we've seen private debts
being transformed into into public debts and the ultimately the price of that debt is paid by by the public in the in the debtor country this is why spending cuts are necessary the system is designed to make certain people very rich at the expense of a nation's citizens and taxpayers the system lowers the standard of living of the majority and distributes this wealth among the privileged so what we're left with is a

financial

system since the early 70s that has no fixed exchange rates
that suddenly has increasingly open

financial

borders that has central banks having to manage without having any control because there's nothing here where the gold used to be chaotically they have to ease quantitatively they have to lend as a lender of last resort throughout history monetary systems were designed to give the dominant international power an advantage and this power is fiercely defended and expanded on and I flee encounters from an incredible pokeyman an American flag is
burned at the height of the demonstration both President Johnson and Francisco Franco will our new low in public projects had a strain on spanish-american relations or in the car or in in my heart a lot Americans in all the world to know America has no regard for conventions of war or lose objection overruled what I would like to see is a new kind of currency that is backed by something that that is scarce and that we really need and we really value something like energy or renewable energy for
example so I sort of kilowatt-hour backed currency would be would be very interesting to me we need to start valuing the things that are most scarce and and that we need to survive as human race in the long run and backing an international currency with something like that will generate enormous investment in for example renewable energy if that's the you know the primary international unit of account that's that's that's being used another option is a basket of currency so you
you know you mix up the value of different currencies to create a very solid currency that people have confidence in perhaps even better would be a basket of commodities with which to back up international currencies nothing was possible internationally some way or another to get all these competing and increasingly competing national economies together and say we're all going to sit down and write out an agreement somewhat like the Bretton Woods Agreement which will allow for other library
woods allow for you know some currencies to be paint against different buses and goods that are more appropriate into their national economies you can sort of arrange this if you could arrange that to happen then that would be nice and you can see how that would start to create a kind of order in the International macro economy because otherwise lacking the real difficulty there is just political is that who knows is going to do this who who is the force that that's going to kind of make
this thing happen creating a monetary system which is both fair unstable is possible and can be achieved what are international organizations for if not for such a purpose this is George George worked in a big bank in the City of London but one day without warning George's bank went bus luckily the government rescued the bank and George kept his job but the greedy government wanted something in return for the help they demanded a higher tax on George's salary and bonus for someone with a
high-cost lifestyle like George a shock like this can be devastating now George struggles to afford the rent on his Riverside apartment in central London but tires on his Aston Martin are wearing thin and the barely road legal unless George's situation improves or unless someone like you helps him and George may even be forced to walk past the next Savile Row tailors and buy his suit for a Topshop or next even if George had anything to celebrate he can no longer afford the champagne to
celebrate with George is not alone countless others are suffering like him and no one knows how long it will be until the good times return but with your help George can turn his life around a simple monthly donation from you can bring a bit of sunshine back to George's life just 395 pounds we'll help him celebrate minor achievements with a magnum of Cristal champagne as little as nine hundred pounds will help George buy a new set of tires for his Aston Martin 2,000 pounds can help
George recover his self-esteem with a suit from a prestigious Savile Row team but even a small amount will help just 200 pounds will buy a meal for George and his girlfriend experience just 200 pounds extra will buy a drink by adopting a banker you won't just be supporting someone like George in a time of need you'll also be supporting the trendy wine bars of the City of London the luxury carmakers of it oh and the Taylor's of Savile Row you'll be doing your patriotic duty to
support Britain's greatest industry in its time of need and when the good times return and George gets his bonus back the taxes he pays will help fund the public services that the rest of you scroungers depend on so please until the good times return for George and those like him will you give today you