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Why Was Normandy Selected For D-Day?

May 02, 2020
This is the BBC's internal service and here is a special bulletin read by Simon Clarke. D-Day arrived early this morning. The Allies began the assault on the northwest face of Hitler's European fortress. The first official news came shortly after half past nine, when supreme. The Allied Expeditionary Force Headquarters issued communiqué number one. That said, under the command of General Eisenhower, the Allied naval forces supported by strong air forces began to land Allied armies this morning on the northern coast of France. The Allied Commander in Chief, General Eisenhower, has issued an order of the day addressed to each individual of the Allied Expeditionary Force in which he said that his task will not be easy.
why was normandy selected for d day
His enemy is well trained, well equipped and battle hardened. He will fight. wildly but this is the year 1944 the tide has changed freedom The men of the world march together towards victory On June 6, 1944, the world woke up to devastating news. Allied forces led by Britain and the United States had begun the invasion of Hitler's Europe. At the end of this day, 156,000 Allied troops were on French soil supported by 6,939 ships with more than 14,000 674 air sorties throughout the day in five days 54,000 186 vehicles and 104,000 428 tons of supplies were transported by land these factories joined to form perhaps the most audacious invasion in human history two years of research, development and planning culminated in a day that we associate with chaos and violence, but never takes into account the carefully choreographed procedure that made this day the end an iconic day of success.
why was normandy selected for d day

More Interesting Facts About,

why was normandy selected for d day...

These are the mystics of D-Day, two years before D-Day on August 19, 1942, Canadian Allied forces attempted to land here at Dieppe, about 135 kilometers from the beaches of Normandy, and suffered a humiliating defeat. The allies hoped that the element of surprise would be enough to win the battle. They made critical strategic mistakes. Lack of inappropriate communication. The study of the slope of the beaches and the geology, the poor planning of the routes to the interior together with the poor knowledge of the German fortifications led to a complete defeat of the four thousand nine hundred and sixty-three men who landed on the beaches of Dieppe.
why was normandy selected for d day
Nine hundred and sixteen Canadian soldiers were killed. and about two thousand four hundred and fifty were wounded and many of them were also taken as prisoners of war. The lack of communication between commanders at sea and men on the beach led to additional landing craft being sent when there was no room to land. The 29 tanks that managed to land could barely move on the loose pebble beaches, often digging trenches with their tracks and got stuck. Only 15 of these tanks managed to reach the city, where their weapons were too weak to confront the strong German fortifications. With little or no air support or naval artillery they were doomed to failure, but this failure would be the textbook of what not to do in an amphibious assault and set the stage for D-Day in this episode of D-Day Logistics.
why was normandy selected for d day
We are going to explore the science and logic when choosing the beaches of Normandy as your landing site. The allies controlled the seas, giving them immense power to decide where to begin their attack. The goal of D-Day was to create a new Western Front to relieve pressure on the Soviets. To wage a bitter war on the Eastern Front and further disperse Axis powers as the Americans advanced from the south into Italy, to do this the Allies needed to open a new Atlantic coastline stretching from Norway to southern Italy. France. The large number of factors in choosing a location was never going to be an easy task.
In an ideal world, the Allies would have chosen the beaches closest to Britain such as those at Calais and Dunkirk. This would satisfy some of the main requirements for the Short Sea invasion. crossing would make it easier to send supplies and personnel across the English Channel and was within range of even the shortest Allied fighters like the Spitfire, a vital requirement even though the Luftwaffe was well beaten by air support DZ would play a fundamental role in d one-day operations, from landing power troops, attacking coastal fortifications, disrupting reinforcements, patrolling sea lanes, towing gliders and distributing supplies, range of Allied fighters was a major logistical concern, and while Calais and Dunkirk were the best locations in terms of distance, the Germans were well aware of this.
These areas were avoided for this reason, but the defenses extended far beyond Calais. A vast defense line had been hastily constructed, stretching from the Spanish border all the way. In northern Norway, 17 million cubic meters of concrete and 1.2 million tons of steel were consumed, enough concrete and steel to build more than 150 of these gigantic anti-aircraft towers that the Nazis built to protect their main cities. This material was used to create thousands of smaller bunkers and trenches. Along the coast and along the coast, the largest concentrations were found near vital ports such as Berg, Antwerp and Brest, because this was the next requirement to ensure success.
Any invasion would be short-lived without a constant supply of equipment and the Allies had early contingency plans. with huge temporary ports being erected directly on the chosen beaches but, as we will learn in future episodes, these would not meet the needs. Berg was identified as a key port of interest primarily due to its location on the Cotentin Peninsula, a peninsula that could be cut off from reinforcements and captured early here. Normandy was the clear choice both within fighter range and in close proximity to Shurberg. Normandy was quickly becoming the leading contender for Operation Overlord, but the job was nowhere near done and Normandy could have been abandoned for the alternatives Normandy needed.
Getting the geology and terrain right and determining this was going to require an immense information gathering effort and the Allies used every tool in their arsenal to ensure their strategy led to success. This was sometimes as simple as requesting vacation photographs and postcards from pre-countries. -citizen war trips, but this information was clearly not enough to plan an invasion and two years before D-Day a massive aerial reconnaissance campaign began to survey the Atlantic coast, searching for weak points and gathering strategic information that RAF 140 Squadron had been entrusted. High-flying photo reconnaissance missions equipped with Spitfires modified with F 52 cameras mounted just below and behind the wings, were to photograph all coastal defenses from Calais to share Berg, photograph potential locations for temporary airfields, inspect transport links in France , identify German fortifications and assess the gradients of each potential beach on that stretch of coast, the Allies were determined not to make the same mistakes as Dieppe and this would require the geology of the beaches to be assessed to ensure their tanks and equipment could transport inland for the first wave of attacks.
It was made for them to avoid anti-aircraft fire and the German fighters. It was just one challenge to get the incredibly specific conditions needed to determine the slope of the beaches. It was another to determine the slope of the beaches. Several photos had to be taken, one of them with a average low tide one with average high tide and four photographs at various points between the two extremes this would give us several elevation data points to inform us of the gradient of the beaches if this were not strong enough the winds could not be greater than 37 km /h To prevent the tides from interfering with the results, they needed to take the photos during sunset or sunrise to get a decent contrast between the water and the beach and they needed a clear day with no clouds obscuring the view.
These photos were combined with the title information to create detailed graphs of beach and lence gradients along with high and low water marks and fortunately the beaches of Normandy were found to have a favorable gradient Normandy had a lot to do first it was relatively poorly defended It was within range of Allied fighters; it had a short sea crossing to allow rapid return of supply ships; the English Channel had only two relatively narrow entry points that would be more easily defended from submarines; and the beaches would be protected. of the worst strong Atlantic winds across the Cotentin Peninsula Normandy was rapidly becoming the The main contender for the invasion was now time for detailed planning.
Information about the beach gradient was not sufficient. The beaches chosen had to be able to withstand the load of heavy tanks and vehicles that would eventually land there. This could not be done with airplanes, men were needed. Grounded about six months before D-Day, on a moonless New Year's Eve, Major Logan Scott Bowden and Sergeant Bruce Ogden Smith of the Royal Engineers boarded a ship that would take them to within a quarter of a mile of Gold Beach, one of the last British landings. From there they swam to shore, where they quickly took samples from the beach using a metal augur and swam back through strong waves to return the samples for analysis.
The Allies knew in advance that these beaches would be suitable and would be characterized by medium to fine grained sand. Grainy sand or mud would cause heavy equipment to sink, and of course a grain made it difficult to maneuver. The medium was perfect. These samples, however, finally let the British know that measures would need to be taken to overcome the milder than expected smell that many of the D-Day tanks came with modifications to allow them to deal with the terrain they would encounter. Many Churchill tanks were fitted with these carpet rail spools which would be placed on soft sand to increase the surface area on which pressure was exerted. were used to lay over barbed wire defences, others were fitted with simple wooden rolls that could be dropped into anti-tank trenches to allow crossing, much more cost-effective than these early tests: wasting two tanks to fill a trench.
This was not the only one. geology the allies needed to consider suitable locations for temporary landing strips needed to be identified this would require long stretches of flat, firm ground with excellent drainage very close to the original landing sites the calvados plateau located here was formed of limestone covered with deposited sand by the last ice Over thousands of years, acid rainwater created thousands of underground drainage holes, sinkholes and caves that allowed rainwater to drain quickly. This area was perfect and several landing strips emerged within days of the first landings, such as Pierre Duma, which began construction on D-day plus. one and whose construction was completed on D-Day and until June 8, witnessed a constant flow of planes arriving for fuel, ammunition and repairs, while also serving as an evacuation zone for the wounded in the month following the d-day, the front line progressed.
Only 19 kilometers from this point and a vital supply point for the advancing army, this was just one of many advanced landing fields created over the course of the campaign, each serving as a valuable advanced base to allow the allies to gain air superiority. in the vicinity patrolling roads and attacking German fortresses to allow the front line to progress, this supply line logistics will be further developed in a future episode. Ultimately Normandy was chosen because it had the right combination of geology and the port of Shurberg was close enough for capture, but also had suitable alternative supply options until those days came, the English Channel made it more easy to defend against German submarine ports in Norway, Germany and along the western coast of France, this may have been heavily defended as well, but as we will see in the next episode of The Logistics of D-Day, which is available exclusively on Nebula.
Tactics of deception and lies would play a vital role in making the Germans doubt Normandy as the chosen location. The next three episodes of this series are now available for you to watch. Anna Episode 2 deals with deception tactics, Episode 3 discusses the methods the Allies used to blow a hole in the European fortress wall and Episode 4 explores the landing craft that landed hundreds of thousands of men, vehicles and supplies directly inbeaches. There are many more episodes to watch in the coming months and the best way to watch them is by signing up for Curious Stream, which is now just $11.99 all year long.
For that $11.99 you'll get access to all the fantastic award-winning documentaries on Curious Stream and you'll get access to nebula included for free uh nebula, you'll get access to this series along with many more original series from Wendover Productions. Ooh tears and City Beautiful. My new favorite is Tom Scott's fantastic new game show. Money Nebula started just a few months ago. It has now transformed into a legitimate streaming platform that has allowed creators like me to experiment more freely with our videos without worrying about being punished by YouTube's algorithm if that sounds like something you want to support, head over to the streaming communication out of curiosity .
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