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What's an Ion?

What's an Ion?
okay

what

's an ion people talk about ions all the time in chemistry so

what

are they well an ion is an atom or a group of atoms that have an electrical charge okay that's all it is now how does this happen well inside atoms there are two things that have an electrical charge there are protons that have a positive charge and electrons that have a negative charge a lot of times in atoms the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons so the charges balance out and you don't
what s an ion
have any total charge but sometimes an atom can gain or lose electrons so it gets more or fewer electrons and protons and then the numbers don't balance out any more and it's left with more negative charge because it has more electrons or it's left with more positive charge because it has more protons let me give you a couple examples of how this happens let's look at the atom sodium sometimes when I'm talking about atoms I'll just draw them as the element name inside a
circle to indicate that that that's atom I'm talking about but for our purposes we're going to want to zoom in a little bit more here I've drawn two things in this zoomed in version of the atom I got protons here in the nucleus in red and then flying around on the outside I have these electrons which I've drawn as black dots if you know a lot about atoms you might know that I've left out the neutrons which also live in the nucleus but it's no big deal because neutrons
don't have a charge at all they're neutral so they're not important for

what

we're talking about here anyway right now sodium has if we counted them 11 protons here in the nucleus and it has 11 electrons flying out flying around outside so the number of protons equals the number of electrons which means that my total net charge is zero they cancel each other out and so something that has no net charge like this sodium atom we call it neutral okay but here's

what

can happen
sodium you see this electron right here it can lose this electron it can lose it and it flies off and usually goes into another atom so let's look at

what

happens when this electron here gets lost and now we're going to end up with a sodium atom that has 11 protons just like it did before but now because it's lost this electron used to be here that was here now it's not here anymore now it only has 10 electrons so now the positive and negative charges don't balance out
what s an ion
anymore and I'm left with more positive charge the negative charge so this thing now is going to have a charge of +1 one more positive charge and negative charge and so I can write this if I want to talk about the atom I can write it is na plus to show that it has a positive charge where is this when I'm talking about a neutral atom I'll probably just write na so na plus here is an example of an ion it's an atom it has a charge and it's a specific type of atom we have a name
for this we call it a cation which is

what

we call an atom I'm sorry an eye on

what

we call any ion that has a positive charge okay let me show you another example okay so here's an atom of oxygen the item that I've drawn here has eight protons here in the nucleus and it has eight electrons outside so we have the same number of protons and electrons which means that the total charge is balanced out plus the minus balance out so have a net charge of zero and I can say that my oxygen
atom is neutral it has no net charge but oxygen can gain or lose electrons and actually it really likes to gain two electrons and here's a picture of the oxygen atom after it's gained two electrons and now it still has eight protons in the nucleus and if I count up these electrons it now has ten electrons instead of eight which it had before so now the protons and electrons don't balance out any more and I have more negative charge and I have positive charge I've got two more
electrons and protons so that means that my total net charge is going to be to minus I can write the symbol for this ion as o2 minus to show that it has a two minus charge where is this neutral guy over here I can right oh this is an ion because it has a charge and there's a specific name for it we can call this an anion which is the word that we use to describe a negatively charged ion that has more electrons and protons okay here's just a little bit of vocabulary for review so an ion
what s an ion
is an atom or a group of atoms that have a charge okay now it's possible for an atom to be neutral which means it has no charge means it's not an ion but if something is an ion it can be either a cation which is

what

we call a positive ion or it can be an anion which is negative ion here's a way that I can that I use to remember this okay an ion I think of this as standing for a negative ion okay and then cation you can remember this it's really cheesy you can remember this
because cats have paws and a cation is positive alright you'll never forget I swear you'll never forget it okay there's one more thing that I want to mention I've said that an ion is an atom or group of atoms for the charge I haven't said anything yet about the group of atoms so more than one atom can come together they can stick together and form a group or clump and then that whole clump of atoms has a charge when this happens we call it a polyatomic ion a group of atoms
that have a charge poly means many and Atomics you have many atoms together that form anion I'll talk about polyatomic ions in future videos so you want to check those out if you need to learn more about polyatomics anyway just to review

what

we've learned we learned that an ion is an atom or a group of atoms that have a charge and something gets a charge when the number of protons and electrons don't balance out you have more protons than electrons you'll have an add you'll
have an ion with a positive charge you call it a cation you have more electrons than protons you have an ion with a negative charge and you call that an anion you