# What Is Beyond The Edge?

May 17, 2024
take a deep breath, there are about 56 stylian atoms in each breath you inhale, it is a five followed by 22 zeros, seven octylian atoms make up your body, it is a seven followed by 27 zeros, the entire planet Earth is made up of 100 quintillion atoms or It is believed that a one followed by 50 zeros in the entire observable universe, 46 billion light years in diameter, can contain up to 100,000 trillion vigintillions of atoms or one followed by 82 zeros, and in reality the greatest number can be reached of the cosmos dividing the total. volume of the observable universe times the smallest possible unit of volume Planck space fighting everything we can see in tiny cubes we end up with 1 times 10 to the power of 185. of those cubes and yet that is still not the smallest number great that humans have conceived, take for example the Goliath, which is tree three, as Antonio Padilla, a physicist at the University of Nottingham, puts it, everything you think you know is reduced to nothing, welcome to the tree game, you start with a colored seed that can give rise to a tree. whose branches and seeds can sprout their own trees, the goal is to make as many trees as possible and there are two main rules: the first tree must contain one seed, the second a maximum of two seeds, the third a maximum of three seeds and So at each level, the tree can contain less than the maximum number, but that maximum is set to correspond to the level you are at.
Secondly, the game ends and the forest dies if you create a tree that already exists within the forest, so if you repeat a pattern of colored seeds that are linked no matter how far away it is in the forest. Game over. Mathematicians have played this game with different numbers of seed colors. One only allows a single seed color and the forest dies at the first tree. the second seed you add is necessarily a repetition of the first tree two basket Three trees starting with one color you make a tree containing two branches both of a second color the next tree has only one branch in The Next Step all possible combinations of two Now colors have been used and you can't help but build a tree that has already been seen, but then you get to tree three which uses three colors and tree three is different, while the previous forests died with disappointing speed.

## what is beyond the edge...

A forest of three-colored seeds grows in an extraordinary way. Mathematicians have long shown that the game must end at some point, but they have failed to count the trees it would take to get there. They have not been able to do it because if they did, their brains would implode, as Antonio Padilla continues. Let's say that in your exploration of huge numbers for a while you don't feel anything strange, a string of digits that gets bigger and bigger in your mind and then it happens just trying to imagine a number so big that it is more than the human brain can bear trying to hold it.
The number of digits in its head would result in the formation of a black hole from the large amount of information piled up inside. In fact, facing all the digits of tree three, scientists believe that the entire observable universe will also suffer the same fate and therefore the solution to tree three. is certainly an incredibly huge number, but it is still a finite number and therefore still smaller than infinity; in fact, no matter how large the solution of tree three is, it is much closer to zero than to Infinity, while counting to the top of tree three it may be foolish to try, it is not useless because there is an end, but the Infinity has no end, it just continues without respite for every digit, every object, every thing, no matter how big, there is another one waiting in line. and another and another then

## what

happens when you move on?
The universe itself is infinite and

## what

would it mean to live in a universe that never ends? Take a deep breath. Things are about to get weird. Albert Einstein once said that politics is harder than Physics news has kindly supported this video and is the world's first news comparison platform because although Einstein was exaggerating a bit, finding out the truth behind what Since it has become much more difficult to read since Einstein's time, we are constantly bombarded by misinformation and topic-specific news. Agenda, especially online terrestrial news, is the solution to clickbait news. They make it easy to scroll through headlines to discover which details are emphasized, exaggerated, or omitted entirely.
The app has become an essential tool for me and I have been using it for a while. Now, as someone who believes in objectivity and critical thinking, I find it a lifesaver to find the truth behind a story. They have great tools like factuality score bias distribution and media ownership data so you can find out who is behind your news. scan your Twitter or Reddit account to discover your own bias, so if you're looking for a better way to stay informed about current events around the world, check out ground news by visiting ground.news slash hotu thanks to ground news by your support. education on YouTube around 530 BC.
C. in the small town of Crotone in southern Italy, a secret group of Brothers Meats in a lamplet room whispering quietly as they wait for their illustrious leader to make his appearance, their conversation as passionate and reverential as that of any cult but these men do not talk about gods their concern is for the human soul with geometry and especially with numbers while their Master emerges from the Shadows his disciples remain silent to better listen to his latest Doctrine for everything that the great Pythagoras pronounces must Being the foreign absolute truth was not uncommon for scholars and their students to worship philosophical and mathematical concepts, but the Pythagoreans took things to a new level by believing in the transmigration of the human soul into the bodies of animals, their followers were forbidden strictly eat meat as such.
The Cults were thought to be among the first vegetarians, although this would have been a challenge as they believed that a small part of a man's soul was lost each time he passed gas. Pythagoras preached that the only escape from this endless cycle of animal death and reincarnation. was to seek a superior knowl

## edge

of the universe and that is why the Pythagoreans built a doctrine around numbers in their reverence for the rational. The Pythagoreans sought to support their vision of the world by demonstrating the usefulness of counting the numbers 1 2 3 4 and so on, while that the irrational, ungraspable and manageable numbers were evil defined by darkness and maleficence in the cosmic battle of light over darkness, that which was unlimited was to be abhorred and avoided at all costs, but it was in Geometry where the Pythagoras Doctrine began to fall apart the closer they looked, the more they realized that not everything could be explained so simply when trying to calculate the length of the diagonal of a square there was no clear and tidy solution that would equate it to a ratio of two numbers accounting the results were always irrational always inelegant, perpetually worrying for the only thing that bore the name of Pythagoras Over the centuries, the calculation of diagonals in squares and triangles is precisely what caused his cult.
Such discomfort. Irrational numbers were an inevitable part of our reality, no matter how disturbing, and of all numbers, none was more disturbing than infinity in the centuries that followed. Philosophers who were not as rigid in their mathematical doctrine as the Pythagoreans began to contemplate the concept of the truly unlimited, take for example xenos Paradox named after another ancient Greek image any journey you must complete like the journey home after a long day of work to be able to To return home, you must first travel half the way there, then, to cover the remaining distance, you must first travel half of the way there, which takes you three-quarters of the way home.
Traveling half of the next leg completes 7 8 of the journey and the next half brings you. 15 16 on the way home following this principle of dividing each leg of the trip into halves you can continue traveling halves an infinite number of times and never reach your destination this situation would not happen in reality of course you would arrive home after work Eventually, but there is no doubt about the logic of these infinite divisions, many Greeks tried to reconcile this by relegating the concepts of the infinite to the Divine and metaphysical stating that they were not part of the rational world;
However, others attempted to categorize the infinities themselves. a difference they affirmed between a real Infinity that is an infinite number of things that exist all at once and a potential Infinity that only comes to exist as a result of a process such as counting to infinity or subdividing a journey an infinite number of times a potential. Infinities, while actual infinities, such as an infinitely large object, were still despised and refuted, were simply impossible. Some 2,500 years have passed since this ancient introspection and with it have come waves of mathematical and academic advances that are no longer linked to cults or secret societies. analyzed for what they really were rather than what they meant, and the same applies to our ideas of infinity marked by a great leap forward in the late 19th century by a German mathematician called Georg Cantor Cantor was the first to consider that There really are different types of infinity, he described how there are an infinite number of numbers to count but also an infinite number of even numbers.
Both groups are infinite in size even though the list of numbers to count completely contains the list of even numbers plus the odd numbers as Well, this apparent paradox is possible simply because of the strange nature of infinity. Each of the even numbers can be put into a numbered list along with a corresponding counting number, so 2 is the number one, four is the number two, six is ​​the number three, and so on. At Infinity you will always be able to match an even number with a count number so that they are both the same size, but Cantor also showed that there are actually infinities of different sizes when you consider subsets within an infinite number of count numbers, take the four .
Beatles members John Paul George and Ringo, how many different combinations or subsets of members could you form among this group? You could have each of the four on their own, couples like John and Ringo or Paul and George trios like John Paul and Ringo and you. may have a set of Zeros, no Beatles in total. There are 16 possible configurations of the four Beatles, many more than the original number. The same applies to Infinity because of this multiplying nature of subsets, there will always be more subsets than numbers counted there. In fact, they are infinite sets of infinite numbers to count, but one Infinity is necessarily larger than the other.
If you find that this is twisting your brain to the breaking point, you're not alone. Georg Cantor himself suffered several nervous breakdowns throughout his career and it happened all the time. last year of his life in a psychiatric hospital, however, we must continue to consider infinity if we hope to understand the past, present, and future of the cosmos in all its complexity. The transfinite mathematics of the singer and the desperate reasoning of the Greek with impossible paradoxes were limited to contemplation. With numbers alone, the Greeks desperately tried to avoid any contact between infinity and reality, but astronomers now face actual infinities in a return from the infinite densities at the heart of supermassive black holes to the potentially infinite expanse of the universe at large. his set.
Scientists are now equipped with the mathematical and practical tools to tackle these problems head-on and confront the many oddities of an infinite Cosmos and what they would mean for our small, fleeting existence. Sentinel Island, running his hand lightly over the leaves as he passes, recognizes each of the trees, bushes and craggy rocks, they are as familiar as the faces of his children, gradually the trees thin and open to a sandy beach beyond , which is a vast expanse of blue he knows this land this speech he has even fished from his boat in the shallow waters not far from the shore but the ocean extends far further than the shallow canoe will ever carry him he dives into dark, unfathomable depths and it stretches out and surrounds his island with a solid blue halo, this is man's entire universe, the island is his world and all he can see is all there is and yet one afternoon, When he and his companions are bringing in the day's meager catch, something new comes to man's universe.
It is a white speck at first too small to distinguish on the

## edge

of the ocean. Little by little it grows in size as it approaches the island and before long it casts its long shadow on the fishing waters. The young man and his brothers are justifiably terrified. of these new beingsAliens who have descended silently into their world throw stones and sticks at the gigantic ship before retreating under the cover of trees. If the sentencing man had focused on something other than repelling the immediate danger, a flash of curiosity might have arrived. To him, if the island and its echoing ocean was all there was, then where did these aliens and their giant ship come from?
If he had returned from the safety of the trees at the end of the day, he would have seen the white ship shrink and then disappear Beyond the horizon of man's own universe Was there a vast expanse that lay Beyond his own observable Cosmos? Philosophers and foreigners have long struggled with the concept of an observable universe and what lies beyond it, if anything, as far back as the 4th century BC. The Greek scholar Architus considered what it would be like to travel to the edge of the heavens and then extend his hand beyond the limit. There could be nothing greater than the heavens themselves, so he stated that this clearly implied limitless space and an essentially infinite universe.
In the 16th century, the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno also concluded that space was infinite and contained infinite things - a statement that unfortunately for him anchored the church. Bruno was captured, tortured and finally burned at the stake. He had never thought that Infinity was so mortally dangerous and that is why in the following century the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes came to a much more acceptable conclusion. about the nature of the infinite Universe there was no point in speculating, he said that whether there is information or not, there is no cause beyond what we can see because there is simply nothing we can do to measure it better to put the idea to bed and worry .
With the many mysteries we can see rather than those we never will, whether out of self-preservation or genuine conviction, his claims have resonated through the centuries and are still repeated by scientists to this day, why speculate? when nothing good can come of it, although you are unlikely to lose your life over this matter nowadays, you can still lose your mind; However, some brave cosmologists still choose to risk confusion by tackling the potentially unknowable. Today we have better tools than ever to probe the observable universe and centuries of mathematical science. and philosophy to hold onto as we contemplate the potentially infinite reality of what lies beyond.
Like the tribes of North Sentinel Island, our view of the cosmos is limited by how far we can see into it. Light never travels faster than about 300 million meters per second. and so, the further we look into space, the further we go back in time, we can see galaxies from a billion years ago, from 5 billion years ago, even from 10 billion years ago, but at a certain distance the light fades. fades away and we see no more galaxies. Because galaxies were not yet seen so long ago, the edge of our observable universe is defined by both time and space.
It is not a physical construct, just a measure of how fast light can travel and how far away it is. that edge is further defined by the expansion that has taken place since those first galaxies began to grow; Their light has been traveling for 13.8 billion years, so they are at least 13.8 billion light years away, but in the intervening period space has continued to expand and that's why those first galaxies are now about 46 billion away. light-years away, although when we explore the limits of our observable universe it becomes very clear how little edges look like edges; There is nothing in the structure or distribution of these distant galaxies to suggest that they are all bunched up against an invisible barrier even though it is highly unlikely that the cosmos began with a perfectly uniform distribution of matter and energy on the broadest scale, that is.
What we see, there is no center to the universe on scales larger than about 230 light years wherever we are. Look, there are no places hotter, colder, or more or less densely packed with galaxies than anywhere else using the cosmic microwave background. A universe-wide glow just 300,000 years after the Big Bang, affectionately known as the baby picture of the universe, scientists have discovered differences on the largest scales of just a couple of parts in a hundred thousand; In fact, this homogeneity is considered strong evidence for the cosmological period of inflation, a fraction of a second at the beginning of time, when the universe is believed to have doubled in size. about 80 times, thus expanding many of its smallest wrinkles and, taking into account inflation and its resulting homogeneity, despite the immensity of a universe 92 billion light years in diameter, it must actually be much larger if wants to contain the inevitable irregularities. throughout the universe, as Thomas Hobbes said, although there is nothing we can do to explore that distant expanse and no amount of modern technology would change that.
We are always limited by the speed of light, but we have an almost infinite capacity for imagination and meaningless things. We cannot speculate about what exactly lies beyond. In general, there is still a widespread aversion to the concept of an infinite universe and cosmologists are doing their best to find a mechanism that puts limits on the number of things that exist, but how can it be built? a finite Universe without invoking something Beyond How can there be limits without an edge? For that there is at least one potential explanation if the Sentinelese tribesman took his canoe into the unforgiving open ocean Beyond the Horizon and into the great blue sea that he could travel for years without reaching a precipice with favorable winds and currents, he would eventually find himself back on North Sentinel Island, having circled the globe completely but never having reached an edge, just as the 2D surface of the Earth is finite and edgeless because it curves back on itself, so cosmologists suggest that the 3D universe is also curved and equally limited without margins and this is something we can prove on any flat surface.
Two lines that start parallel to each other always remain, so that they never touch and never diverge on a positive curved surface like the Earth's surface, lines that start parallel will eventually converge and touch each other and on a negatively curved surface like a saddle, parallel lines will gradually diverge and move further apart in the 1930s Edwin Hubble attempted to apply this reasoning to the three-dimensional Universe by counting the number of galaxies he could see along a given line of sight and recording how that number changed with distance. It seems like a sensible approach, but in reality the universe is not as simple as it seems.
At greater distances within the cosmos we look back in time and the inevitable evolution of galaxies over time will surely have an effect on counts at different distances, but there are other ways to investigate the same geometric principle using more standard and predictable features. of the universe The explosion of cosmological science since the 1990s has equipped astronomers with their best tools yet to attempt to plumb the unknowable vastness of the universe beyond our reach using the so-called standard candles and composite standard rules, respectively, by intensely bright supernovae and sound waves from the early universe frozen by the formation of atoms astronomers compare their models of the shape of the universe with what we actually observe in the skies powerful space telescopes like wmap the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe have measured the precise mass of all matter and energy in the universe and compare it to critical masses that would result in eternal expansion or inevitable contraction.
We've even probed small irregularities and the cosmic microwave background for any hint of curvature, whether a positively or negatively curved spacetime would give boundaries. Up to the final size of the cosmos, even a surface composed of positive and negative curvature in different directions could help define the edgeless boundaries of a finite universe, but when cosmologists actually make these measurements, they consistently find a worrying pattern, as far as we can tell. say, regardless. Regardless of where we look or how we look, the universe appears to be flat, stretching in all directions without any hint of hill or valley, does that mean it goes on forever?
At first glance it certainly seems that way, but at first glance it appears that the flat ocean extending infinitely in all directions if we could get another perspective, say, rising higher than the average airliner, we could see that the same curve of the ocean around it has a positive curvature that our eyes tethered to the surface simply cannot resolve and Scientists are similarly limited by the resolution of their instruments, there are many technical challenges to observing distant cosmic phenomena from our planet and our best observations only have a accuracy of one in 400, which means that while the universe may be flat so far as we can see, we may not be flying high enough to get the full picture, but at least the flatness we've observed so far puts a lower limit on the size of the unobservable universe so that it is curved and still appears that way. plane must be at least 37 billion light years in diameter it is an immense distance about a thousand times larger than our observable bubble but that is the smallest it can be it could be much larger it could be infinite August 15, 1977 An astronomer volunteer was reviewing pages of data from Ohio State University's Big Ear radio telescope when he saw something that stopped him dead in his tracks in the days before widespread computer processing.
The Observatory recorded and printed the signals it received every 12 seconds, indicating increasing strength first with the numbers 0 to 9 and then with the letters of the alphabet from A to Z, so that when Jerry Ayman saw the sequence 6eq uj5 , he was actually seeing a distinctive spike in the radio noise, a spike larger than anything the telescope had seen before it knew what it was. a narrow beep isolated from the sky could mean he circled the characters and wrote wow next to it and to this day the isolated radio shout is known as the wow signal at the time Big Ear was tasked with Listening to signals from alien civilizations as part of the growing search for extraterrestrial intelligence known as seti, scientists didn't have a good idea of ​​what a message from the stars might sound like, but they knew it must be distinctly different from the usual sounds of space, which was exactly what Eamon detected.
The signal of surprise was strong and never repeated. and could not be attributed to any phenomenon visible in the night sky, this was our first and only sign of extraterrestrial life in our galaxy. To this day, the signal remains a mystery although most scientists think it is more likely that the The pulse of the radio waves came from a natural source rather than an extraterrestrial companion, but even if the surprise signal turned out to be a cosmic fluke, one of the strange quirks of an infinite universe is that the aliens would definitely be real microbes. Little green men, even vast galaxy-devouring monsters, simply placed. not only is an infinite universe everything possible everything is trying to filter this vague statement through a scientific lens physicist Sean Carroll suggests that there are four options number one the universe is finite in size and finite in time number two the universe is infinite in size but finite in time number three, the universe could be finite in space but last forever and that before, perhaps most disconcerting is that the universe could be infinite in size and infinite in time, to begin with, let's consider a universe of infinite size and finite time, this universe.
Surely it must not contain anything infinite, but just as there are infinitely even numbers and infinitely many numbers to count, there can be infinite void and infinite structure all at the same time. That in itself is enough to confuse, but the real weirdness begins when considering what exactly constitutes that infinity. structure by first considering the phenomena that we can already observe things like stars, galaxies, planets and life, these would be among the objects that would presumably exist in infinite numbers in a cosmos of infinite size, this means that there would be infinite configurations of stars, galaxies, planets and living beings.
There are more beings than we can hope to count, chart, or travel, even if by some small chance the only life that exists in the observable universe is on a small rocky planet around a four and a half billion year old yellow star, then only This is enough to make the list a phenomenon that must be repeated ad infinitum throughout the cosmos, in fact, there must be an infinite number of clones ofeach and every one of us, each one of us contemplating our own place in the Eternal universe and the infinite variations. Cosmologist Max Tegmark estimates that they would be something like 10 to the power of 118 meters away from us, taking into account the possibility of an infinite number of different phenomena.
Things get even stranger, literally anything you can imagine and an infinite number of other things that could be happening beyond must be happening in the universe at any given time, in fact quantum mechanics means that anything within of the known laws of physics is possible at any time, although many of these possibilities are statistically incredibly improbable, but this is no impediment to a universe of infinite size, from cups falling through solid tables to entire galaxies appearing and disappearing In the blink of an eye, anything and everything else would populate this zoo of oddities and again, just as with Cantor's even and countable numbers, all possibilities would happen an infinite number of times regardless of their statistical probability and in a universe of finite size but infinite time, the same would apply infinite times if our universe simply continues to expand at its current rate and its entropy continues to increase, then we would once again fall victim to quantum weirdness as particles would move in and out of he.
Although existence, once again, is statistically highly unlikely in infinite time, everything would happen infinitely often, from individual particles appearing in a vacuum to entire brains or, more specifically, bodies, thus human brains wandering alone around the world. space. These so-called Boltzmann brains are part of a so-called grim thought experiment. To the late 19th century scientist Ludwig Boltzmann, it may seem extremely unlikely that the vroid from space could create a human brain replete with thoughts and sensations and artificial memories, but because of the strangeness of quantum fluctuations, it really is one of the mutations that an infinite Universe can Given enough time, this seemingly impossible permutation could appear spontaneously, and of course, if given an even greater amount of timeless time, it could even happen again and again.
It follows that, statistically, our thoughts and experiences are much more likely to be an illusion of something fictitious. Universe conjured by a non-corporeal Boltzmann brain that are true reflections of the cosmos so close to its strange birth also suggests that the universe may reach its recurrence point a recurrence time after about 10 to the power of 10 to the 120 billion years this It would be the moment when statistically all the particles within a finite Universe would repeat their initial arrangement and thus the cycle would begin again and we would finally arrive at an infinite universe of infinite size that comes with its own challenges.
Chief among them is the problem of measurement in a universe of infinite possibilities, each of which happens infinitely often, how can we calculate the probabilities or proportions of anything, how can we truly know the laws of a universe in the one that everything is possible and equally infinite and therefore, in this sense, trying to use the observable universe as any kind of template to explain how the infinite Beyond May works is a waste of time? Because we might imagine that the parts of the Eternal universe that we can see may represent a very small percentage of the whole, but the nature of infinity is such that any fraction of it is essentially zero, everything we have ever known will or could ever know.
The hope of knowing would be exactly zero percent of the infinite Cosmos under such conditions. The field of cosmology itself loses meaning. Predictions are impossible. Our theories about the Big Bang. The laws of nature and the distant future of our universe simply have no basis because we know precisely. nothing about the infinite Cosmos from which arose the enigmas themselves are unknown unknowable and infinite in extension does that mean that our lives are meaningless it is not difficult to see why the Greeks moved away from the concept of infinity and all that it implied about 2000 years ago since who strove to reason from an infinitely deep abyss, we still find ourselves grappling with the same problems despite the development of transfinite mathematics, a better characterization than ever of what exactly infinity is and every measurement we can hope to conjure up to study.
With the potentially infinite Cosmos just around the corner, we are really no closer to understanding anything about this number. Beyond numbers, facing Infinity means facing an inescapable existential dilemma, but even this is not the end. Our own Universe, infinite or not, is just the beginning when it comes to dealing with it. The infinite in cosmological theories there are many others, perhaps even more uncomfortable. Infinities that lurk on their own impossible horizons. Infinities that live within us. Infinities that linger in the distant past and Infinities that bubble endlessly within larger infinities. Polish mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot was fascinated by the apparent chaos. of the natural and man-made world and sought to find order in everything from the fluctuations of financial markets to the shape of a rocky coastline and in 1958 he moved to upstate New York and found himself in the perfect place to pursue his curiosity. : IBM The Research Center in Yorktown Heights was created to help the computer company develop its hardware and software, as well as the new type of mathematics behind its computer systems.
Mandelbrot ended up staying there for 35 years, but his work did not focus on improving computers rather it demonstrated what computers could do for the field of mathematics itself, so in 1980 he was one of the first to use graphs by computer to visualize something that simply would not be possible with just pencil and paper using relatively simple equations that he managed to show a unique type of geometry that he referred to as fractal after the Latin word for broken or shattered glass and that is defined by its self-similar structure scale-independent, this means that no matter what scale is observed in a fractal, it will always contain more details that can be zoomed in or out infinitely without reaching a simpler geometry.
They have infinite complexity. Mandelbrot showed this with his computer-generated Mandelbrot set, but he also looked at how such fractals can be found in nature. Similar fractal scale independent geometry can be seen in the leaves of ferns, the head of Romanesque broccoli, even in the clustering of distant galaxies, the entire universe was a fractal, of course, we now know that this is not the case in our observable universe on the largest scales we can examine. Homogeneity reigns, but could there be parallels on even larger scales? The question of how far the universe extends beyond our bubble may be unanswerable at the moment, but even if we start our cosmological studies with what we can see, we won't.
It will be a long time before we encounter the concept of infinity once again, our universe is expanding. everything moves away from everything else growing like a loaf of bread in a hot oven if it started from an infinite point then our observable universe started as a finite part of that initial infinite point and again, although our observable universe grows bigger and bigger, this It's just a measure of how far light has traveled over time, the real physical universe has become less and less dense, larger objects like us and galaxies are held together by gravity, but everywhere we look In the cosmos, the local Bara group, every two galaxies, is moving further and further away, at an average speed of 70 kilometers per second per megaparsec, the expansion trend continues into the distant future and what will we find unless between at play some force still invisible?
We can expect spacetime to continue stretching pushing each Galaxy away from its neighboring Stars away from each other and eventually leading to heat death throughout the universe, but despite this there is no final event that closes the universe. Our observable universe will continue to expand until it becomes infinitely large and again due to the nature of infinities this will take an infinite amount of time and yet counterintuitively even if we had this infinite time we could only explore a finite part of an infinite universe, since expansion would always be one step ahead as we trace the universe backwards.
Over the course of its history, that expansion also reverses, and as we turn back the clock, the cosmos shrinks, becoming smaller, denser, and hotter until it no longer looks anything like the universe we know. The laws of physics begin to act in strange and unexpected ways, allowing cosmologists to do surprising things. conclusions about exactly how things began the problem lies in identifying that starting point we can only understand the universe once it reaches the size where our physical laws mean something that physicists recognize today as the time when the cosmos was about a length of Planck in diameter according to calculations by physicist Max Planck at the beginning of the 20th century, the length of the table of the same name measures a minuscule 1.6 times 10 to minus 35 meters, one tenth of a millimeter and is approximately one billion billion times smaller than an atomic nucleus.
It is the size at which it causes quantum uncertainty. Our known physics breaks down, but the universe may have been expanding before this, blooming outward from a point that was infinitely small, infinitely dense, and infinitely hot. Of course, we have no idea what it might look like or what it might look like. behave, but there is nothing. In what we see and what we model to suggest that there was any other kind of beginning, of course, the nature of the Infinites means that to compress the universe down to a primordial state that is infinitely small, it would take an infinite amount of time, which means that our observable universe may well be much older than the 13.8 billion years we estimate, in fact at the big bang it may already have been infinitely old and therefore based on simple observations of what it is like now universe, we cannot escape the unprovable but not yet disproven logic of unlimited expansion both backward and forward in time, how then can we reconcile our big bang models and the inference of infinite smallness with the inescapable logic of infinite greatness?
It's true that the observable universe is expanding right now, but that doesn't have to be the case. the case of the entire infinite universe or all of infinite time cosmologists have suggested that our local universe consists of the parts we can see and an unknowable quantity. Beyond are regions of limited inflation within an immortal and infinite whole. This is the theory of eternal inflation. First proposed in 1979 by Alan Guth and given its eternal elements in the early 1980s by Andre Linde, Andreas Albrecht and Paul Steinhardt, we would therefore be a tiny part of an eternal Universe where inflation may always be occurring. , but not necessarily always at the same time. in the same place or to the same degree and the logical implication of this is that our universe is one of the infinite bubble universes that have germinated and blossomed spontaneously from the infinite whole, each of these corners of the infant in which the Multiverse can be located in different stages of cosmological development and may be governed by physical laws very different from ours, but they will always be beyond our reach, separated by the impassable Gulf of Infinite Space and, therefore, explore the mosaic world of theories. of the Multiverse opens another Pandora's box of infinities to accommodate the exotic physics that requires the infinitely small, many physicists delve into the world of possibilities offered by various string theories and M theory.
In this theory it is stated that our reality exists as a fleeting intersection of dimensions and that many of those juxtapositions could exist simultaneously and come in and out of existence as much of hyperspace transforms, so we must contemplate not only the notion of infinite universes in our three dimensions of space , but also the existence of a Multiverse made up of any number of dimensional combinations and, again, there is nothing to explain. Saying that these different universes would have the same laws of physics as our own, which of course opens up a whole new frontier of infinite options different forces of gravity different masses of fundamental particles truly infinite possibilities our big bang may be the smallest scale that We may The resolution and ultimate heat death of the universe may be the largest,but if some disembodied omnipotent power were able to zoom in or out of our expanding bubble, they might find that it is just one layer of complexity in a larger hole, and, in fact, one more layer of complexity.
The idea is very close to Robert Penrose's conformal cyclic cosmology, when from our perspective our own bubble has become infinitely large, it may simply be the seed of a new infinitely small big bang that mocks the beginning of a Universe on a scale completely different. theories and as with much of the challenge of real Infinities, they are incredibly difficult, if not impossible, to prove and perhaps that is what can save us from these existential crises, the simple fact that the very nature of the infinite means that it never we could have real evidence. For an infinite Cosmos, all scientists can do is continue searching for evidence of finite size.
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