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What Is (Almost) Everything Made Of?

Apr 10, 2024
The world is strange, the whole universe is very strange, but when you look at the details, the rules of the game are very simple. One of the greatest minds in physics. Richard Fineman once compared deciphering the laws of reality to watching the gods play chess, except in this case you are only allowed to see fragments of the match and often you can only see a small corner of the board from these. With few clues and glimpses, you have to solve the rules behind the pieces' movements, and instead of rugs, knights, and pornos, you must try to decipher the laws that govern fundamental particles, such as electrons, photons, and quarks.
what is almost everything made of
Sometimes these investigations yield great revelations. At first, you may notice that a bishop always stays on squares of the same color. Look long enough, though, and you'll discover that while it's true there. There is an even more fundamental rule at play. Bishops can only move diagonally, which in turn explains why they always remain on squares of the same color. The history of understanding our world is littered with similar revelations. Often, two sets of rules are suddenly merged into one that seemed complex to be instantly simplified. Two seemingly separate forces are revealed to be actually two sides of the same coin.
what is almost everything made of

More Interesting Facts About,

what is almost everything made of...

Two equal particles and opposite vibrations, the Ying to the Yang of the other, but the road to this point has been arduous every time physicists thought they were getting there. Close to understanding all the rules, they have discovered a small hole in their theory that they cannot explain. It is the equivalent of one of the special moves of chess castling. This is when the king moves more than one space and exchanges order with the rook castling. It simultaneously breaks three of the normal rules of chess and yet it can be a very powerful move. A decisive move in any game, as Fineman said, is

what

doesn't fit.
what is almost everything made of
The most interesting thing has to do with curiosity. It has to do with people wondering. What makes something do something What we are looking for is how

everything

works What makes

everything

work This long and winding road has brought modern physicists to the precipice of remarkable progress when perhaps an endless list of rules is not needed every time. increasingly complicated, but it is possible that all phenomena in the known universe, from the smallest subatomic particles to all fundamental forces and, by extension, even ourselves, can be explained using a single rule: that

almost

everything is simply vibrations. in a vast network of quantum fields, but is this really the end of the game or are there still quirks in the rulebook lurking just out of reach thanks to better help by sponsoring this video everything we call real is

made

of things The world of theoretical physics is full of moments that pull the rug out from under you and so is everyday life, sometimes you just need someone to help you organize your thoughts.
what is almost everything made of
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Get 10% off your first month. at betterhelp.com hot and I've also linked them below in the description thanks to better help to support educational content on YouTube and then to find out, if you try to get answers, that they are related to each other, that things that make the wind. the waves that the movement of water is like the movement of air is like the movement of sand the fact that things have common characteristics is becoming more and more Universal what we are looking for is how everything works that makes everything work cities and Los Continents flash by as the Japanese Hitomi satellite orbits the Earth at nearly 30,000 kilometers per hour.
He runs so fast that he sees 15 sunrises and sunsets every day with a total expenditure of 300 million. 30 years to build it was conceived to look at. some of the most violent events in the known universe, yet within weeks of its release, it would meet a violent end of its own. A catastrophic failure of the system causes it to spin out of control. The team behind the mission tries to fire up the onboard thrusters to slow it down, but that only makes Hitomi spin faster, now it's spinning so fast that its solar panels are sheared off and the satellite breaks into pieces.
The mission ended before it had even begun, but why did he take down htoi? The subsequent investigation discovered that the initial failure occurred. Isomi missed the South Atlantic anomaly a dent in the Earth's magnetic field this exposed it to higher levels of radiation from space cold its delicate circuits the Earth's magnetism generally acts as a giant bubble protecting us from the ravages of such radiation begins deep in the bowels of the planet as Earth's cool outer core spins through the crust and into space, extending its magnetic tendrils to around 6 million kilometers. The South Atlantic anomaly is caused by a magnetic reversal in a small part of the outer core and the satellites that pass through the region are vulnerable and, therefore, although it goes unnoticed in our daily lives, the magnetism that surrounds us is extremely powerful.
We humans have been fascinated with the Earth's magnetic M for millennia. The first compasses were made 2,000 years ago during the Han Dynasty in China, when naturally magnetized pieces of iron called loading stones were used for land navigation centuries before, the ancient Greek philosopher Thales of Meitus thought that loading stones had souls because attracted iron, but it took scientists much longer to explain magnetism and, in doing so, a fascinating new The concept crystallized the field in physics a field is a region in which each point has an associated physical quantity weather forecasts Television shows are a good example because they show how temperature varies in a given region of the Earth's surface.
These maps are temperature fields that tell you the temperature you would experience if you were placed in a particular part of the map. Similarly, the Earth's magnetic field is a map that illustrates the strength and direction of the magnetic force that a particle would feel at various points around the planet. The South Atlantic anomaly. It is a part of the map where the Earth's magnetic field is particularly weak, the International Space Station has additional shielding to deal with the increased radiation it lets in and astronauts cannot spacewalk while passing through this region used for the first time. by the English scientist Michael.
Faraday in 1846 saw Fields as more than mere mathematical maps. He considered them physical objects that fill empty space, and to illustrate this, Faraday used this idea to help explain the puzzling behavior of ordinary bar magnets. At some point, all children become fascinated with magic. of magnets try to bring two north poles together and they resist, you can feel them separating from each other, how can they do that without even touching what is happening in the space between them? Farad's response was that magnets may not touch, but his Magnetic fields are the explanation of him, introduced the concept of field lines.
You may remember the classic school experiment of scattering iron filings around a bar magnet that traces the magnet's field lines leaving the North Pole and returning to the South Pole. The magnetic field is stronger. at these poles and that is why the field lines are closer together, at least that is the 19th century when, come to think of it, as we will see, the truth is much stranger, but that was not the end of Faraday's genius. His most famous discovery came when he found that changing a magnetic field can induce an electric current in a nearby circuit.
A decade earlier, Danish physicist Hans Christian Stad had discovered the opposite: an electric current passed through a wire deflected the needle. of a nearby compass away from magnetic north. Clearly, a changing magnetic field could influence an electric field and vice versa why the two fields were so connected the answer would come from Scottish physicist James Clark Maxwell in 1865 Maxwell mathematically described the discoveries of Faraday and Ed. This work is so important that in 1999 leading physicists voted Maxwell the third greatest physicist of all time behind only Einstein and Newton Maxwell's equations should show that, rather than being two separate fields, electric fields and magnetic fields are components of a just electromagnetic field, that's why changing one changes the other, you're altering parts of the same thing that Maxwell had combined. two seemingly separate phenomena in one in the chess game of the Gods, detecting that changing magnetic fields and electric fields influence each other is equivalent to realizing that the Knight always alternates between white and black squares joining them in the electromagnetic field is how to discover This is because the Knight always moves in an L shape.
A deeper and more complete understanding of the rules was achieved and the search for similar unifications has kept physicists busy since this was just the tip of an iceberg very great scientist, since Maxwell had another hidden trick. manga imagine an electrically charged particle, it generates an electric field around it, just like a magnet creates a magnetic field, the particle then starts moving up and down, this changes its electric field, which also generates a changing magnetic field According to Maxwell's equations, the fields constantly change. They produce waves that move outward through the electromagnetic field electromagnetic waves The frequency with which particles move up and down dictates how long it takes for the peaks and troughs in electromagnetic waves to repeat themselves from your equations.
Maxwell calculated the speed of these electromagnetic waves and the response he obtained. What they discovered was remarkable: they move at the speed of light. It's surely not a coincidence. Maxwell became convinced that light itself is an electromagnetic wave. In fact, if it were true, he would explain how sunlight reaches us even though the sun is 150 million kilometers away, the electromagnetic field would fill the void. The space between us and the light could rumble through it like an ocean wave, but how could this be definitively demonstrated? The man who gave the answer was Heinrich Herz. It is now so synonymous with electromagnetic waves that the unit for measuring how many times they repeat in a second bears the name.
After him, Herz first installs a device capable of producing an electric spark, then prepares a receiver 15M away, when the generator generates sparks, another spark soon follows in the receiver to prove that this is caused by an invisible wave that travels between the two devices. a mirror between them has to move the receiver to turn it back on because the mirror reflects the wave in A new way is even able to measure the speed of the wave, which turns out to be the speed of light that Herz has discovered. radio waves Maxwell is justified the rules of the game were definitely updated light was an electromagnetic wave and yet something didn't quite add up light was just an electromagnetic wave sometimes surprisingly the same experiment that provided evidence that light was an electromagnetic wave would eventually prove to be something completely different, a particle.
Herz noticed that the spark in the receiver was brighter when exposed to ultraviolet light. Later experiments by other scientists, including Philip Von Leonard, showed that electrons are ejected as a metal absorbs light, which is what caused Herz to shine a brighter light on his spark. has higher waves, so they should have dislodged more electrons when hitting the metal, but Von Leonard discovered that it was the light waves that repeated most frequently, those with a higher frequency and not intensity, that They released more electrons. This became known as the photoelectric effect and herald of perhaps the greatest revolution in the history of science.
An explanation would soon come from none other than Albert Einstein. Despite being famous for his theories of Relativity, it was this work on the photoelectric effect that would earn him the Nobel Prize. Einstein argued that light is not a continuous wave at all, but a series of particles fired like bullets, particles that today we call photons. The amount ofThe energy each photon has depends on the frequency of the light and only photons with high frequencies have enough energy to dislodge an electron. It is similar to a boxing match, many continuous low energy punches do little, one sizeable knockout blow is all that is needed.
This was a truly strange discovery and one that would force physicists to admit that their entire chess game was horribly outdated,

almost

without exception every rule would need to be rewritten. Complete with startling revelations about the true nature of our reality and even ourselves. At the end of the thread that Faraday began pulling in 1846, we would find ourselves living in a totally different universe, but to begin developing the rules of this new game, physicists would have to solve this simple mystery of why light comes in packets with certain sizes. We are trying to prove ourselves wrong as quickly as possible because only then can we find progress when night falls.
Dobri lights up a disturbance for the senses, the sense of smell. of Japanese street food floats in the air as crowds of people bustle noisily through the busy Sakan alleys, but it's the kaleidoscope of color that hits you the most wherever you look, near neon signs that flood the streets with illuminated advertising of balls of king crab octopus and rotating sushi. restaurants and deep within these famous neon signs is an equally frenetic hive of activity unfolding instead of people running around tiny subatomic particles called electrons. They, the streets of Doton Bor would be dark, are also the key to understanding photons. .
Let's travel inside one of the red doton B neon signs that are filled with hydrogen gas to reach the individual hydrogen atoms. We have to get closer in an incredibly long way. The hydrogen atom is almost unfathomably small, about 83 million times narrower than a fingernail. If you shrank the Earth by the same amount, you could hold the planet in the palm of your hand. Hydrogen is the simplest atom in the universe, made up of only two. particles a positively charged proton in the center with a negatively charged electron buzzing around it, although far from a perfect analogy, it is similar to the Hitomi satellite orbiting the Earth.
In fact, this is how Danish physicist Neil's Borre imagined the hydrogen atom in 1913 as far as is known. However, as a drilling model, B argued that the electron cannot inhabit any orbit around the proton, but that the orbits of the electrons are like the food served on street doors, you cannot buy a portion of the size Whatever you want, you have to choose between predetermined quantities. such as small, medium or large, anything in between simply does not exist in the hole model, the electron orbits are equally quantized, meaning only certain restricted quantities or sizes are allowed.
These allowed orbits are called energy levels and are the secret behind Doon B's cacophony of color. If you pass an electric current through a gas, you give its electrons a boost of energy which they use to jump to a level of energy. higher energy when they fall back down, the energy they lose is spit out in the form of a photon, the energy of the photon is equal to the size of the gap between the energy levels, in turn this governs the color of light we see . Red light has the least energy. Violet light is the most if all orbits were possible, then we would only see white light.
The different colors of the countless transitions mixed here, that's not what we see. If you take the light from the glowing hydrogen gas and pass it through a prism-like device, then you reveal the spectrum of hydrogen. The visible part of this spectrum consists of only four. colored lines painted in a sea of ​​black these lines come from photons emitted when electrons fall to the second energy level from the sixth fifth four fourth and third energy levels respectively. The darkness between the lines is a barren wasteland, it is devoid of light because the electron transitions necessary to illuminate it simply do not exist.
This pattern is the quantum atom chart, but of the four lines, the red one on the far right, known as H Alpha, is significantly brighter than its neighbors, drowning out the other three and so the streets of Doon Borri are drenched in red so far so good, not simple but at least rational, by the 1920s many of the greatest physicists in history, from Max Plank to Einstein, had worked on this model of the atom as a result of following the implications of The Effect Einstein's photoelectric drive to its logical end, but of course in Fineman's game of cosmic chess there was always some small, obscure move that opens a huge hole in your theory, an innocuous observation that makes you realize that not everything is as it is. what it looks like and this particular crack was especially minuscule if you look closely at the H Alpha line.
You will see that it is not one line at all, but two. These lines are almost imperceptibly close together, separated by a distance 250,000 times thinner than a thread of spider silk. Fine structure and perforated model cannot explain it Fine structure itself is the equivalent of a large neon sign flashing a warning Incomplete theory once again physicists were forced to go back to the drawing board and today the solution to the enigma of fine structure is on the other side of the world in a place as popular with tourists as the street food stalls of Doon Buri Westminster Abbey with its imposing Towers Westminster Abbey is one of the jewels of the London Crown Kings and queens have been crowned within its walls for almost a thousand years, it is also the burial place of many British icons, from Dickens and Darwin to Kipling and Newton, and on the floor of the Abbey, near the Newton monument , a plaque commemorating the life of possibly the greatest English physicist since Newton himself Paul Adrien Maurice durak engraved on the plaque is the equation that not only represents the crescendo of D's genius but also solves the problem of fine structure and explains why Why the H Alpha line is a doublet The secret is a murky, mysterious property of electrons called spin We know that when a line electrically charged particle moves, it produces a magnetic field, yet experiments show that electrons are actually producing two separate magnetic fields and therefore must move in two different ways.
An electron orbits the atom, but it is also said to be spinning, so in a sense an electron. is similar to the Earth, which rotates on its axis and orbits the Sun, except that in the case of electrons, the spin is just an analogy, they would have to spin faster than the speed of light to explain their observed behavior. I still use the word spin to refer to the source of the second magnetic field of the electron and the fine structure results from these two magnetic fields interacting with each other like the orbits of the electrons and the spin of Doon's street food is also quantized, just certain amounts are allowed in the spin of the electron is 1/2, but it can be positive or negative, so an electron can exist in one of two spin states up, where its spin is plus half, and down, where Its spin is minus half.
An electron with spin up creates a magnetic field. that adds to the magnetic field generated by its orbital motion, propelling the electron to a slightly higher energy level. The magnetic field created by a lower electron SP acts against the orbital magnetic field, relegating the electron to a slightly lower energy level, so the two. The widely spaced H Alpha lines in the hydrogen spectrum are produced by electrons falling from these marginally different energy levels. D's brilliance brought together several advances in early 20th century physics to explain the oddity of spin in 1926 in Schinger's famous Schrodinger publication. equation just as light can act as a particle and wave so can electrons the Schrodinger equation describes the behavior of these electron waves also folded into Einstein's special theory of relativity which describes how objects behave when they are The result is that when Durra published his own equation in 1928, which is engraved on the Westminster Abbey plaque, he demonstrated that spin becomes an inevitable property of the electron once it is treated as a quantum wave. relativistic.
The gauge model that describes electrons as orbiting planets is consigned to the growing pile of theories that physicists have been forced to discard. Atoms are actually made of waves and particles at the same time the fine structure crack opened and consumed the atom entirely, but the best scientific theories don't just explain something we already know. Dur's equation also predicts something we don't know. It works regardless of whether or not the particles it describes have positive or negative energy, which is why Dur predicted the existence of a particle identical to the electron but with the opposite electrical charge, an antimatter particle and only Four years after Durak published his equation, Carl Anderson's son found the positron compared to the hole model, Durac's equation was certainly a more complete set of rules for how the subatomic chess game works, but in this point, understandably, physicists had become cautious about closing the equation. rule book and they were right not to, as they would soon discover that there were still two more tiny moves in a strange corner of the board, although they were not covered by d's rules and in a strange historical coincidence they were both announced at the same conference in 1947 During World War II, many of the leading figures in physics were repurposed to develop militarily useful technology, such as radars and atomic bombs.
The Shelter Island Conference held near Long Island in New York was an opportunity to refocus on compiling the definitive rulebook of the universe, the wonderfully named K polycarp announced its measurements of a property of the electron called its magnetic dipole, at the time his answer disagreed with a direct prediction that suggested there was still something much deeper and more mysterious at play, so to explain this let's go back to our The bar magnet has two poles, north and south, which turns it into a dipole. If you place the bar magnet inside another magnetic field, it will try to align with that field like a compass needle swinging toward the north point.
The magnetic dipole moment is a measure of force. As a result of this interaction, the spin of an electron generates a magnetic field and is therefore like a small dipole magnet, but the question is how strong its magnetic dipole moment is if an electron is not treated as a particle. quantum and is supposed to be a quantum particle. small sphere that is actually spinning you get the wrong answer the actual value of the magnetic dipole moment measured by Kush is about double this difference between quantum and non-quantum responses is called the G factor the dur equation correctly treats the electron as a quantum Object and predicts that the G factor should be exactly two, however Kush's measurements said otherwise, the answer he gets is 2238.
This seemingly trivial difference became known as the anomalous magnetic dipole moment of the electron. It was another neon sign that illuminated our ignorance. An inexplicable Gambit in the chess game of the gods, but that was not the biggest impact on Shelter Island, the war had seen great advances in microwave technology and in his post-war experiments, Willis Lamb had seen hydrogen atoms spitting out photons of microwaves, photons that simply should not exist. exist according to the durac equation two of the energy levels within the hydrogen atom should coincide instead lamb realized that they diverge by only one part in a million when the electrons transition between them they produce the photons microwave lamb saw this unexpected energy level split.
Known as the Lamb Shift, Lamb would later reflect that it was the smallest measure with the greatest ramifications that could be executed. Lamb's work would not only give them a share of the 1955 Nobel Prize, but would put pressure on physicists to extend the Durx equation to what would become the most precise and exquisitely tested theory in the history of physics. everything we know about the electromagnetic field and the quantum atom in a single theory, but by understanding it we would be forced to accept a truly strange new reality. Quantum mechanics describes nature. so absurd from the point of view of common sense and yet it fully agrees with the experiment, so I hope you can accept nature as it is absurd for the physicist Andre Gim,It was just another Friday night at the lab for the Frog, it must have felt like that. had been transported to orbit floating in the air spinning and flipping like an astronaut doing attacks Som gim spends 10% of his time on these seemingly outlandish experiments along with Frog G and his team would levitate plants, fish and even a mouse using strong magnets. his efforts earned him the IG Nobel Prize in 2000, a satirical alternative to the Nobel Prize intended to recognize common or trivial scientific achievements, and yet, despite the whimsical nature of Gim's experiments, you have much more in common with his creatures. levitating than you think.
It may seem like you are touching the chair you are sitting on or the floor you are standing on, but that is simply not the case, instead you are floating in a cloud of particles when you walk, you are not in contact with the ground. Instead, you were standing above a swarm of subatomic spectra, blink and you'll miss the ghost particles haunting the quantum world. This is the counterintuitive reality of the chess game of the Gods, to quote physicist Frank Wilch, what you see is not what you understand the fact that we are all levitating like Gim's frog is the only logical way to explain the seemingly small inconsistencies observed by Kush and Lamb, the smallest effect with the most profound consequences, it turned out that the dur equation did not account for quilted lamb. because although he treated the electron as a quantum object, he still described the electromagnetic field in the same way that Faraday and Maxwell did in the 19th century, instead the electromagnetic field also needed to be quantized, it had to be treated as a quantum field.
He ran out of the consequences that would entail and so, together with other physicists in the years following his revolutionary equation, Durak began to develop a very strange vision of our world: imagine that the electromagnetic field is represented by a string , you touch the string and give it energy to make it vibrate. except that if this is a truly quantum field, these vibrations can only come in predetermined sizes if you don't give the field enough energy to reach the smallest vibration possible, then nothing happens. Physicists have a name for the smallest possible vibration of an electromagnetic field. a photon, photons and electrons, therefore, are not particles embedded in a field, they are the photons of the field.
They are vibrations of the electromagnetic field and an electron is the smallest possible vibration of a separate electron field. These fields are fundamental, they fill the universe and exist if it is a vibration. what we call a particle is either there or not here's another way to imagine it imagine a field is made up of a grid of tiles, each connected to a spring initially the field is completely stationary the tiles are all level and there are no springs bouncing around up and down, however, if you lift one of the tiles, actually injecting energy into a small part of the field, you can cause one of the springs to swing up and down.
This localized vibration of a field is what we see as a particle crucially, although the spring has some resistance if you don't pull the tile hard enough, it won't move; In other words, a minimum amount of energy is required to create a particle. You can increase the size of the oscillation by injecting more energy, but only in the case of quantum fields. Vibrations of predetermined sizes are allowed, hence why electrons need a certain amount of energy to jump to a higher orbital. Vibrations within quantum fields only come in multiples of the smallest possible vibration. Anything in between is prohibited, as are these vibrations in a quantum field. can be transferred to another When physicists say that an electron drops an energy level as in Doon lights, what they really mean is that a localized vibration in the electron field vibrates less.
This lost energy is transferred to the electromagnetic field creating a localized vibration. There, what we call a photon, representing this process using particles is perhaps easier to understand, but in reality there are no particles involved, it's all just vibrating fields interacting with each other. The idea of ​​particles as mere vibrations is known as Quantum Field Theory and also explains the antimatter first predicted by Durac. An electron is a vibration of the electron field, but its antimatter companion, the positron, is a vibration of the same field in the opposite direction, the equivalent of throwing the tile down instead of up.
That is why the two so-called particles have identical properties except for their opposite electrical charges. When an electron and a positron meet, their oscillations cancel each other and the electron field stops vibrating, their energy is transferred to the vibrating electromagnetic field. to create two photons. this is called annihilation, the opposite can also happen when the energy of a photon is transferred to the electron field to create an electron-positron pair, unsurprisingly this process is called pair production. It was Durak who first came up with a name for this theory of how light and matter work. interact, he called it quantum electrodynamics or QED, but how do these quantum fields explain Kush's anomalous measurement of the electron's magnetic dipole moment and the lamb's displacement and where do the ghostly particles you're levitating about fit in?
The answer would come from physicist Julian Schinger. Born in New York in 1918, Schinger fell in love with physics during a Dur lecture he attended when he was only 14 years old. At 16 he had enrolled as an undergraduate at the City College of New York, clearly a precocious talent. The legendary physicist Hans Beer. said of a 17 year old Schinger that his knowledge of quantum electrodynamics is certainly equal to mine and I could hardly understand how he could acquire that knowledge in less than 2 years if QED explains the interaction between light and electrons through quantum fields those fields It must also be subject to all the rules of the counterintuitive quantum world, and that includes the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is a loan agreement with the universe. He says you can borrow energy from empty space as long as you return it within a deadline. a certain amount of time, the more energy you borrow, the faster you have to pay it back. This borrowed energy can lift a tile and vibrate a quantum field to create a particle, but then that vibration disappears again once the energy debt is paid. Physicists refer to these ghostly vibrations as virtual particles meaning that an electron is never truly alone. The surrounding electromagnetic field constantly vibrates with borrowed energy, creating a swarm of virtual photons that appear and disappear.
Sometimes virtual photons exist long enough to undergo pair production to produce virtual pairs of electrons and positrons, but they also disappear soon before they disappear. These Poltergeist particles hit the actual electron at a slightly different energy level within the hydrogen atom, which is exactly what Willis Lam had observed. They also influenced the electron's magnetic interactions, which explains why. The G factor measured by Kushi was slightly higher than in the dur equation which does not treat the electromagnetic field as a quantum field in the years since physicists measured the magnetic dipole moment of the El with an incredible level of precision according to QED the electron G The factor should have a value of 2.0 23193 43552 in February 2023.
Physicists announce that the most precise measurement of the electron G. The factor ever made your answer 2.23 1 9304 3612 correct by about 1 part in a trillion, making QED the most precisely tested theory in the history of physics is the same as measuring the distance to the Moon with a precision less than the width of a human hair without the presence of virtual particles the G factor would be exactly two can come and go but their ghostly influence leaves a mark in the real world that is there for everyone to see it is as if a piece on the chess board has moved without anyone touching it our rule book also has That including these phantom movements, the fleeting existence of virtual particles, has profound implications for the way we explain the world around us.
Let's start with how magnets work. Farad's 19th century idea of ​​field lines and income. The exchange of virtual photons. Imagine that you and a friend are standing on a boat. If balls are thrown back and forth, the boats will separate in the same way, two coincident magnetic poles separate by exchanging virtual photons. If the poles are opposite then they attract each other also exchanging virtual photons, but this time in a way that is a bit like throwing boomerangs between ships instead of balls in a similar way. virtual photons that form the cloud you are currently levitating above like G's frog.
Electrons orbit so far from the nucleus that atoms are mostly empty space. You should fall straight through the chair or floor as the atoms pass through the atoms unhindered. But it's only because the electrons on the floor or in the chair and the electrons in you are constantly exchanging virtual photons that separate like two magnetic north poles, without even touching you, you are floating forever in the most ephemeral of quantum clouds with the that physicists have juggled. implications of virtual particles since Heisenberg introduced his uncertainty principle in 1927, within two years Scher's PhD supervisor and later father of the atomic bomb, Robert Oppenheimer, realized that they presented a major problem for success. of QED when he used an early version of the theory to add the contribution of the multitudes of virtual particles swarming around an electron, he suggested that the energy that the electron emits as it changes energy levels is infinite.
QED apparently couldn't explain something as basic as the hydrogen spectral lines so beautifully explained by both drills. and Duraq's calculations of the mass and charge of the electron also gave the answer to Infinity. Infinity is not even a number, but the notion or idea of ​​infinity when it arises in physics, is another big neon sign imploring physicists to try harder. This Infinity problem meant that Q appeared Dead on arrival, another false Dawn, but this would not be the end of the theory, as it would eventually be rescued by Schinger and others in the 1940s using an incredibly powerful theoretical technique: infinite displacement. lamb and the The anomalous magnetic dipole moment of the electron had shown physicists that the effect of virtual particles is finite and not infinite.
The influence they have is measurable. Theorists did not have to fully understand why QED initially gave the wrong answer. All they had to do was modify their equations. in such a way that they produced the values ​​measured by Lamb and Kush altering a theory in this way to overcome unwanted infinities is an act of mathematical magic called renormalization and scientists use the technique to this day to solve seemingly impenetrable problems and by That these two small effects in a dark corner of the cosmic chessboard became doubly important not only showed that D's initial set of rules was incomplete, but also helped improve the set of rules that replaced it.
The Infinities were surpassed and suddenly QED was a capable functional theory. to predict real outcomes with surprising accuracy, the first true quantum field theory. Schinger would share the 1965 Nobel Prize with Richard Fean and Cino Tomonaga, the other Grand Masters who also discovered the route to renormalization, but the astonishing success of QED left physicists wondering. If the electromagnetic force between magnets could be explained so exquisitely as nothing more than waves in a quantum field, what about the other forces of nature, how far could they go? Much of reality could be explained as mere vibrations in fields, because atomic behavior is very different from ordinary one.
This experience is very difficult to get used to and is peculiar and mysterious to everyone, both the novice and the experienced physicist. The trail of people leaving the wooden cabins and crossing the Chilot Pass resembles an army of ants. The footprints left by his frozen boots. Feet wind for miles around the mountains. 100,000 eager explorers have descended on Canada as the Yukon River and the surrounding Klondike region. A frenzy sparked by the discovery of gold, but most never even reach the gold fields, forced to return empty-handed by the elements. or worse deaths from infectious diseases Avalanches or assaults today theThe Klondike is much more serene than during the gold rush at the end of the 19th century, but the precious metal is still mined here and in 2022 Earth's miners will bury treasures of very different kinds.
In the permafrost, a perfectly preserved woolly mammoth. Scientists estimate that the mammoth lived about 30,000 years ago, but how do they know that it is the answer to that question that provides the key to the next set of quantum rules since the mammoth died in a subatomic clock? A clock based on carbon-14 atoms has been silently running inside it. The nucleus of a carbon-14 atom contains six protons and eight particles called neutrons. Occasionally, one of the neutrons spontaneously changes shape to a proton, since that is the number of protons. What distinguishes different chemical elements from each other is no longer a carbon atom, it is now a nitrogen atom with seven protons and seven neutrons.
This random process is called radioactive decay and the more carbon atoms that have become nitrogen, the older it must be. sample but this type of radioactive decay is governed by a completely different force than the one that controls magnets and electrons, a force that appears to be considerably weaker, hence its name weak force and the story of how physicists came to truly understand the rules of radioactive decay. The weak force and its various moves on the board began at the Bronx High School of C in New York City back in 1950, that year the Bronx High class contained not one but two future Nobel Prize winners, not only that who would win the same award in the same year for contributions to the same theory despite working on it separately were Shelin Glashow and Steven Weinberg.
Both Glashow and Weinberg ended up at Cornell University after Weinberg's father took them to see several colleges after graduation. Glasow moved to Harvard. to complete a doctorate under the watchful eye of Julian Schinger having renormalized quantum electrodynamics Schinger Set Glashow thinking if the weak Force could also be explained using a quantum field we have already seen how the electromagnetic force is transported by virtual photons that flutter between the poles of a magnet and even between the feet and the ground, physicists call that Force that carries particles bons, but Bon is responsible for producing the weak Force.
The answer lies partly in the decay of carbon-14 to nitrogen-14, used in carbon dating, the Weak Force becomes. an electrically neutral neutron into a positively charged proton along with an electron and a particle called an electron antineutrino. This process is called beta minus decay, but it can also happen the other way around during beta plus decay, a proton transforms into a neutron plus a positron. and an electron neutrino in other words the weak force is capable of changing the electrical charge of a particle a photon the electromagnetic force boson does not have this power when an electron absorbs a photon it remains negatively charged so the weak force must have at minus two One of the bonds involved in the change from neutral to positive and another in the change from positive to neutral was Weinberg who chose the letter W for weak, which gave us the bonds w+ and W minus, so the physical ones, including Schinger and Gasha, attempted to explain these weak force interactions using a Quantum.
Field theory just as they had done for the electromagnetic force, these W bosons were the reason for being the minimum possible vibrations of the W field, just as the photon is for the electromagnetic field, just like photons flying between magnets, the w+ and W minus bosons are involved in The two forms of beta decay are also virtual particles that disrupt reality before quickly disappearing into the quantum shadows. In this way we date archaeological treasures with the help of particles that do not actually exist, except that they convert the weak Force into a full Force. Quantum field theory was turning out to be more than a little complicated; for one thing, the math predicted three bosons, not two, so Glasow suggests the existence of a new electrically neutral boson in place of Z, due to the fact that it has zero charge, so the weak force is carried by three bosons.
W + W minus and Zed are the product of two different quantum fields, one for the two Ws and one for the Zed. Progress is made, but there is a bigger problem: this trio of bons has mass, they must do so because of the distance over which the weak ones. The Force operates what physicists call its range is Tiny, just one hundredth of a billionth of a millimeter. This behavior suggests that the virtual bonuses responsible for transporting the Weak Force disappear incredibly quickly before they can get very far, the time it takes for half of them to disappear.
Known as its half-life is only three 10 septians of a second, there are more half-lives in a single second than there have been in seconds since the Big Bang about 13.8 billion years ago and that is why it is called the Weak Force. , it's not that it's inherently weak when it ACTS instead, the weak Force rarely acts because the virtual bonuses that carry it disappear very quickly. The reason that a very short lifespan means that weak bonds have a significant amount of mass M is again the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the borrowing agreement with nature. That's responsible for virtual particles in the first place, remember that you can borrow a little energy for a long time or a lot of energy for a short time.
The incredibly short lifetimes of the weak bosons suggest that they must have borrowed a lot of energy according to Einstein's famous experiment. The high energy eal mc² equation also means high mass, so weak bosons reach around 100 times heavier than a proton or 160,000 times heavier than an electron, but this through a key in the works, weak bosons that have mass meant that renormalization is the fabulous trick that physicists Using to beat the infinities of quantum electrodynamics only worked for massless bosons, like photons, the infinities were still present if you wanted to treat the Weak force like a quantum field and its bosons like its vibrations, so it was Glow's old school friend Steven Weinberg who helped discover the way through the Quagmire with a remarkable thought, another condensation of the rules: What if the electromagnetic field and the weak field were once one and the same while physicists had been busy trying to write the quantum rule book for God's chess game?
Astronomers had realized that the Universe began as an incredibly small hot spot known as the Big Bang. Together, physicists and astronomers began to explore the possibility that a so-called electroweak field originally existed that separated into electromagnetic and weak fields like the universe. expanded and cooled, if this electroweak field had massless bonds before separation, then it could be treated as a quantum field without being affected by the infinity problem. The question then was how to go from a field with massless bonds to two separate fields, only one of which has massed bonds and this is how Weinberg made it work, let's say the electroweak field had four massless bonds, we will call them W1 W2 W3 and B, there must also have existed another field which we will call field H.
Field H is initially inactive but is activated spontaneously by putting its own four bons into play, they are called H+ H minus h0 and little H, the activation of field H breaks the underlying symmetry of the electroweak field and separates into the weak and electromagnetic fields. The H bosons also have the power to give mass to other bosons, the W1 and H+ bosons combine into w+ and the W2 combines with the H minus into W minus W3 and B merge to create two new massless bosons, one of them combines with h0 to make the Zed boson and the other never combines with an H boson and therefore never gains mass, it is the massless photon.
By now there's a chance you've guessed what all the h's stand for higs and therein lies the beauty of this Electro week. The theory sometimes called quantum flavor dynamics or qfd not only explains why weak bosons have mass and the photon does not, it also makes a big prediction: one of the four original H bosons, the small H, should have survived unscathed. to this intricate process and thus began the In the search for perhaps the most charged particle in the history of physics, Higs Bon's schoolmates, Glashow and Weinberg, shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics along with the Pakistani physicist Abta Salam for his work on this unification of Electro Week, suddenly we no longer needed one set of rules to explain the electromagnetic field and a separate set to explain the weak field, the electroweak field rules were sufficient in the same way as James Clark Maxwell had united the electric and magnetic fields into a single electromagnetic field;
First, two seemingly totally different rules were mixed together into an underlying framework, but this was not the end, because while theoretical physicists had been mapping all this out, experimental physicists had continued to probe deeper and deeper into the interior of the atom and In doing so, they had found a zoo of particles and a whole new layer of reality, the protons and neutrons within atoms also turned out to be made of smaller particles governed by another fundamental Force. Could this also be explained with Quantum Fields? It was the same matter that made up atoms. Just vibrations.
It cannot be said that a is made of bo. vice versa, all mass is interaction, your heart pounds in your chest as the deafening wind roars in front of your face as you hurtle towards the ground, a strong dose of adrenaline rushes through your veins and then, at the last second, the rope elastic takes you off the ground. On the brink of oblivion, this journey of White Knuckle is similar to the experience of subatomic particles called quarks. They form the protons and neutrons found in the heart parts of atoms, except that if they try to break free from these particles, they are always twisted, independently proposed by Murel Man and George Z in 1964 protons and neutrons are made of two different types of these up and down quarks inside a proton, you will find two up quarks and one down quark.
The up quarks each carry an electric charge of plus 2/3 and the down quark has an electric charge of minus A3, so the proton has an overall positive electric charge. a neutron has only one uppark whose charge is canceled to neutral by its two down quarks, so there is no proton or neutron. Instead, there is only the upcar field and the down quark field. The up and down quarks are the minimum possible vibrations of these quantum fields. The objects we call protons and neutrons are actually two different quantum fields vibrating together, the same atoms that make up our reality.
They are nothing more than interconnected vibratory fields; However, understanding protons and neutrons in terms of quarks presented physicists with some challenges, firstly, such as that electric charges repel each other, as do magnetic poles, why do the two positively charged quarks in the proton do not separate? or the negatively charged down quarks in neutrons physicists reasoned that there must be another attractive force at play more powerful than the electromagnetic force the strong force just like the electromagnetic force the strong force is also carried by massless bosons, this time called gluons because it is only by exchanging the minimum possible vibrations of the gluon field that the quarks stay stuck together, but of course, as we have seen time and again, there was still one small problem that would bring this new theory to the breaking point. in 1964, the same year quarks were discovered. the proposed physicists had discovered a truly puzzling particle the Omega minus particle the Quark zoo is home to beasts more exotic than quarks up and down there are also flavors of Quark called strange charm up and down each is the lowest possible vibration of its own quantum field meaning there are six quark fields in total, the problem was that the problematic Omega minus particle was made up of three strange quarks and this seemed to break a sacred law of quantum physics known as the POI exclusion principle.
We have already seen that all electrons have a property called spin with a value equal to half; Likewise, quarks also have a spin equal to half. The PO exclusion principle states that it is impossible for two spin particles to exist in exactly the same quantum state, but what about the three strange quarks in the Omega? less particle, let's say one of them has a spin of plus one2 and a second has a spin of minus one2. What about the third one? It doesn't matter if your spin is positive or negative, either way you will still be in exactly the same state as one of yourneighbors in direct violation of the principle of exclusion of PDI.
The Omega minus particle was another big neon sign, another crack in a theory that slowly revealed a whole new layer of ideas. He told physicists that quarks must be governed by some additional property that distinguishes them. On the other hand, something that electrons do not have color is the charge associated with the strong force, just as the electric charge is associated with the electromagnetic. A quark can have one of three color charges called red, blue and green. Quarks don't actually have different hues, although as The Color of Spin is just an analogy. The use of colors to name the three strong force charges was the brainchild of physicist Wally Greenberg, who was inspired by someone we met earlier.
James Clark Maxwell in the 1860s. Maxwell demonstrated that the combination of red, blue and green light creates white light. In other words, all color disappears when all three are mixed equally when one of each red, blue and green charge combines, creating a particle with a neutral color charge, protons, neutrons and Omega minus particles are not They behave as if they had this strong force charge, so they must be neutral in color, which means that they are made of a red quark, a blue quark and a green quark, no two quarks are exactly alike and the principle of PO exclusion and the fact that physicists use colors to name strong force charges gives the quantum field theory of the strong force its name Quantum chromodynamics or qcd Quantum electrodynamics has a Bon the photon and quantum flavor Dynamics added a trio of weak bosons the w+ W minus and Zed however qcd says that the strong force is carried by a total of eight bosons an octet of multicolored gluons here is why, like all Force-carrying particles, the exchanged gluons that bind the quarks are virtual Children of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle we have already seen how virtual photons can become antiparticle pairs of virtual particles that push real electrons similarly a virtual glue can become a virtual Quark anti-Quark pair if the quarks They carry red, blue and green charges, so antiquarks carry anti-red, anti-blue and anti-green charges, so the strong charge of a glue is a mixture of a color and an anticolor when a quk absorbs a gluon that contains a particular color charge, it changes to that color, so a blue quark absorbing a gluon containing a red charge becomes red, conversely, when a quark emits a gluon containing an anticolor to which that color changes , so a Green Quark that spits out a gluon containing anti-blue charge turns blue, this makes it impossible for a glue to be made of one color and its own anti-color, say a Red Quark could emit anti-blue gluons. blues this way.
It would turn blue and the green quark would turn blue when it absorbed them. You would have two blue quarks inside the same particle. There would no longer be one of each color to mix to have a neutral color, so the proton or neutron would exhibit some color. general color loading, which they never do, there are six ways to pair three colors so that you never get matching colors in the same pair, which is six gluons, but what about the other two? The quantum world is the strange and contradictory realm that exists. There are actually two complicated ways for each quark or antiquark to be a mixture of colors and at the same time lead to a neutral color charge, this makes protons and neutrons look like miniature universes.
Relentless hives of ever-changing activity, kaleidoscopes of color charges with a rainbow of virtual gluons, quarks and antiquarks. Fluttering here and there, these virtual particles are so abundant that they make up 99% of the mass of a neutral proton or neon. The real quarks they buzz around contribute only 1%. The very particles that make up every atom in your body are made in your body. For most things that aren't really there, you can think of the constant back-and-forth of gluons between quarks as an elastic cord between them. Physicists call it a qcd string. You try to get a quark out of a proton and the elastic string tightens and tightens.
The Quark re-enters like our previous bungee jumper, it is possible to put in enough energy to break the bungee cord completely, but this still does not release the Quark, rather the energy is converted into a quark and antiquark pair called Mison, the Mison escapes and takes the energy but the Quark remains trapped. The collisions inside particle accelerators are so energetic that the elastic rope breaks several times spitting out a large amount of me. Jets form and it is these jets that particle physicists pour over for clues about what has happened. Color signs then emerge as they are transferred from one particle to another, but these virtual meons have an even more important role to play in most atomic nuclei.
There are multiple protons, each with a positive electrical charge, like all electrically charged particles, they are exchanging virtual photons. which acts to separate them, but this is overcome by the virtual pisses that they are also exchanging and that keep them stuck together. Physicists call this the strong nuclear force to distinguish it from the strong force that binds quarks together. They can also bind a proton and a neutron. Together, all the elements on the periodic table heavier than hydrogen would be impossible without these virtual mesons, there are no stars, no planets, no life, so not only are the particles you're made of made up mostly of things that don't actually exist, but they also stick together. for things that also don't really exist the more we discover the rules of quantum chess The stranger they become in 2004 David gra David pollitzer and Frank wilch shared the Nobel Prize in physics for their work on quantum chromodynamics showed that the strong force and all its countless color interactions can be described using a renormalizable quantum field theory, as can electromagnetic and weak forces, that quarks, gluons and mysons are just ghostly vibrations in quantum fields, this means that currently everything in the atomic world is can explain. using only two theories, the electroweak theory which includes quantum dynamics and quantum electrodynamics within it and quantum chromodynamics together form the standard model of particle physics.
The standard model describes a total of 17 vibrational superpositions. Quantum fields occupying each part of space there are four fields associated with the force that transports the bons the photon the W bosons The Zed boson and the gluon then six fields of quarks one for each flavor There are also six fields known as lepton fields. Leptons are particles unaffected by the strong force which includes the electron field and two fields associated with particles called muon and TOA plus a trio of fields for the three different types of neutrinos, that is a total of 16, but what about field 17, which is the much lorded Higs field? vibrations of what we know as higs Bon that Bon was discovered in the summer of 2012 in the Large Hadron cider of the cern a cavernous cathedral built to assess the responses of the standard model the discovery of the higs was a resounding endorsement of the standard model as the most A complete rulebook for the chess game of the gods ever compiled, it successfully explains how all subatomic particles and three of the fundamental forces can be described as mere vibrations through its 17 different quantum fields, waves and particles, mass and energy, light, air, Earth and the matter that composes it.
You and I, almost everything could be reduced to vibrations in a vast Universe encompassing interacting quantum fields, almost because despite all the successes of the Standard Model there still remains one thing, a rule that simply does not fit gravity if a tradition it doesn't work even in a place where it should be simply poorly dressed in shiny white spacesuits a team of astronauts checks the effects of the last of the rivets and bolts an armada of robotic spaceships gets to work cooling the magnets to a warmer temperature low that even empty space itself after centuries of work the long-awaited machine is finally ready to call it vast would be an understatement it surrounds the sun as the trajectory of a planet orbiting far beyond any of the real planets in the solar system its total length is extends to about 30.7 billion kilometers and physicists are about to send subatomic particles in opposite directions around this super ring at a speed close to the speed of light, although the particles travel at almost 300,000 kilometers per second, the Physicists will not see the first collisions for another day and a half.
They will need the particles to make millions of revolutions before they have enough data to reconstruct what is happening. They will have to be patient. It won't be generations until they finally see the results that the particles have when passing through the robots. mining space rocks in the asteroid belt for the materials needed to make machines like this in the towering cities of New New York and New New Del on the dusty Martian surface and beyond the sprawling solar farms on Mercury that are driving the growing presence of humanity around the world. the solar system, this megamachine is the ultimate microscope that allows physicists to zoom in and see reality on the smallest scales with its incredibly high energies.
This ultra hadron collider is investigating the so-called table length, which measures only 62 nonylon of a millimeter wide. With about a billion times more table lengths in a single millimeter than there are stars in the entire observable universe, only by exploring the universe in such minute detail can physicists look for evidence of what has always eluded them: a theory capable of explaining every freak. in the known universe, from the smallest subatomic particle to the most gigantic galaxy, a theory that proves once and for all that everything, even gravity, can be explained as waves within quantum fields. a theory of quantum gravity.
Such an experiment is clearly a long way off, but it represents the dream scenario for many physicists, just as the electromagnetic and weak forces were once united in the electroweak force. Physicists suspect that the electroweak force was once entangled with the strong force in a single quantum field. The fact that both have already been successfully described. The use of quantum field theories shows that they are highly compatible. They look like two pieces of a locket that fit together naturally to make a hole. The marriage of the two is known as the Grand Unified Theory and is an inherently testable idea of ​​something physicists suspect.
It could lead to proton decay, where the proton breaks down into lighter particles, so evidence of this process is already being sought. The evidence that, in turn, the gravitational field was once spliced ​​with the large unified field into a single quantum field is what our solar system A system-sized accelerator was looking for, like the other three forces, the carrying force of our future physicists in search of the graviton, the minimum possible vibration of the quantized gravitational field, but despite being a superficially logical extension, such a notion is fundamentally incompatible with The way physicists currently understand gravity The theory of gravity Alber's gravity is Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.
He says that the universe is made of a fabric called Space-Time. If, as Shakespeare wrote, all worlds are a stage, then Space-Time is the stage and quantum fields simply play on it. The 17 quantum fields of the Standard Model vibrate in space and over time. Space-time is space and time according to general relativity. Mass or energy embedded in space-time creates a depression known as a gravity well. If a second object becomes trapped in this gravity well, then the first object will appear to be preventing it from escaping by pulling on it. Isaac Newton thought this was the attractive force of gravity, but gravity is not really a force at all, it is just the effect of curved spacetime inside a gravity well when describing In this way, general relativity deals gravity very differently from the way quantum field theories explain the other three fundamental forces by exchanging virtual bonds.
In general relativity there are no elastic strings of virtual gravitons traveling between the Sun and Earth trying to explain gravity. through the exchange of virtual gravitons is immensely problematic. For one thing, there is a problem when physicists calculate the chances of a particle emitting or absorbing a graviton. The answer they get is significantly greater than one in probability. The probability of events is rated on a scale from impossible to zero to certain but a probability of more than one says that an event is somehow more certain than certain otherwise said there is more than 100%.of chances of this happening is clearly nonsense and another red neon warning sign but there is an even bigger problem, let's say the sun on Earth is actually exchanging gravitons, those gravitons have energy so they would warp space- time, which would lead to more gravitons, they would also warp spacetime, which would generate even more gravitons very quickly, this gets out of control and runs towards infinity. which causes the equations to explode and lose their predictive powers.
If this sounds familiar, you're not imagining it. This is exactly the same problem that plagued early versions of quantum electrodynamics. Robert Oppenheimer added the effect of all the virtual particles that swarm around the electron and obtained Infinity as the answer. The blushes were only saved because the displacement of the lamb and Kushy's unexpected measurement of the electron's magnetic dipole moment showed physicists how to modify their equations to produce the correct answer through renormalization, but physicists still don't know how to renormalize the quantum gravity. and Beating the Infinities maybe another little Gambit will one day destroy a whole, whether in general relativity or the Standard Model.
A final move in the ancient game of divine chess that physicists have yet to observe and that would help them complete the rule book once. And it may take an accelerator the size of a solar system to find it, but in the meantime physicists have tried other ways to break the impasse, the most famous attempt being string theory. String theory says that particles described as fundamental in the Standard Model, such as quarks and electrons, are not fundamental at all, but are made of small vibrating strings, just as you can pluck different strings on different musical instruments. to produce different nodes, thus the universe creates the orchestral masterpiece of the standard model by conducting its own string section.
Open strings would have the properties of photons and gluons, but a closed string could have all the properties expected of a graviton, except that there are quite a number of trappings to eliminate the probabilities problem that string theory has to deal with. add more than one. To invoke the influence of new particles that no one has ever seen to Conquer the Infinites, one must also assume that Space-Time has at least nine spatial Dimensions, perhaps more, since we only see four dimensions, three of space and one of time, the others must be curved. Although very small and out of place, Fineman's chess game typically becomes simpler as successive unifications bring the rules together.
However, string theory seems to make it inherently more complicated with the need for a lot of new playing pieces. What makes it even more complex is that there are countless versions of string theory and string theorists are unsure of which set of rules to use to make testable predictions and see if they are correct, so what other options are there when asked? press? Many physicists will admit that it seems more likely that general relativity breaks down first, as we have seen. Many times, the discovery of a new Gambit forced physicists to discard an existing non-quantum theory in favor of a new quantum one, perhaps we have not yet seen what breaks general relativity because we have not probed small enough regions of Space.
Time and this idea is far from new. A man was thinking about it as early as the 1930s, born in what is now Ukraine in 1906. Bronstein's work covers an impressive range of topics, from semiconductors to quantum electrodynamics and cosmology, but it is his 1935 paper on The quantum gravity problem for which he is most remembered, let's say we want to measure a really small region of spacetime. Bronstein envisioned putting a particle there to help us make the measurement. This is where Heisber's uncertainty principle re-enters our story. I have already encountered the version that relates the energy borrowed over a certain period of time, but Bronstein considered another version that involves the position of a particle.
This version says that as you explore smaller and smaller distances you need a particle with increasing energy to do it. but Einstein's eal mc² tells us that energy means mass, eventually there comes a point where the distance you are probing becomes so small that the particle you need creates a gravity well so deep that nothing can escape and physicists already have a name for an inescapable gravity. Well, a black hole, your test particle has created its own black hole and since you can't see the inside of a black hole, you can't measure the particle anymore; In other words, there is a minimum distance below which nothing can be measured, just as there is a minimum vibration of a quantum field, he has zoomed in and discovered that space-time doesn't look the same after all.
On the smallest scales, if true spacetime were not the smooth, continuous fabric that general relativity describes, it would instead come in multiples of the smallest possible size. Bronstein had found another way to quantify spacetime. However, the bright flame of Bronstein's genius was soon extinguished, just 3 years after the publication of his work, he was executed in a Leningrad prison as part of Joseph Stalin's Great Purge. his wife Lydia was told that he had been sentenced to 10 years of hard labor he was only 31 years old but where Bronstein began others would eventually follow today his work has been transformed into the theory of loop quantum gravity according to this theory space-time It's like a A piece of clothing from afar looks like a soft fabric, but get close enough and you'll see that it's actually made from a network of individual stitches.
These are the loops of the quantum gravity loop, the threads with which the quantum gravitational field is created. each woven loop is unimaginably tiny, there would be more loops in a cubic centimeter of space than cubic centimeters of space in the entire observable universe somewhere in the region of 10 followed by 99 zeros. Each loop is a quantum of the gravitational field, so loop quantum gravity eliminates the need for gravitons and all the problems that come with them; However, so far, like string theory, there is also no experimental evidence that loop quantum gravity is the right approach, so perhaps this search will be passed on to distant generations who will build particle accelerators the size of the solar system to peer into the depths of reality, perhaps then loop quantum gravity or some similar theory will relegate space-time from its role as the stage on which all quantum fields tread the boards to just one more quantum field. there would be no scenario at all, our entire reality would be created through a quantum field stacked on top of a quantum field, a universe made of nothing but ethereal waves.
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