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What are the Diatomic Elements?

What are the Diatomic Elements?
okay this video is going to be out the

diatomic

gases we're going to talk about

what

they are and then we're going to talk about

what

they would look like if we could actually zoom in and see the atoms and molecules that make stuff up okay so they're about a hundred

elements

on the periodic table and of those hundred

elements

seven of them are the

diatomic

elements

these are the

diatomic

elements

here and at the end of the video I'll teach you some memory tricks so that you can
what are the diatomic elements
you can remember which of the

elements

are

diatomic

but anyway

what

makes the

diatomic

elements

special is that we never find a single atom just one atom of any of these guys on its own okay so you never find just an oxygen atom hanging out or nitrogen atom or an iodine atom instead these atoms always pair up you always find two of them together connected together forming a molecule let me show you

what

I mean I'm going to draw some diagrams and I'm going to put this thing up here
abbreviations of all the different

diatomic

elements

just so you can remember which

elements

are

diatomic

and which are okay so let's take two things that have gas in them here is a tank of oxygen gas I stole this from my grandmother's nursing home I was like hey grandma could I borrow your oxygen tank for a minute and then I went to a kid's birthday party and I stole a helium balloon from the clown okay so here's

what

I want to do I want to put on my superhero glasses that allow
me to not only look through the shell of this tank but let me zoom in trillions and trillions of times that actually see the atoms that make up this oxygen gas here is

what

I'm going to see here's my enlarged view now remember that auction gas is one of their so op here this is one of the

diatomic

elements

so this is

what

I'm going to see I'm going to see that the oxygen gas is made up of oxygen atoms you know that's not a big deal but I'm going to see that all of the
oxygen atoms in the gas are connected to each other in pairs just like this they're connected in pairs forming molecules on the other hand let's look at helium helium is not one of the

diatomic

elements

and so if I put on my superhero magnifying glasses and look at the helium balloon I'll also see atoms that make up the helium but here h ii ii ii ii is not a

diatomic

gas i should also point out that I'm talking about gases here all of the

diatomic

elements

are gases at room
temperature so we always usually talk about gases when we're talking about

diatomic

elements

okay

diatomic

elements

pair up non

diatomic

elements

don't here's also

what

's important about this though the fact that these guys pair up influences how we write the name of oxygen gas so if someone asks you to write the name of the chemical formula for oxygen gas its o2 because each piece of oxygen gas is two oxygen atoms connected together forming a molecule so o two for oxygen gas but
what are the diatomic elements
on the other hand someone says write the chemical formula for the gas for the helium gases in the balloon it's just a chi it's not a chi - or - or anything it's just a chi and that's because the helium atoms are are by themselves one one at a time in in helium just to give you two more examples particularly of the writing of the chemical formulas here I got a hydrogen balloon you can also put hydrogen a balloon and then I've got a light bulb that has argon in it argon is a
gas it's and light bulbs and here is

what

the hydrogen would look like if I could zoom in on it look here that hydrogen is one of the

diatomic

elements

whereas argon which is not a

diatomic

element the atoms would be on their own going back to that idea of how we write the chemical formulas of stuff that's made up of

diatomic

elements

hydrogen someone says write the chemical equation or the chemical symbol for hydrogen gas it's h2 whereas argon is just AR so whether or not something
is

diatomic

influences how we write the name of the chemical so it's important to remember which of the

elements

are

diatomic

and which aren't so how can you do that there are a couple waves here's

what

I like to do I like to take the symbol of each of the

elements

and write it out like it's a letter or a group of letters in a word and I might do it in this order I come up with a word that sounds sort of like wrinkled hoff it's a good way like that's how I remember but
there are many other ways you could arrange the letters that make up the symbols of these gasses so you know you could probably come up with plenty of variations on your own maybe a word that would better stick in your head so you can use Brinkerhoff or you can come up with one on your own here's another way that you can remember them some people instead of using the chemical symbols as letters like to remember a phrase and this one gets used a lot people say have no fear of ice cold beer we
want to talk about the letters that are in each other each word so we have h 4 hydrogen n 4 nitrogen f 4 fluorine o for oxygen I for iodine it gets a little bit tricky with these last two which is actually why I preferred wrinkled off but anyway cold don't be confused in sync things the C stands for carbon it's C L chlorine and then B and the are at the end of beer the are at the end of beer is bromine so you can think of Brinkerhoff or another way to arrange these guys to come up with a
what are the diatomic elements
word or have no fear of ice-cold beer hey you can probably also come up with another phrase yourself that you like even more than this okay so that's how to remember them now if you're interested I'm going to take just a minute I'm going to talk about why these

diatomic

elements

actually pair up okay here's a reason why the reason why is that on their own the

diatomic

elements

are sad atoms they're unhappy atoms because none of them have a full valence shell of electrons
here I've drawn electron dot diagrams of each one of the atoms remember that most atoms want to have eight electrons in their outer and their valence shell none of these guys have eight hydrogen would be happy you've had two but it only has one so it's unhappy - all of these want to increase the number of electrons that they have in their outer shell so they can have a tour in hydrogen okay so they can have two so here's how they do that let's take a look at chlorine here as
an example chlorine on its own is unhappy we've got two of them next to each other and they say to each other they say hey we each have seven we each want one more we each want to have eight

what

if we took these two electrons that we have and we decided to share them then we'd each be sharing two and we'd have eight total that's exactly

what

happens so we have now these two chlorines I'm going to draw in uh in black here most of the electrons and then they take these two
electrons here and they share though I'm going to put the shared electrons in red so the love electrons that are in red these two they now belong equally to both of the atoms so now this atom has a and this haddem as hey because they're sharing they're both happy and the two electrons that they're sharing the pair of electrons connects them together it's as if they're holding hands and we can symbolize this shared pair of electrons by a line that indicates that the two
atoms are connected together just you know as I said just like they're holding hands or like there's a stick connecting the two of them so we put this line here and that shows that they're sharing a pair of electrons and that they're connected together so individually on their own they're unhappy so that's why we never find one of them but if they connect together and form pairs of two then they both have eight valence electrons so they're happy this isn't just
chlorine but the same thing happens say with oxygen it's each oxygen atom needs to to two additional electrons it only has six so

what

these two like

what

these two oxygens can do is they can share four electrons between them then they both have eight and these each one of these shared pairs of electrons we can draw as a line connecting the two of them together or nitrogen Knight each nitrogen atom wants three electrons so they can share one two three pairs of electrons between the two of
them and then each one of them have eight and each one of these shared pairs of electrons we draw in with a line connecting them together so that's why they connect up because they're unhappy with unfold valence shells on their own they pair up and then they have eight okay so that was a

diatomic

gases