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Unix vs Linux

Jun 08, 2021
Hello, my name is Gary Sims and this is Gary, he explains. You've probably heard of the word Linux. You know what an operating system is. In fact, it is the kernel that is used at the heart of the Android operating system. It also runs on a wide range of devices including desktops and laptops, it's at the heart of Chrome OS, you can get it on servers, it even runs on Raspberry Pi, now you may have heard of Unix too and by all means Of course, they sound similar to Linux, Linux and UNIX, and you might be wondering if they are the same, they are compatible, they are completely different, so if you want to know what the difference is between UNIX and Linux, let me explain.
unix vs linux
To understand the difference between these two operating systems, we need to know a little about the history of how we got there. to where we are today, so let's start with Unix. UNIX was invented by two men, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie. Now you may have heard those two names before. Dennis Ritchie of course is famous for inventing the C programming language and if you have a copy of the C programming language the book by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie Kernighan and Ritchie is often called the kr version of the C language and then there is Ken Thompson and he is very famous for not only inventing enlightened UNIX but he also invented the utf -8 character encoding which we use all the time today and he is the co-inventor of Google's go language so here we are dealing with sort of legends in computing, so in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Ritchie and Thompson along with people like Kernighan.
unix vs linux

More Interesting Facts About,

unix vs linux...

We were working on an operating system called multics and that is multiplexed information computing services which was an operating system that was designed to run multiple programs at the same time now the team became frustrated with the direction and scope of the project and so in your reservation When Thompson and Ritchie started working on an alternative, at first this alternative could only run one program at a time, so instead of being called multix, it was nicknamed Unix, where the U part was for you below and you can see what happened from here the spelling was with a c' at the end, but over time and no one can remember why not even Kernighan nor Richie Thompson, but over time it was changed to Unix with an That's where the UNIX operating system was born. was first written in the early 1970s and by 1972 the C programming language that Kernighan Richie was developing had become mature enough that he could rewrite the operating system in C alone.
unix vs linux
Now what's interesting is the timing of AT&T he was prohibited from entering the market. computer market due to some previous legal problems they had with monopolies and therefore all AT&T could do was license the source code for this new operating system and that is exactly what they did and it began to be used in several universities around the country and one of the universities where the new operating system arrived was the University of California at Berkeley. Over time, AT&T was separated from Bell Labs and was now able to enter the computer market, so by the early 1980s it had begun selling a commercial version. of their UNIX operating system and this was commonly known as system 5 and there is a big reason for that which has to do with the different versions that came before, but now it was called system 5, at the same time the people at Berkeley were also continuing to develop the UNIX fonts they got a long time ago when AT&T was licensing the fonts and this led to a variety of units called the BSD version because it's from the Berkeley software distribution and so mid 80's now you have two versions of UNIX running.
unix vs linux
We have system 5 from '80 and we have California BSD. Now from these 2 branches several important and well-known versions of UNIX were generated, for example, hp-ux and Solaris come from the system 5 heritage type and operate systems like ultrix, which was from December, Digital Equipment Corporation came from the bsd line . Now, of course, over time, the different things that were developing in these core racisms carried over. The most important was that networking came first to the BSD distribution and finally. that made it to system 5, of course all of this source code is still under the source code license that came from Tea when they originally sold it to the various universities, so over time virtual BSD started replacing the files that came from AT&T with its own version, so it was separated from version five of the system and finally the University of California publicly released the source code of its version of the operation is 'm and said it was free of all AT&T files, of course , there was a lawsuit. and now we are in the early 90's, we have the university of california against AT&T and the lawsuit was finally dropped and what came out of that protest was a version called bsd 4.4 light which purports to be a version of


that has no source files that they recently came from AT&T, now this version of bsd created what we have today, which is freebsd and several other operating systems, including in part mac OS, which we will talk about in a moment, now the result of it all.
This is that two important things happened: one is that we now have a defined UNIX philosophy, so the idea of ​​writing a program and it does one thing really well is the idea that the output of one program could become the input of another. program, which is the idea. of pipes the idea of ​​how you compile programs and how the command line works all of this has been defined by system 5 and by BSD and the other thing that happened is that they wanted compatibility between versions so a range of standards began to be published, the most popular is POSIX, which actually says that if your program is going to be compiled on this operating system, you must have these APIs that have these particular functions, so you have the POSIX specification which redefined what UNIX does from a point of view. programming.
From our point of view now, while all this was going on, there are several other things that were happening in parallel that we need to know about Wiley is the beginning of the new foundation, good news which means good news, not Unix, which of course is recursive because so, let's go. Back on the canoe, you see good news, not Unix, good news, not Unix and that was started by Richard Stallman and he is responsible for the ideas of free software, it is not free, it has no cost, but it is free, it is the freedom that we have today and he was also responsible. for making sure that there was the new C compiler, the new runtime library and many other tools that were used to be able to create a free version of UNIX without depending on BSD files or AT&T files and also It's worth it mention that there was another operating system called MINIX that was written by Andrew Tannenbaum and he was using it as an educational tool to teach students the fundamentals of operating system design, so you have the 5 BSD system that was publicly released. got MINIX and you have the new tools, so in Finland in the early 1990s there was a student at the university named Linus Torvalds who had used MINIX and knew about Unix and wanted to overcome the shortcomings that he saw in Enix and wrote his own operating system and made it and published it, announced it to the world.
Now there are a couple of key things about this announcement. First of all, it ran on PCs, that is, 386 units, so we are not dealing with mainframes or supercomputers. We're dealing with something that maybe students can have in their homes and that actually made it accessible to a lot of people interested in developing operating systems. The other thing to keep in mind is that of course we have all the tools that came out of the ganoub projects. you have the compiler and the shell and all the things you need that came from Canoe that leanness could use to create the Linux kernel and also at the time he published the announcement of it, the Linux kernel. was completely free of all MINIX code, of course, when Linux was developed, it was developed using the same philosophy and the same model as the UNIX philosophy and the UNIX programming environment that emerged from system 5 and BSD and quickly gained support, it gained a lot. of interest and it really started to take off which in 1992 the I incorporated.
I first used Linux when it was version 0.98. I think we downloaded it in college. We started using it in our piece. These are in house to see what we could do with it and another key thing is before we get to version one. of Linux had started using the GPL, which is the new public license that came with the free software philosophy of the new foundation, so now you have this open source free software that everyone can contribute to and now you fast forward to the day today and We can see that Linux is absolutely everywhere, so the popularity of Linux is indisputable - it runs at the heart of the Android operating system, as that means there are literally millions of people every day using Linux.
You have it on servers, 60% of them. Web servers on the Internet use Linux and of course you have it in things like Chrome OS etc., but that on Linux is not a version of Unix, it is a clone of Unix or today they like to call it Unix. like because UNIX was actually a product sold by AT&T through their system five branch and it was an operating system developed by the University of Berkeley, so Linux doesn't use that source code but it uses that philosophy, it's a clone, it's Unix-like, so where are they? Well, today, obviously, Linux is still used in many places and BSD, those BSD source codes were transformed into FreeBSD, which you can download and install on a PC even today and, through several different types of mergers and functionings, you will find part of it. actually on Mac OS to the next step and then to the new version of Mac OS that Steve Jobs started once he returned to the company, so in the end you will find that the most popular version of UNIX used today It's MacOS.
So before making this video I did a quick search of the entire Linux development tree and you can still find references to Unix in the tree, in two particular cases, one in some files, it will mention that the file originally came from Unix and However, it has now been rewritten and changed to be completely open source code and secondly, there are many many interfaces, many ways things work, the Unix philosophy that is still found in Linux and, therefore, there are several tags and several things are tagged. as unique because that's actually how the eunuch did it and that's how Linux does it now.
I wanted to see how well this has held up in history, so I found some source code for Ultrix 4.3, which is a BSD version. Unix that was released in December in the mid 80's and I took one of the files there on this particular one, it was backgammon and a terminal version of backgammon and then I copied the source file to my Raspberry Pi and then tried to compile it to see what would work Now there were some differences in how the C compiler works today. It took me about five minutes to fix them and then voila, I had a version of backgammon running on my Raspberry Pi from an original version of the source code that was released.
Well, how long ago was that thirty years ago and it still works because Linux is a clone of UNIX and the UNIX that we had then and the Unix Linux that we have now are very, very compatible, of course, that is compatible with the code of classification? Binary compatibility is a whole. Different story, there are some layers of binary compatibility between various versions of Linux and FreeBSD etc., but let's not worry about that now, just to clarify a couple of things at the end, you know, of course, Linux distributions, do you know? we're talking like if you know red hat or fedora or 1/2 or arch or whatever your favorite version is, the link distro includes a lot more than just its kernel, of course it has a ton of tools like the KDE desktop and the gnome desktop and things like libera office. and Chrome and Firefox and all these things that are included and that is absolutely fine and at the center is the Linux kernel and FreeBSD is the same if you get a freebsd distribution it comes with the freebsd kernel which is based on the source code that was released by bsd 4.4 light, but you also have the desktop and applications like Firefox or similar that are actually part of the broader free software ecosystem, so in short, Unix is ​​actually a product sold by AT&T.
As a commercial product, its source code was licensed in the early days, meaning we eventually had some of the source code available to the public and used for operating systems like freebsd and, to some extent, like the Mac OS we have today. Linux was written. using MINIX as a way to write a clone of UNIX or a Unix-like operating system and today it does not share any files with the original UNIX versions ofthe 70s and 80s and ultimately free software has won here because of Of course, Linux is very popular not only on servers but also on smartphones, so my name is Gary Sims and this is Garrick Space.
I really hope you enjoyed this video, if so please give it a thumbs up if you have any questions about UNIX. and Linux, please ask me in the comments below and I will do my best to answer. Do you know what else I'm going to ask you to do? Subscribe and share this video on social networks. Okay, that's it, so I'll do it. See you next time

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