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Una crónica de supervivencia: los "Naufragios" de Álvar Núńez Cabeza de Vaca | Carlos Martínez Shaw

Dec 10, 2021
the great walk because it is on the foot of a

lvar

nĂșñez

cabeza

de

vaca

means that we have to dedicate a lot of time because he is a man who is going to walk naked barefoot full of coconut with beards to his waist with hair to his waist he is going to walk nearly 10,000 kilometers through inhospitable territory so it is a truly prodigious adventure and here the only thing I have done so that we are not distracted from the other issues that I have to talk about is to present this map that marks the trajectory of this portentous this portentous journey this portentous journey that many many of the authors who have treated it nationally call it an odyssey and in a clear sense it is an odyssey similar to that of ulysses because he travels for a long time innumerable adventures happen to him but it is not in another sense ulysses was a navigator he sailed through the vast unknown of the western sea, as you know, however, this man, despite the title of his book, did not sail much, but above all, most of e of his journey he did on foot on foot barefoot and therefore it is not an odyssey in the sense that the classic text attributed to homer has, in the end it matters little a

lvar

nĂșñez

cabeza

de

vaca

is a famous name within since this particular moment of exploration, the conquest and colonization of America and yet if it had not been for the special conditions in which he lived, this experience of the trip would not have been a known figure in history since he is not famous for his His name is not famous for his conquests, since he did not make any, nor for his political achievements, since his life in politics was generally a constant failure, it was not for this reason that he is famous for his ability to survive, his physical and moral resistance, as he will have the opportunity to demonstrate for at least more than eight years that this portentous trip lasted, a trip in which he defended his life in a valiant way and also the lives of all the companions he had around since one of the characteristics of our characters is his solidarity, his dedication to others, his attempt to never save himself alone, even delaying his personal escape in favor of being able to rescue his companions, especially the other three who live with him, to whom I I will refer now and that they made up a band of four that we cannot call that because it has other more recent connotations but the four of them were always together in all their entirety throughout this tremendous experience since they had to face some very hostile people in a very hostile land hostile during all this time and yet they knew they knew how to overcome an immense number of calamity tests that were fought against them with much more rudeness than they fell against the biblical job as I say if he is not famous for his conquests that he did not do them but famous for his meaning his political successes that he did not have because he is famous because of this walk of almost 10,000 kilometers that was done as you can see here it is a map that shows us and that shows us the current political divisions but that you can quickly get an idea because there you see the big river so we could say that the big river stops what is now the usa from what is today they are the usa from mexico that is what separates for more than all the north of the big river also at a given moment well it was spanish since texas was spanish just like louisiana was just like arizona was mexico and california but in the situation in the current situation the big river separates mexico from the united states of america well not only did they not only walk this immense number of kilometers but they did so in extremely extreme conditions the book by alex krieger says it very graphically the book that narrates this is this portentous journey is not a book by alex krieger that in English was titled we came make it ember food we came naked and barefoot because this was what has attracted the most attention that a person raised naturally in the opulence of the Andalusian renaissance, because at this time, to star in his feats without having practically any clothing cover, he had a kind of underwear to cover as powerfully as he could, his parts are said in the chronicle, bandages and then he did not have absolutely no shoes, that is, completely completely naked and arrived so that's why the title of weekend ember food corresponds very well to him, he wrote a chronicle that has a very long name, it is not very heavy, it is not, well, I have given a list of the ships, it will be fine to say who they are and what to play of these kingdoms, that is, it is one of these kilometric titles, but since it began with the word shipwrecks, it became famous for this by the word shipwrecks and it is always titled like that with this single word shipwrecks one only one only noun despite the fact that as I said there were shipwrecks but above all the adventure was done by land it was done on foot we have studies of its work, but he is not an author who will immediately arouse the attention of chroniclers and especially historians, since in contemporary times it took a long time to write a first story, let's say positivist or scientific, by alvar nĂșñez cabeza de vaca, actually the first is by an American, Maurice Bishop that he wrote it in 1933, that is, it has already passed since his adventure, since 400 years have passed, it is one, it is a late publication, and then, well, there is no other book that is really, really objective and really meets scientific requirements, until that of Alex Krieger who quoted to be published in the year 2002 fortunately today we know well the history of alvar nĂșñez cabeza de vaca thanks to the work of a Spanish historian named eloĂ­sa gĂłmez lucena who has helped her husband who is a writer rubĂ©n caba because he wrote in the year 2008 a book that the most interesting book to know to know the journey of nĂșñez de vaca that is called the odyssey of cabeza de vaca that has published by the edhasa publishing house in 2008, it is an affordable book and it is the book that today you should read if you don't read that, if you don't know that, you should read this edition that I have in my hands because I will take some quote from it, which is the edition For Shipwreck Cathedral made by Luisa GĂłmez Lucena herself and RubĂ©n Caba, which today is the best edition that one can handle, there is no better edition than this one, there was one that was that was that was good that has been the one that has served us so far. now that it is the one made by the professor of Hispanic philology at the university of sevilla trinidad barrera and that is published in the editorial alliance in 1985 this is also reliable absolutely absolutely real to take what our Anglo-Saxon friends from Puno would say trust her but It has a philological approach and it also has already, as you can see, it is 30 years old, while this is a recent work from 2008 to 1985, since research has progressed a lot, but above all more than the investigation because the work itself remains the same and great advances have not been made in philological exegesis.
una cr nica de supervivencia los naufragios de lvar n ez cabeza de vaca carlos mart nez shaw
The important thing is that the look the look of Luisa GĂłmez Lucena is the look of a historian and the look had a barrier is the look a philologist and therefore she pays attention to some things that interest philologists but not the reader in general and she does not omit others that the historian always has to take into account despite that it is also recommendable finally I won't say more because the Bibliographical lists are very tiring, they are very heavy, you have to read it at home in peace and not in a conference. I will say that Luisa Lucena herself has written a travel book called From the Atlantic to the Pacific, published by Almuzara de la Andaluza in 2018.
una cr nica de supervivencia los naufragios de lvar n ez cabeza de vaca carlos mart nez shaw

More Interesting Facts About,

una cr nica de supervivencia los naufragios de lvar n ez cabeza de vaca carlos mart nez shaw...

In other words, last year is the account of the trip that she and her husband made following exactly the routes of Alvar NĂșñez Cabeza de Vaca, so there is even a physical testimony of e This of this immense journey since the authors of this story walked the same paths, the same paths as our protagonist, although this time they did not do it, not only did they not do it naked or barefoot, but they did not even do it on foot, but they did it fundamentally In trucks, as Mexicans normally call buses, say that the journey was done by car, which is much more comfortable.
una cr nica de supervivencia los naufragios de lvar n ez cabeza de vaca carlos mart nez shaw
In short, having said this, so that if you want to expand your knowledge of the unit, you can do it through both or three books that are more affordable and more and more reliable can do it. head of a cow we can only go to the bathroom of an unfortunate man because he seemed called to higher to higher destinies and for his intelligence for his resistance for his ability to adaptation for his for his prudence in everything he did it seemed that he had all the tricks to be a winner and yet he was an unfortunate man he was during this adventure that is the one that interests us a leader of a group of four people And if we include him and this is important because many of the things that we say about Alvar NĂșñez Cabeza de Vaca are applicable to his three companions who were Alonso del Castillo, of whom we know little, we think that at least we know that he was blond and that he was born In Salamanca, these two do not all detail it as a great blond and that is why the Indians had more veneration for him than the others because they saw that the Spaniards were normally dark-haired and with curly hair, while this man with blond hair and hair were more we know it from that and he was also from salamanca the second is andrĂ©s dorantes who is a man born in bĂ©jar bejarano but who soon settled in the onubense city of gibraleĂłn in andalusia and was from gibraleĂłn do where he came to join the expedition he is talking about now and finally the fourth man besides alvar nĂșñez verza de vaca is a man from whom we know the last name we only know that his name was esteban and with this fan he was black and says alvar nĂșñez head of a cow that was an Arab al de hacemos was actually a man of the Islamic religion a man of black complexion and a man who was always a slave since he was sold as a slave in the Seville market Seville was one of the most important markets important number of slaves from the peninsula, surely behind Lisbon and behind Valencia, which was the blackest city in Spain at that time, but Seville was also following it, and in Seville it was bought not at the age of ten, precisely by AndrĂ©s Dorantes y de there he continues to be a slave all his life no one freed him until until his death we will talk at the end like the pylon of them from this group of four well let's focus on the f figure our square list alvar nĂșñez cabeza de vaca was born in jerez de la frontera this must be underlined xerez de las fronteras must face it because many times it is said he was from sevillian he was from jerada border province of sevilla there are many books and quite a lot of images where they put these beings The border is not the current provincial division of the province of Seville, but rather the province of CĂĄdiz, but at this time it will generate confusion because Xerez de la Frontera was a city in the Kingdom of Seville, since the Kingdom of Seville more or less extended for what which today are the provinces of CĂĄdiz, Seville and Huelva, and even a bit of Extremadura, a bit below, so he was from the Kingdom of Seville, but he was not from a poor family at all.
una cr nica de supervivencia los naufragios de lvar n ez cabeza de vaca carlos mart nez shaw
He was a wealthy family since his grandfather had made a fortune in the service of the King from the point of view of his civil services as an administrator and his military services as a soldier and captain of troops or I can say that you The girl had a good life and she also had a ralph and ancestry her family came from far away and her last name came from far away because it goes back to nothing more and nothing less than a certain

mart

Ă­n de hajajas as a jewel

mart

Ă­n de hajajas who was a cowboy who was the one who pointed out the secret pass, the very unknown pass that allowed the one who allowed the Christian troops to go around behind where the Muslims' camp was located in the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 and then and then, thank you to this they were able to surprise them from behind and in this way win the battle and he pointed out the path where the Christian web should go with a cow skeleton, a cow head specifically and that cow head well it was where he pointed out the secret passage and for this reason later when when they give him when they give him some prize some recognition for this work because they give him the possibility of using first second as surnames then the surnames were not so stabilized As now, the name of Cabeza de Vaca is therefore not certain, but it seems that our protagonist was baptized as Alvar NĂșñez suddenly and that NĂșñez is not his last name but his last names is Cabeza de Vaca, which is why Cabeza de Vaca is the entries that They are made when the shipwrecked Alvar NĂșñez Cabeza de Vaca is quoted.
In the case of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, one of the greats and this man, the Duke, is ideal, since it gives him the chance to get trained where he could better be, because he remains in the foreign war, so he participates, I'm going to go a little faster, but if not we will not arrive he participates in the battle of ravenna in 1512 so raven us they would say Italians against the French troops of gastĂłn de fuĂĄ in 1512 and later defends the city of gaeta that as telmo he knows a great fortress in the kingdom of naples and there he also does it that they give him the title of royal ensign and he obtains this title of ensign with which he returns from italy but at theWhen he returns, he finds that the duke who had protected him that his son, since he was also a duke, has died, logically, that he was an impotent cretin, he was a diminished man from all points of view and with whom he leads a routine life without horizons without doing nothing is this duke disaster because he died soon and then the new duke already began to give him new activities sending him to Seville to participate in the reconquest in the siege of the AlcĂĄzar of Seville to the AlcĂĄzar that continues to exist today since the AlcĂĄzar of Seville had been Taken by the Duke of Arcos who represented the faction of the community members in Seville, as everyone knows, there were only two large common cities in Andalusia, which were Baeza and Úbeda, but there were also some small movements in some other more important ones, of which it was the one in sevilla starring the duke of arc here it seems good that he will find his chance that he will get ahead again with these services services of a military nature but suddenly he finds an unusual opportunity and enlists in this opportunity at this moment the army that is going to go to Florida is being formed under the command of Don PĂĄnfilo de NarvĂĄez it was called the Florida Army because that was the name was not an expedition explorers and conqueror was called an army an army with a small letter for example the gathering of magellan was called the army of the specialty or the army of the maluco also with a lower case no and this and this was normal that is the army of la florida under the command of don pĂĄnfilo de narvĂĄez as he was a man who already had a certain prestige as appointed and militant treasurer of the expedition and possibly although we do not know the documentation well possible he was also chief constable of the expedition I know that for sure treasurer and possibly bailiff majors and positions of responsibility the expedition of panfilo in alba about which we are going to dedicate a few words to him now did not end in a complete disaster s He left SanlĂșcar in the year 1500 27 and very few returned from that expedition, one of them ours, our protagonist, and he returned to his native Jerez, Sucio, or perhaps in Seville, because he wrote the chronicle of the trip, this economy that we call shipwrecks, so he wrote it and that chronicle was published. in 1542 and had another rapid success, it soon spread as a travel book, although many did not give it credibility because they thought that many of these things had been invented by alvar nĂșñez cabeza de vaca, this was not the case with other works such as fortune It is by Alonso RamĂ­rez, a work from the Spanish 17th century that I also knew for a long time, I think it was the first Latin American novel when in reality, it was a specific biography of another of another truly improbable adventure that we will perhaps have the opportunity to talk about. in the near future or in the distant future that kilos to good in any case he stays in Seville for a while and there he is doing what was done at the time it was memorials addressed to the king addressed to the authorities to give him a new position in which to expose his worth and effectively get it and appoint him give him a second chance appoint him the governor and advance of the river of la plata and departs for the rĂ­o de la plata and actually arrives at its destination I don't catch one with the other a significant cost since more than 300 people embarked but when they get there they don't know what to do because they don't have no help from anyone and finally perhaps following the Not customary, because he decides to walk with his host of 300 people to the city of AsunciĂłn, which at that time was nowhere.
It was a small town there in Paraguay, in four months and two thousand kilometers, because he did not know the roads well, nor were the roads clear, but rather quite the opposite, but it arrived as it had happened and then, well, with the position of governor and in advance, he tries to impose himself and if he tries to impose himself, trying to enforce compliance Going to be a milestone, a very important legal or legislative milestone for the history of America, which were the famous new laws of 1542 that have colossal importance and we speak of lawful law and we put them all in the same drawer, not the new laws that Carlos Quinto gave In 1522 they are the laws that completely change the future of America and he tries to implement these new laws that were much more coherent, much more rational, much more humanitarian than the previous ones and you try to enter the try to implement them in that way his fundamental obsession It was to banish the corruption that prevailed among the Spaniards who were settled in Paraguay and put an end to what he called the paradise of Mohammed, that is to say, the enormous amount of arenas made up of indigenous women not at the service of the conquerors.
This is the paradise of Mohammed. not all these harems in trying to fight clear was a very unpopular fight and this unpopular age is worth an uprising for Part of those who are already installed put him in jail in the year 1500 44 and they keep him there for a whole year in jail, continuing with what had been his fate until then, suffering terrible cold and horrible humidity, he says. no he says that they had put him in a hole that only contained a bunk where it was so cold there was so much humidity that the grass grew spontaneously under his bed because of the humidity that existed there in any case a year has passed almost a year year eleven months they sent him to Spain on a ship accused of all the crimes and he can be accused and without letting them take anything at all, that is, he returned to Spain again with nothing without us, not only without any kind of money or anything but also Almost without clothes, almost without being, the play tea returns and finally, since the king is rehabilitated, the royal courts of justice agree that he has done well that there is no fault of his conduct and rehabilitated, but it serves as a We don't know much about something because a chronicler from Valladolid, Alonso GĂłmez de Santoya, says in passing that he died in Valladolid as a poor gentleman who died and kept the gentlemen's statute but without money and nothing, we don't know because there are those who say he returned that he managed to return to his hometown and that he died in Jerez around 1560, which means that he died old, he died about 70 years old for the time, not according to our current canons, but almost 70 years old when, from the border between the borders because he was born around 1490, although we are not sure of the date of birth either, it is that he was buried in the family chapel that the family had, the cabeza de vaca had a cradle, a burial in the convent of Santo Domingo de Jerez but even for that he had bad luck because in a reform a few years ago not much was done in this chapel they decided that the projected one had to be destroyed rubin eta was threatening to se destroyed with which the place where he could have buried our hero has been buried was completely lost so even in that the luck was not favorable to him but on the contrary he had an adverse fortune and wrote a second book called comments also also long title but briefly it was like comments that are the adventures and what he did his actions in the river of silver specifically in Paraguay it was published quickly and from then on many times not in this book that teaches you not even in the book of teresa barrera they are together they come out or phrase by the comments by others but many times many times you will see editions editions that are called shipwrecks and comments have little to do with one another part of the authorship of the same author but but both appear together and both have an extraordinary interest, although of course we are going to focus only on shipwrecks, with which we already have enough, you can use the map and we are going to talk only about the adventure of the adventure in north america and not about his adventures in america in south america his memory has therefore been preserved through these two books it is what has preserved carrot because there is no much more documentation about him and it has even given rise to a sufficient iconography we do not know what an Albanian Nica de Sal Vaca was like at all we have no idea what his face was like in its physical compression we do not know we have some few monuments scattered here and there but all of that from the point of view of his report on the reproduction of his physique are all inventions there is nothing reality the funniest not because there is a fair in texas there is another that is in the state government headquarters There is another Mexican from Chihuahua that his countrymen have done very little to him, it is Jerez de la Frontera, but the funniest one is the one in Reynosa in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, where he is presented as a species As a biblical prophet, he is not hidden in the middle of the crowd so that it is not seen that he is completely naked and barefoot and in that situation, but if you see a beard, a prophetic beard, a huge prophet's beard, not there in the middle of a crowd that He almost adores it and for the reasons that we will see in a little while, not what was there was in a lost pharmacy and in Reynosa this mural later became a large mural and it has already been given the importance that what we have is good We are interested, therefore, is that it happened with the Florida Navy, just in Florida.
We are going to tell it quickly, but we are going to also tell a little about how the commander of the Florida Navy came to be, as we have already seen, actually, Captain, because everything this is not called captain general and admiral who have the title captain because he is a pauper don for the edge of narwhal in peace and not in arms of another loser in another other unfortunate other unfortunate / the law of Spanish explorers already it was the man sent from cuba by the governor diego de velĂĄzquez he was sent from cuba to arrest hernĂĄn cortez in mexico what happens is that hernĂĄn cortez won the game he won the battle and imprisoned him for two years of course he sent him to to sue for his fame for his prestige and leave for Spain' but in any case the conqueror of Mexico is still in court and not PĂĄnfilo de NarvĂĄez here a capitulation is achieved to go to the exploration conquest and settlement of settlement From Florida we know that he was trying to prove Florida because in only one document, that is, we have very little documentation, it indicates that among the crew there were no married women who loved barley and maids, that is, women went, which indicates a desire to settle in In any case, he is given five ships and 600 people, but he quickly manages to lose part of the ship and part of the crew in Cuba before starting the march, regardless of whether you are one of them or not. a man who did not know how to manage amplio narvĂĄez did not know how to manage his affairs at all and in any case he will manage to leave as we will soon see with four ships and a brigantine with 400 fewer people on board than had left SanlĂșcar and fewer ships from the ones he had when he arrived in Cuba but in any case with his user in front of him he was trying to reproduce the feats that Juan Ponce de LeĂłn had carried out, which I will refer to a little with Ponce de LeĂłn.
He is the discoverer of Florida and his name was So, because it arrived in the Florida peninsula, it came to the corner there, it arrived in Florida, to that inlet, it is not an inlet that somehow closes the Gulf of Mexico, the Mexican sine, because it arrived there at Easter, Florida, and from there it was given that name. that he was actually looking for a chimera the bimini river that was the source of eternal youth not who bathed in it had its waters because he was always young and in search of that chimera well the former leaves for you explores the eastern coast the western coast ponce de leĂłn but the truth is that he gets nothing more than to see that it is a land of overflowing vegetation but he finds nothing else that encourages him to go this way juan pozuelo makes a second expedition that It is almost one in front of that of PĂĄnfilo narwhal because of how bad it gives it because immediately it finds itself with one of the plagues that it is going to find not only to sharpen the evil but Álvaro MĂșnera see Basil all along its de their walk, which are the Indian flecheros, calls them that way and the shipwreck is constantly used by this name Indian flecheros of Indians who handled the bow and arrow very well and that the tar goes to arrows nothing more than they found them then from these Indians flecheros in one in one of the encounters and they seriously attacked ponce leĂłn for being a prisoner in he returns to havana but it results from the infection caused by the wound well he dies there in havana he wants to do this and then we started s here with the story we are going to tell this story in a prologue I consider an opera in a prologue and three chapters the prologue we are not going to get out of the way quickly that are the immense misadventures to get people not to desert in Cuba and In order to have enough ships, he makes some routes there, they are marked not by the south of the island of Cuba until he gets his until he gets past the westernmost point and launches north towards the western coasts of Florida, but on that path from tocache in jaua, hey, it would be Cienfuegos, he plays, he trains 30 and everywhere they have a problem, in any case, in Holy Week of the year 28, he said, about six months after leaving SanlĂșcar, he arrives at his destination and then the first chapter begins The first chapter that can be titled and in fact to separate it from the others has been titled The Appalachian Expedition or The Appalachian Expedition The Landing in the Bay of the C ruz but it quickly drifts to what it is today then it did not have this name but for us to understand what is today the bay of tampa there you can see the valley of tampa on the west coast welldeflorida and there in the bay of tampa well a first a first debate arose and a first moment in which the little foresight and little fortune of don pĂĄnfilo marked perhaps the name well it suited him in any case in any case the thing the thing is that something nĂșñez cabeza de vaca insists a lot in two of the chapters they insist a lot that he warned PĂĄnfilo de narvĂĄez that before entering Florida to look for the supposed treasures of Florida, before mooring the ships well that he would not let them leave the well-insured boats in a well-sheltered port in a safe port that the winds that did not have to meet should not blow them away, that they leave people there in the boats to defend them in case of danger and that they not leave without taking all the precautions possible a little he had to have done what did the protagonist the protagonist of the old sailors of Jorge Amado who ordered all the cables and all to be laid down and thus avoided a great storm he did not do it he did it and head of a cow I reproached him twice for the bad consequences that this frivolity of narvĂĄez had had, so about 300 men leave in the belle of tampa to try to explore to explore florida see that you can only see the coast there from florida they actually go north in search of a fabulous country the country south of the appalachian mountains where there was supposed to be gold and there would be all kinds of all kinds of riches and you could be then they go all over the whole state of florida all of northwestern florida in the direction of that mythical town in the appalachian mountains is in a tremendous situation because they did not know the roads nor were they well equipped nor did they know how to get along with the indians and with whom they could not establish anything because as says Albania head of a cow very graphically in a beautiful expression and we go mute and without languages ​​because the language of what the interpreters were called we went mute and without language We couldn't commu

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te with anyone unless it was based on crushes and erc abuses so there was nothing they arrive anyway to the town of Appalachia the name continues to be preserved and it calls Apalachi it's called in English which is actually the USA it's the south from the southernmost of the states in that area, which is the state of georgia, the catholic state of the 13 colonies of the united states, georgia, but when they arrive they find that not only is there no gold, but the land is very poor and full of some more bellicose Indians who do not leave him alone, so in this situation they decide to go south and arrive at a town called Aute, which is very close to the current capital of Florida, where the room is like this, and they stay there, they have already I have done a lot of kilometers and they have done about a thousand kilometers between the idea for the che the return out and then I return that they have already done the first thousand kilometers of this enormous trajectory they walked approximately which is interesting to notice u 40 kilometers a day, which is an outrage, it seems to us, but they were not that many because this was the same as the soldiers the Flanders tercios did and these are the Flanders tercios they wore shields bucklers they wore helmets they wore pikes they carried harquebuses on many occasions and they did more or less the same way, he says it times, not that normally they covered a language in an hour and a league is almost six kilometers to say that it was not, it was not a little, it was one, they walked at an enormous speed, so in nine days They reach the shores that they had abandoned trying to find the boats but it happens first they are prey to a terrible epidemic that the ten plus and those that do not the ten plus leave them very weak but the worst thing is not that the worst thing is that when they arrive there are no boats the boats have been swallowed by the ocean as the cow-headed nĂșñez had predicted there are no boats now we don't have boats because there is a necessity that opens the second chapter of the florida adventure the appalachian adventure is over the second chapter opens what to do well we have to build boats but hey we make boats we don't have the possibility for boats than boats which is less but we are going to try to make boats but as it says As Álvaro says, the initial of Alca, precise, it is almost impossible, they tell it very briefly. who knew nothing to give industry in it since he had neither materials nor knowledge to drive the boats but despite that and here that spirit of survival arises between August 4 and September 20, that is, in 45 days he manages to build five boats and in the it explains how they do it that this is marvelous to read this is marvelous it says we finished a mark of 22 cubits each one silver coves with the e topas of the hearts of palms with the tows of the hearts of palms created with a certain tar fish that is a Greek called Don Teodoro de unos pinos, that is, it runs without in the pines and on and of the same clothing of the hearts of palms and of the tails and the manes of their horses and we made ropes and garcĂ­as, that is to say, they got the necessary ropes and they took off all our shirts, we made the sails and from some junipers in the trees, one junipers that were there, we made the oars of we also dreamed entirely the legs of the horses and we tanned leather with it to make some boots some pipes with which to carry the water with clark without water they were not going to risk going into the sea so 243 men get into five boats and try to start paying off all the gulf of mexico how immense they didn't believe that the first port they were going to find was the bank that today is called tampico they were going to find it some 100 kilometers away something like that today i'm here they work to do aba 2000, unlike the calculation, it was brutal, it was crazy so since they go in the boats in constant contact with the shore and constantly attacked with mobile phones, not another of the many of the many towns with which it spread that they ran into later there It looks like it's coasting coasting there's like an inflection to the south and a little bit later to the north that inflection the mouth of the mississippi river an immense river that cost him enormously an enormous effort to overcome it but also not only that it was but that narvĂĄez was shipwrecked there, who also for Another unpredictability of NarvĂĄez, according to his account, that sometimes it will fall, is that the ship, the boat in arba, also disappeared, swallowed by the waters between November 5 and 6, 1528, and Don PĂĄnfilo was never heard from again, so the remains remain.
Other poor people, but we, for the same space, another storm throws them across, as they said in those days, against the coast and destroys all the boats, there are no more boats and they They disembark on a small island that today is recognizable is the Y de la Vega by GĂĄlvez the Spanish GĂĄlvez Galveston the island of Galveston which they called the island of evil to two islands of misfortune of bad luck the island of mal and then there they are left abandoned on the coast naked and barefoot this is the great true shipwreck that gives its name to the publication in reality we begin the third chapter which is the great dance by land which is what I have to tell the adventures by land it is a true labyrinth to the At first, that is, until they arrive until they arrive in Texas, all at all costs, once they are thrown out, they start to understand the landscape and such, but suddenly they realize that they cannot continue and that they have to go further north and then they are going to follow a route around the big river as seen there in they get to the big river and it goes up and they are going to follow the course of the big river as a possibility of having an orienting line safe orientation to know more or less where the only reference is going to ensure that they will have to go through this and that is where their terrible hardships begin their terrible hardships begin here this river that as he said as he said remembering his stay in Seville no It was a river as wide as the Seville river, Alvar NĂșñez tells us, no, these things are the local honour, which leads me to talk about this. the karanka guano will make caguas that has more in the name of pairs it sounds like an African name more than an American name well that's a few united tribes of Indians the karanka was I never never fully clarified with this that they divided the Spanish into several groups divided them up, they made them all slaves and they were all slaves and then they gave him horrible treatment, as they say several times more than once.
It is throughout the play every day they beat him to death they kicked him they slapped him bone so I had them completely naked and barefoot to such an extent he says in a clear expression that they hit me twice a year I shed my skin as if they were snakes by alvar nĂșñez head of a cow that they treated him badly and we entrusted them with horrible horrible tasks one of them was told by alvar nĂșñez he says to remove the roots to eat because it is convenient for those roots from under the water and between the reeds where they were stuck in the earth and from this I brought my fingers so worn that a straw that you touched me made me bleed and the streets broke my fingers in many places it was a very painful situation the penalties are already all like this and I am not going to describe some of them of them because it is really the hardships that mark this one all these all this whole part of the third chapter the hardships or thirst go through a lot because they can't find drinking water almost anywhere place and there is a moment when there are six men who drink even salt water and after systematically drinking salt water they die and the death of several programs then the other to the other enemy was the cold he describes it like that and how it was then in November and the end was very great and we, who with little difficulty could tell us the bones of skeletons that were, are not made the very figure of death says another the hunger that ate these things other times they ordered me to scrape hides and soften it and the greatest prosperity in I saw myself on the day they gave me to bring some leather because I laughed a lot and ate the scratches that fell and with those hard raw ones I kept standing for two or three days so the diet will be from there when it appears for the first time the first mention of cannibalism among Spaniards until now cannibalism was a tremendous crime one of the permanent accusations of the Spaniards against the Indians for here he is forced to do it It is what he says that what seems to be black humor says five Christians, what is the name of the Spaniards, five Christians who were on the coast reached such an extreme that they ate each other until there was only one left, and because they were alone there was no Whoever starts it really seems like a story of black humor it's all on page 112 but he tells and says well it wasn't just us who were hungry but the blacks who went with us because they already leave the Karanka water and they are with a series of much more hospitable people are the Coahuilteca Indians and the Indians that are around the current Mexican state of Coahuila around the capital of Saltillo so there it says their hunger was so great their hunger is so great that they eat spiders and eggs of ants and worms and lizards and geckos and snakes and vipers vipers that kill men when they bite, that is, to eat the snake but you have to kill it before the vipers kill you they will kill two of them and they will also eat earth and wood and all that there may be and deer dung and other things that he stopped counting and I believe carefully that if there were stones in that land he would also eat them, that is, it is that of that and then another another another enormous plague to which he frequently refers and that on the trip they made or did as they lead and rubĂ©n caba realized that it was that today it is still completely true that they were mosquitoes he says that's how we found on earth a very large number of mosquitoes in three ways that are very bad and the bears and everything else in summer made us very tired and to defend ourselves from them we made many fires around the people with rotten and wet wood so that they would not burn and make smoke because All night we did nothing but cry from the smoke that got into our eyes, that is, they were passing by everywhere, we had a really bad time.
At the end of 1529, he tried to escape from this region and began a new adventure for He is not for his companions, he is in faith, the only thing that he becomes a kind of peddler around the center to the region of central texas environment near what is now the city of san antonio in the north in the north of texas in beautiful texas then the harsh reality of hannah begins but there is still there she was doing a series of operations, no, then the bull is gone and I won't have time to tell things but there is a description one very interesting description page 121 of I say the things I traded says the main thing I traded was pieces of sea snails shell hearts that with them they cut a fruit that they heal with and do their dances and parties and instead another echo of For this I brought skins to the lean with which they gather and shoot and dye their faces and hair flints to make arrowheads paste and hard shafts to make it and some tassels that are made of deer hair that dye them and make them red and this trade I was very good because walking I had the freedom to go where I wanted and I was not forced to do anything and I was no longer a slave and wherever they treated me well they even gave me food out of respect for my merchandise, so what happensA time, despite the fact that he continues to walk barefoot and black, a time passes that for him is extraordinarily good in relation to the bad things he had and so he spends five whole years making this peddler path between Coahuila and Texas, they are stuck one next to the other.
And so over and over again until finally in October 1534 he managed to meet with his three friends with Alonso del Castillo with AndrĂ©s Dorante and with the black stress this fan and they finally manage to flee then they start they already move away they move away from central texas he begins they start to go along the big river not at four and then they start walking from the big river another three thousand kilometers on foot until they reach this place that we have here to this place called sanmiguel de culiacĂĄn which is already purely Hispanic and then it begins There is this other trek through the states of the states of Tamaulipas, then Chihuahua and finally Sinaloa in a huge trek of three thousand kilometers between this going yes Empres from East Asia to the West and here begins one of the strangest adventures of Alvar NĂșñez Cabeza de Vaca and his companions who have been these many articles of many jobs because it is not known exactly what they did but if they were They know the results that their stage as shamans or casters suddenly achieved one day, Alonso del Castillo, well they saw him how blond he was, maybe he cured people, a strange mixture for us, but for them this man must have some virtue because his hair is different from everything we know of, so he's going to see if it heals then he was lucky that he healed a main Indian from a wound, possibly it healed it because he brought them the part of infection that had been taking place on the basis of from sucking suns from his father, his share of the wound, what the fact is that he managed to cure him and since then, they became famous as shamans and as alvar nĂșñez says with many thanks, cabeza de vaca vini We are all going to be doctors and the four and the four become doctors not so that we know of, the only one who had any medical knowledge was Alonso del Castillo because his father had indeed been a doctor in Salamanca and perhaps he had said something to him but It is what counts with what he tells about healings to read an example of healing according to what Alvar NĂșñez Cabeza de Vaca tells, it was a mixture, not because of natural healing, he was looking for what they had learned well in Spain, because they were looking for how they could that wound or take that thing out suck it or do something to be able to stop because many of the diseases are diseases of this skin issue and so then I tried to heal it so it was not something else because it was a miracle, it cannot be creating a miracle Christian with names of saints with Christian prayers with names of Christian divinities etc. and also a case of collective hysteria because there were people that the arrival of the four Spanish shamans was enough for them to immediately be cured almost without their having to intervene, no, so here there is a kind of collective hysteria, but big as we will now see, so we are going to see an example of healing in that he narrates on page 117 worthy because I can't stop to tell more he says like this the way we priests go was by crossing ourselves to the Indians and blowing on them and we said a paternoster and a hail Mary and then we prayed the best we could given in our lord to give them health, spy on them that they give us some good treatment because of course if this does not work, well, the consequences could be very unpleasant and then the one who was a catholic hammerhead and had an extraordinary faith says that God also wanted and his mercy that all those for whom we beg after the ancients told the others that they were already healthy and good, the phenomenon began on f word of mouth phenomenon from this hysteria and suddenly a huge mob begins to form around the mature car that begins to accompany it remains the idea of ​​those biblical displays as from the followers of jesus of nazareth not when the famous episode of the multiplication occurs of the loaves and the fishes because all these people wanted not constant miracles on the part of these thaumaturges they lead it and on the way to the south there we see that there is an inflection and it clarifies it is crossing through the state of chihuaua bam bam glued to the Pacific Ocean they go glued but They never reach the Pacific Ocean so they go from this inflection to San Miguel de CuliacĂĄn which is still another 700 kilometers away but well, for them they were already used to it, that was not much so if they continue with this with this huge crowd of people who worship him as if he were thaumaturgical divinities, not because he gives them the miraculous cure we are talking about and they are on their way to the south and they go as far as the state of Chihuahua, they go as far as the state of Sinaloa, whose capital is CuliacĂĄn, as far as they go and suddenly another episode appears, not another episode that is very illustrative and very interesting, although it may not be as striking as that of the miraculous cures which is that suddenly the first Spaniards who had been seeing for many years some Spanish soldiers under the command of Diego de AlcalĂĄ are found but suddenly it turns out that these Spanish soldiers do not understand each other with Alvar NĂșñez Cabeza de Vaca they recognize him as Spanish Despite going like IvĂĄn, practically naked, they had nothing to put on their beards, they reached their waists and their hair was the same, despite the fact that they recognize that with Spaniards, but what they do not agree on in philosophy because the four of them Spaniards had become inadvertently they had become protectors of the Indians they were the protectors of the Indians and yet the captain died go de alcalĂĄ was at the service of the governor of nueva gran of nueva galicia la nueva galicia in the part of all this territory a galicia a certain nuño beltrĂĄn de guzmĂĄn who was a bloodthirsty torturer and slaver of Indians that is diego de alcalĂĄ nothing more than he was going to the north to collect Indians and make them slaves and enslave them and also inflicted treatment as bad as the one that the Indians of the coast of the coast of Florida had given to our the protagonists of our stories that is, in their history in their very brief history of the destruction and of bartolomĂ© de las casas who describe nuño beltrĂĄn de guzmĂĄn as a great tyrant a great tyrant then of course the Sunday man goes here he did not want to deliver his Indians into the hands of these tyrants and the others did not want to abandon them They produce a conflict there that is settled with a farewell Alvar NĂșñez and his three companions say goodbye to the Indians who will be accompanied, they leave him in the curative orphanage And if they go ahead and he arrives and arrives in CuliacĂĄn, they finally arrive in CuliacĂĄn, they are there with him with this ignoble governor on the computer who will be the subject of a residency trial and will be imprisoned later and there they spend some time recovering from the hardships already suffered.
In the beginning, they begin to be in a more normalized situation, but still not completely as we will see, and from there, from CuliacĂĄn, they are fairly well on their way to Mexico City, where they are received by Viceroy Mendoza and from there they take various destinations. They are already there at the beginning of the year 1537 and finally something in NĂșñez Cabeza de Vaca that our protagonist decides to go to the city of Veracruz to embark for Spain since the cross zebra, as everyone knows at this time, was the only one that It allowed one to leave for Seville, which was the only portal that led to SanlĂșcar de Barrameda, Seville, and in April 1537, he left, arrived in Havana, stayed a couple of months in havana and from havana he already embarks on a spanish ship but it loses its way and does not arrive in sanlĂșcar or sevilla but arrives in lisbon with which he has to walk from lisbon to sevillian but it was already as it was accustomed well nothing totally happened that he arrived he arrived in his land and he arrived in his land already in the summer of 1537 and here, well, the adventure that recounts shipwreck ends, naturally we find ourselves before a great lesson not from physical strength to moral strength we find ourselves Faced with an adventure that has awakened the imagination of many readers throughout history, we find ourselves before a great literary legacy because reading this is a highly recommended reading.
It is a reading that, within the tragedy that counts, does not have many moments of enormous interest. some because of his emotion, his emotionality, another because because of this humor that exudes in some words, others because of the extravagant things that he tells that made people think the first readers that it had been a pure but above all it stands out and this must be pointed out as a great anthropological work which is why because here we have descriptions of numerous towns whose towns some of them no longer exist towns whose names we have lost and which and to our town that is called that they were called uva bars or that was called already wanted that they were called thousands of the karanka wow mobile as of all these towns they were giving alvar nĂșñez head of a cow very reliable and very punctual and very exquisitely precise news of what they were like, what customs they had, how they dressed what they did, since they describe numerous peoples and it is the first time that humanity has been discovered in such a meticulous way, not humanity, American humanity, especially that humanity that is so backward, in the same way it describes in numerous languages ​​account the languages ​​the parading the absolute the absolute difference that there was between an action so that the tongues of the trunk of the trunk in tor No to Florida had nothing to do with the languages ​​that were around Coahuila, which certainly had nothing to do with the language of the Indians who later found themselves on the great plain once they passed the RĂ­o Grande or RĂ­o Bravo that They had nothing to do with the languages ​​of the Sinaloan area, that is, he himself has realized that the languages ​​and he accounts for nothing more than the names and some difference because he was not a linguist and did not know anything else as well. circumstantially in detail it gives an account of the customs here it seems to us now anecdotal things things nothing more than exotic or curious but then I had a great a great interest to see this naturally it is fixed the same as it is fixed in the same that has given an account of Spanish cannibalism because one of the two large grains of the two there are more but one of the great reproaches to the American Indians by the Spanish conquistadors is that they were cannibals who were cannibals who c They ate human flesh and another of the things that they criticized him a lot is that they practiced what is called sin against nature and sin against nature because it was a very common thing and he refers to it more than once and even calls it a lot the attention that exists that exists with great tranquility without without any fuss there are very consolidated homosexual marriage that there is marriage between men who already function as an established and permanent couple that is not a temporary thing that is, sexual marriage appears very well established and as One sees things that seem to be from now, since it comes from far away in time in anything, all these appreciations have not led to saying that Alvar NĂșñez Cabeza de Vaca is the first North American anthropologist reading shipwrecks, one can say that this is just title because what counts here is a true anthropology lesson apart from his personal adventure the fate of the four members was different from Alonso del Castil Lo did not move from Mexico Possibly he was tired when he arrived in Mexico and did not want to leave there and then AndrĂ©s died in Mexico in the year one thousand 548 while he went to Veracruz with Alvar NĂșñez Cabeza de Vaca but at the last minute he regretted it and He returned and left descendants in Mexico because he married there and one of his sons was Baltasar Dorantes de Carranza.
He became a great writer, one of the greats, one of the great Mexican writers of the end of the century, one of those who began to build that theory. that mexico is the center of the world and that mexico city and not madrid is really the center of the spanish empire he is one of the first to start this mental construct so this one also stayed in mexico this bank stays in mexico but but he was worried because he wants to participate in the expeditions to new ones also false like the one in Appalachians in false el dorado if he participates like this if you always go as a slave because he does not give him emancipation but rather gives it to him He sells out to Viceroy Mendoza and then he almost becomes a slave to the video, a state slave, but he is happy with his situation because he sends them as an advance party to a new chimera to explore those El Dorados that were called the seven cities of CĂ­bola and the city of kibera were cities that in the minds of these conquering discoverers were more or less in what would now be new mexico and part of arizona going towards going towards it towards the west in mexico and part of new parts in a new mexico and part of arizona this zone begins there these seven cities, activities or cities must be, of course they are built of precious metals that are abundant in gold that has some highly developed towns in reality they are miserable settlements in which the maximum are the most civilized that you find are the constructions of the pueblos indians that today in new mexico is taught as great back because they are already sedentary peoples for that reason or the Spaniards called them Indians towns because they had real towns and not the others, which were nomadic or semi-nomadic, this is already a sedentary settled town, very very fewvery very modest in its constructions but at least it was a stable dwelling and that is why the Indians called it Peruvian towns they were miserable land to the settlement which of course was a long way from those two of those fabulous seven cities of CĂ­bola and Kibera and finally well this fan also dies they die there in 1539 before any other of the expedition dies fighting against these Indians fighting against new flecheros Indians in this case the village Indians in a city called HuiquĂ­ because it has been recorded in the stories on the net in the stories of the time, so here they also end the story of the last of the last who has told us why we have left to explain in his trajectory the black to the Arab this fan and so and now if this chronicle of survival ends as I wanted to headline in This this exhibition is made up of real events, even if they seem improbable, that is, later studies that I know They have done it because later, of course, this incited other forays, Hernando de Soto to such, to explore the same territories, giving us that he dies in, as everyone knows, shortly after in the Mississippi in the same territories, so something has happened, not even a head of cow dies in the mississippi and its remains rest not at the bottom of the great american river it is a real authentic chronicle even though it is straddling two chimeras the chimera of the eternal fountain of youth of florida and the chimera of the riches of cibola and kibera that was not that they were not such were not that they were not such wealth nor were they ever never found because the sum is never this is the end of the story but as you can see that on many occasions reality exceeds fantasy and if we believe as there are all the indications to believe that shipwrecked is a true story and not a fictional story, it is not an invention, we can agree with those with those phrases many times in it is in this The novels moments in these moments the first years of the exploration of America this reality that the chroniclers of the Indies told us exceeds many fantasies that we could do it thank you very much

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