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The Secrets of Ancient Egypt | Part 1 | Chaos and Kings

Mar 30, 2024
foreigner four and a half thousand years ago northern Europe is slowly emerging from the Stone Age in the Mediterranean the roots of two great civilizations Greece and Rome have not yet taken hold in Mesopotamia the powerful Empire of Assyria is still in the distant future, but To the south, on the northeastern tip of Africa, something unparalleled in antiquity is happening, rising from the banks of the Nile River in Egypt are three colossal pyramids, monuments to the most enduring civilization the world has ever seen. The foreign historian Herodotus visited Egypt four and a half centuries earlier. After the birth of Christ, he was amazed.
the secrets of ancient egypt part 1 chaos and kings
The wonders were greater than those of any other land he observed. There were pyramids taller than any man-made structure on Earth. Avenues of half-man, half-beast sphinxes and imposing stone pillars called obelisks. There were giant statues of long dead pharaohs and exotic mummies wrapped in gold and everywhere the enigmatic symbols of their sacred writings. Here crossing the abyss of time was a civilization that had flourished for more than three thousand years to the

ancient

s. Egypt was already the

ancient

Cleopatra who ruled during the first century BC is closer in time to us than to the pharaohs who built the pyramids.
the secrets of ancient egypt part 1 chaos and kings

More Interesting Facts About,

the secrets of ancient egypt part 1 chaos and kings...

Egypt is so old that for centuries its origins remained shrouded in mystery, even the Egyptians weren't really sure of their age or where they came from. Herodotus said Egypt was a gift from the Nile, but the Egyptians knew from the beginning that life on the Nile could be precarious, isolated by an endless stretch of desert vulnerable to a river that was unpredictable and a climate that could dramatically change civilization. In Egypt it was forged in

part

by the realities of a hostile environment foreign Egyptians called it

chaos

lurking in the background there were powerful forces waiting to be unleashed because disaster could strike at any moment Egyptians held to a deep belief order not

chaos

was the will of the gods to maintain order and keep chaos at bay the Egyptians imagined the king to be a living God the earthly manifestation of Horus the falcon ruler of the heavens against him was the rebellious god Seth the harbinger of chaos the eternal conflict between Order and chaos would ultimately guide the destiny of foreign Egyptian civilization, but the true story of how it emerged disappeared in ancient times in the Twilight of Egypt's greatness, around 300 BC.
the secrets of ancient egypt part 1 chaos and kings
C., a priest named Manetho began the astonishing task of compiling the first complete history of Egypt; The challenge would have been daunting even in the libraries of the Temple and on the walls of the most sacred places in Egypt, volumes had already been written abroad. Pharaoh Seti was born, the first to build a temple in Abydos dedicated to Osiris, the god of the dead. In a special room of ancestors his son the future Ramses II is shown fathering a papyrus, the document carved in hieroglyphics on the wall, contains a list of 76 royal names in chronological order, each name is surrounded by a stylized scroll rope, the symbol called by Egyptologists is katush, identifies a king together, the

kings

ruled over Egypt for two thousand years. history using temple documents like these meneton organized the history of him into 30 royal dynasties the oldest name on the list is mene king menu founded the first dynasty of

egypt

around 3100 bce.
the secrets of ancient egypt part 1 chaos and kings
C. according to Mineton he reigned for 60 years during which he expanded Egypt's borders and gained great acclaim before being carried away by a hippopotamus before the king menu Egypt was ruled by demigods called spirits of the dead, but their names were long forgotten where were the spirits of the dead history or mythology where Egyptian civilization really began ironically not on the banks of the Nile 70 miles west of the Nile, in the Sahara Desert, it is so hot and dry that the little rain that falls evaporates sooner from touching the ground. Here, in this desolate landscape, lived a tribe of nomads who may have been the ancestors of the foreign pharaohs of the Southern Methodists.
The University of Dallas, Texas, is leading an international team of archaeologists who have been scouring the desert for signs of human occupation. In 1974 they located an ancient settlement on the edge of a shallow basin they called Napta Playa. The Sahara was not always dry and added radiocarbon. The dating reveals that around the year 8000 BC. C., the tropical African summer monsoon moved northward, increasing precipitation in the desert and allowing seasonal lakes to form one of those legs. Here naptoplayo was surrounded by expanses of grasslands to feed their livestock, people could take refuge from the heat and whims. of the desert but the rain was unpredictable without it the lake dried up three days without water meant the difference between life and death survival hung by a thread something extraordinary happened the co-leader of the rumult expedition Escudo of the Polish Academy of Sciences has discovered a small circle of stones, a miniature Stonehenge but two thousand years older.
He believes it was used to predict the arrival of the rainy season. A humble pile of rocks you see here is actually one of the oldest calendars ever found. This consisted of a storm ring and two vertical Stone alignments called Gates, you can see them here and there and one of the alignments points exactly north, although the other one that you can see in this direction points to the position of the sun in the June 21, which is the beginning of summer, the beginning of the rainy season in this belt of Africa, the discovery of this calendar circle only hinted at what was to come nearby.
Several unusual stones were also found arranged in circles marking the location of deep wells. The stones, some of which weighed more than a ton and a half, did not come from Naptiplier, but were dragged here from a distant, foreign quarry. For desert dwellers to transport large stones and lift them required an incredible amount of effort and organization, the question is why. Fred Windolph believes they can mark the graves of important people or honor their spirits, perhaps someone powerful enough to intercede with the gods and bring rain. One of the most imposing objects was found in this well, perhaps the final resting place of a ruler or chieftain in At first it looked like an ordinary rock, but on closer inspection it turned out to be a primitive sculpture.
We found this very large, carefully shaped stone in this hole, about a meter above the large mushroom-shaped outcrop of bedrock. you can see how carefully the surfaces were worked and smoothed with the sharp edge and you can see how they were able to control the length of the piece by making grooves in this face here which you can see and then using a wedge they were able to tack out the flakes exactly at the points they wanted . This is a very impressive piece of stone work and may well mark the beginning of the Egyptian fascination with working on large stones.
It is also an important marker of social rank because the ability to control the large number of men needed to shape this Stone and put it in position to shape the Bedrock below required numerous people to be present during our considerable period of time to achieve all this and this indicates that this individual had greater power. Seven thousand years ago, the first crude monuments in Egypt arose from the desert to honor a Fallen King and bring order to Chaos, but for the people of Naptiplaya the sands of time were ending around 5000 BC. The summer monsoon began. to move again this time towards the south, the Kingdoms finally stopped and oases like Naptiplier dried up permanently, forced to abandon the desert, the settlers headed east, towards the Nile, the Nile is the soul of Egypt.
Its origins are deep in East Africa, the river flowing north some four thousand miles before. reaching the Nile Valley in Egypt an oasis more than 600 miles long for the last 100 miles it opens into a wide Delta before emptying into the Mediterranean Sea throughout Egyptian history the Nile was both a blessing and a curse once a year, swollen by monsoon rains in Ethiopia the The river flooded its banks depositing nutrient-rich soil that the Egyptians called the black earth without it, Egypt would be arid and one of the most fertile regions on Earth in abroad, but in the past the river was as unpredictable as rain in the desert, too high a flood could make it.
Destroying villages to reduce flooding meant fueling the chaos of uncertainty, the Egyptians devised the world's first calendar based on three seasons or four months each. It's the calendar model we use today, but this time they weren't watching the weather, they were watching the Nile. The moment of the flood was called the flood, a moment of emergency, since when the water receded and crops could be planted during the dry period when the Nile was lowest, crops were harvested by working together, the Egyptians dug wells, built dikes to protect their villages, and developed the rudiments of geometry to redraw their property boundaries each year by 4000 BC.
C., after the Naptiplaya people settled in the Nile Valley, the first glimpses of Egyptian civilization began to appear, beautifully decorated ceramic paddles in the shape of animals designed for mixing cosmetics and flint knives, so well made . Some with elaborately carved ivory handles from abroad between 4,000 and 3,000 B.C. have never been equaled. two powerful kingdoms arose because the Nile flows from south to north the kingdom that flourished in the Nile delta is called Lower Egypt the land of the papyrus plant the kingdom of Upper Egypt the land of the lotus flourished in the Nile valley the symbols of The two kingdoms are interwoven throughout Egyptian history signify the union of the two lands into the world's first great civilization What has long puzzled archaeologists is how and when the unification took place Renee Friedman of the University of California in Berkeley and his colleagues are searching for clues at the site of the ancient capital of Upper Egypt we have what appears to be a man called by the Greeks hierarchicalpolis the city of Hulk was Egypt's first city with a range of 35 to 50 years its monuments and structures long gone, instead craters dug by thieves illuminated the site a century ago archaeologists thought all that remained in the desert was a looted cemetery not worth exploring, little did they know it was hidden in the sand was a wealth of new information, new discoveries show that around 3500 B.C.
The hierarchiopolis was one of the most important settlements along the Nile, at more than two miles long, it was a bustling community of farmers, administrators, artisans and potters. A potter made kitchen utensils for his neighbors. he signed his pieces by pressing his thumb into the wet clay just below the edge five thousand years later, the fragments still cover the ground near his kiln due to a strange industrial accident it is possible to identify his house these are the remains of the Potter's House The oldest reserved house in all of Egypt and we owe its excellent preservation to the fact that the potter worked too close to where he lived, fortunately for us, but unfortunately for him, one day a change in the wind caused the fire in the kiln to burn. would turn off. travel the short distance to the house by burning the red fire and hardening the native filth and mud bricks that form the lower

part

of the house and reduce the posts and mats of its walls to the charcoal and ashes that we see here in the On the north side of the city there was a vast industrial complex of bakeries, Egypt's first known breweries, and granaries for storing wheat, but the most important structure at Harakópolis was discovered in 1985 when archaeologists stumbled upon several large six-foot-deep holes, large enough to support huge 20 foot tall wooden columns these columns formed the façade of a huge sanctuary that would have dominated the entire temple complex and the city of hierarchomplice as a whole this is the oldest known temple in

egypt

in Nowhere else was the king's power more evident during ritual ceremonies.
The king seated on the throne would oversee the sacrifice of animals to the falcon god Horus, the patron of all future

kings

of Egypt, designed to evoke the silhouette of a crouching animal with horns and tail. The temple was profusely decorated with colorful mats and pillars, perhaps. Made of cedars imported from Lebanon, the prototype of all subsequent great temple complexes, it dominated the landscape of Hyracopolis, but for now the falcon city had a rival, Bhutto, the capital of Lower Egypt located north of modern Cairo, in the Nile delta today. Bhutto's remains are a huge mound of earth and rubble and these stones and statues thatThey date back 2,000 years, but in this trench archaeologists have discovered fragments of hundreds of clay vessels dating from the same period as Heracompanus 3500 BC. and before.
Thanks to Dina Feltings from the German Archaeological Institute she is in charge of the excavation and is an expert in the study of ancient ceramics, gathering the fragments and comparing them with the ceramics from hydrocopolis, she made a surprising discovery. Bhutto in early times was home to a In a different culture, Bhutto vessels are less sophisticated than those of Upper Egypt. Here you have a piece of clay at the bottom and then they put some vertical slabs and they just press them down and polish the surface to close it in contrast to that. We have some imports from Upper Egypt, like this pot, it has a very inelegant shape, the quality is that you can hear it, it is much tighter and well, this comes from much better technology.
They had better ovens in Upper Egypt and, obviously, in Lower Egypt. Those who made this type of vessels also realized that, so they tried to imitate these parts, but with their lower Egyptian technique and skill, which is not very high, so they did not do a very good job. Dina Felding's work on Bhutto reveals that by 3200 B.C. The higher culture of Upper Egypt had spread throughout Lower Egypt and the two kingdoms became one, but was the transformation peaceful or bloody? The union of the two kingdoms along the Nile was a milestone in Egyptian civilization, but how it came about was a persistent question that all archaeologists had to follow.
A single object found in Hadakopolis in 1898 was this exquisite ceremonial palette made of slate dates to around 3100 BC. C. was dedicated by a king of Upper Egypt called Nama, who some believe was the legendary king, the first pharaoh of many Egypt, on one side, Nama, with a bulbous crown, is about to knock down a prisoner in the presence of Horus, the falcon god of Heracophonus, on the other side of the palette, Nama, wearing a crown with a curved tongue, appears in A. the procession advances towards two rows of decapitated prisoners the lions are long necks intertwined symbolizing unification the key to understanding the palette of nama is in the crowns in Upper Egypt the king wore a white crown with a bulbous tip in Lower Egypt a red crown with a long protruding tongue together they form a double crown, signifying that Pharaoh he had become the lord of the two lands for the next three thousand years after the unification.
The image of the king with a double crown would appear on statues and temples throughout Egypt to reinforce his rule over the entire land. The Nama palette seemed to confirm that unification came after a century-long bloody conquest; It remained the only evidence until a small object turned up in Egypt's oldest royal cemetery. Abydos is believed to be the final resting place of Osiris, the god of the dead. The ground is scattered. with broken vessels, the shattered remains of offerings to one of Egypt's most important gods, long before the pharaohs carved their tombs in the Valley of the Kings or built the pyramids.
Egypt's early rulers were buried here in large brick-lined tombs, widely explored at the turn of the century. Abidus was thought to have revealed all its

secrets

until 1977, when German archaeologist Gunther Dryer reopened the site. Since then, he and his team have reinvestigated the tombs of several early kings, including that of King Naman. um Dryer is excited about the discovery of an ivory. Labels Labels like this were originally attached to small oil jars, as they contained a big surprise. seems to represent the event on the nama palette. This is an ivory label of King Namor found near his tomb.
These labels were used to indicate the date of shipments. of oil at that time the dates were indicated by year names and these names were chosen after the most important events of that year in this case it is a victory of King Namor over the people of the Delta and obviously it is the same event represented in the famous Narma palette From this we can conclude that the narma palette indeed refers to a historical event that took place in a certain year, but the label is just one piece of a puzzle. Another discovery about us suggests that the unification process had begun long before nama.
Beneath these mounds of rubble were found the tombs of kings of a previously unknown dynasty that Egyptologists now call Dynasty Zero. In the tombs there were more labels even more surprising than the first ones here engraved on ivory, which was clear proof that the Egyptians had developed a completely evolved system. writing system not only earlier than what was thought, but also earlier than the Sumerians of Mesopotamia, who are credited with being the first to produce a written language. The earliest Sumerian writing seen here was an accounting system composed of simple images and numbers. Egyptian writing already contained sound. signs like modern alphabets the hieroglyphs on these labels represent sounds the snake represents the sound Ju along with two triangles spells the word Jew meaning mountain the symbols read the mountains of darkness referring to the west where the sun sets the hieroglyphs other labels indicate that the King was already collecting taxes from both Upper and Lower Egypt, a sure sign that a unification had already occurred to consolidate the kingdom.
A new capital was built exactly where Upper and Lower Egypt meet, founded by King Minir, who Egyptologists believe is the historical King. nama Memphis was destined to be the greatest city on earth for three thousand years, the pharaohs would rule Egypt from Memphis, but today all that remains are ruins, but none dating back to the time of the king. Nama Egyptologists have long assumed that the ancient capital was always located here, but David Jeffries of the Egyptian Exploration Society believes Memphis was somewhere else and has spent nine years trying to find it using a simple hand drill.
He has taken a series of core samples from Fields two miles west of the ruins. The case uncovered a substantial amount. layer of artifacts 10 feet below the surface, typically what we expect to find in this area, just a few meters from the position we have reached at this moment, is pottery at the lowest level, the pottery with the lowest silt level low representing the period around 3000 BC of the first kings of unified Egypt and representing the founding of the national capital in this area, which would cause the nation's first capital, a great city of palaces, temples, houses and administrative buildings, collected and moved two great natural forces of the desert. and the Nile we are standing here on the very edge of the western desert looking down the Nile Valley towards the cliffs on the east side the valley is only seven kilometers wide here it is as narrow as anywhere in the northern part of the Nile Valley and what we believe we've established we're looking at the area where we've been doing these drill cores, what we believe has been established is that the river flowed very close to this Desert Edge and that the city actually lay along it. directly below where we are and that as the sand swept from the western desert and as the river moved eastward, the city followed the movement of the river to where the recognized ruin field is today, about three kilometers away. through the chaos of the shifting Nile valley on one side and the encroaching desert on the other tormented the Egyptians throughout their history.
To overcome the ever-present threat of danger, they would put their faith in one man and the power of the gods to protect them from the disaster the Egyptians conferred. his King with absolute power and worshiped him as a god Only one God could talk to the gods and Only one God could avoid chaos preserve order called Mart personified as a goddess sitting with a feather on her head the Pharaoh carried out rituals daily to appease the gods he built elaborate temples and provided them with food, drink, and other offerings. Chaos came in many forms: it could manifest as a violent sandstorm blowing from the desert or a foreign enemy.
Images of pharaohs as triumphant warriors are repeated again and again throughout Egyptian history. One of Ramses II appears in a temple built almost 2,000 years after the Nama conquered Lower Egypt. Ramses probably never led an army into battle. The image is more symbolic than real. A message to all who saw it that the king fulfilled his sacred duty to maintain Mart. foreign divine order pharaohs most likely oversaw their military campaigns from afar in 22 BC. A high court official named Winnie ordered the details of his extraordinary career to be engraved on the walls of his tool when he recounts how his pharaoh, King Pepe, dealt with the tribe. of marauding nomads when his majesty took action against those who inhabit the deserts of the East he raised an army of many tens of thousands from all over Upper Egypt there were noble silversmiths, chiefs and mayors I was the one who commanded them this army returned in safety he had devastated the land of its sandy inhabitants had plundered its fortresses had thrown fire into all its mansions his majesty praised me for it beyond anything with astonishing power and destructive force chaos could also erupt out of nowhere, not far from the site of ancient Memphis In a stone quarry in Helwan, 20 miles south of Cairo, lies the oldest dam in the world, although it is difficult to imagine after four thousand years, this enormous pile of stone was part of a huge engineering project designed to control flash floods, fascinated by early Egyptian technology made by Gunter Dryer.
A detailed study of the dam estimates that it took 500 men and 10 years to build and transport some 184,000 tons of stone from any point of view the dam was an extraordinary attempt to thwart the chaos unfortunately it did not work the dam stretched across the Wadi from from there to there and was about 330 feet long and 42 feet high, it was built pretty solidly in cross section, it would look like this at the base, a length of 300 feet, at the top, about 150 feet, It consisted of three parts in the middle a loose filling of sand and on both sides a pack of raw stones covered by a casing of lined limestone blocks.
Unfortunately the dam overflowed before it was completed, the water came here and destroyed the unfinished part and then in a few minutes huge amounts of water rushed through the Wadi and destroyed all the facilities below, so the work of about 10 years and 500 workers was just rain for the Egyptians who built it. The disaster was a tragic reminder of how destructive the forces of nature can be. and the need for constant vigilance, it was the Egyptians' unique vision of the cosmos shaped by their environment that sustained the world's most enduring civilization. At the center of it all was the king with skills forged by his ancestors in the desert that I had perfected.
On the banks of the ever-changing Nile he maintained the balance of the universe with justice and mercy he fought against the relentless onslaught of nature, social upheaval even the foreign supernatural, but in the end there was a final immutable battle with chaos from which no one could escape. Although the King was a God, he was also a man, he was going to die to avoid the Calamity, he ordered the Egyptians to begin carrying large stones to the edge of the desert. Slowly a new type of Monument emerged that would come to symbolize the definitive Triumph of the king, the Triumph of eternal life the age of the pyramid The builders had begun

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