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The Mystery Of The 9,000 Year Old Hunting Tools Frozen In The Yukon | Secrets From The Ice | Odyssey

Dec 23, 2021
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odyssey

when checking in if you are very lucky and on the right day you can climb up the ice and pick up the item exactly where it melted a mysterious story ancient humans are melting from the ice this type of artifact will be over a thousand

year

s old in northern canada the frontier of archeology and climate change we are not getting just the stone we are getting the complete weapon and we were absolutely flabbergasted my mind immediately thinks what is the story behind from this how old you think is ok but surprises don't stop with artifacts now you have a human i mean this could be you know your relative prehistoric

secrets

frozen

in time until now oh my god in a government laboratory in the

yukon

a collection of ancient

hunting

tools

that hold the

secrets

of a lost chapter of human history this here is my particular favorite and I don't know if you can see this, but this little segment about three inches long has a couple of tendon twists and parts of a feather that are still wedged under that tendon.
the mystery of the 9 000 year old hunting tools frozen in the yukon secrets from the ice odyssey
This is actually the piece that started the whole ice patch phenomenon when we got the radiocarbon. it dates back to 4300 it's just that all the lights came on and we saw that this was one of the oldest preserved organic artifacts found in Canada organic artifacts that are the key wood and feathers and sinew that would otherwise have rotted away centuries ago in instead of being preserved in the southern Yukon ice patches but what is an ice patch anyway and how is it different from a glacier we have lost about 10 square kilometers of ice the really big difference is the glaciers they move for ice to move, it needs to be 30-40 meters thick, about 100 feet or more, and when ice is that thick due to its own weight, it deforms under its own weight and starts to move. little research camp guy here behind us we have a Cessna plane that crashed this uh it crashed probably about 50

year

s ago when I first worked here about 10 years ago it was about a kilometer past here the moving glacial ice in actually has it led to the plane wrecking at this location if that plane had crashed on an ice patch it would have stayed in the same place such good patches because they don't move material that falls on the surface actually stays in place and things can be preserved by thousands. and thousands of years, so ice patches can be big, but not as big as glaciers, and they've been sitting in the same place for thousands of years, which is to say, until now, their rate of melting is unprecedented and although rapid melting is scary for climatologists greg hare and christian thomas have stumbled upon an entirely new scientific discipline ice patch archeology chris was walking along the edge of the ice we are about ten feet from the edge of the ice here and found there a dart that has melted off the ice and looks like maybe it got caught in the meltwater channel and moved in various pieces to where we see it now when you look around this landscape there are no trees so the only way to get a substantial piece of wood like this up here is for someone to actually mention it so when we see wood we automatically know it's an artifact this kind of artifact t It's going to be over a thousand years old you wouldn't find it in a non-

frozen

place that would have rotted hundreds of years ago so we know this is pretty fresh out of the ice there's a good fit there chris looks perfect oh well chris good eye, another shard of darkness, you know?
the mystery of the 9 000 year old hunting tools frozen in the yukon secrets from the ice odyssey

More Interesting Facts About,

the mystery of the 9 000 year old hunting tools frozen in the yukon secrets from the ice odyssey...

Hypothesizing that there were feathers on the end of these weapons actually finding ancient examples of the weapons lets us know how people put the feathers on the shaft so we don't have to assume we can look at the collection and measure and see how they built these things and how they intended them to blow up the

yukon

used to be an archeological backwater and then all of a sudden artifacts were being dumped and canada was leading the way and unlocking the many secrets of melting ice you might think what they just to find it is an ancient arrow it is not it is a technology that predates bows and arrows by thousands of years it is a

hunting

tool called an atlatl an atlatl is a piece of carved wood that allows the hunter to throw a dart with greater force at a greater distance than you could by simply throwing a spear this is where members of the world atlatl association gather to compete and see how well they can compete stand up with other thrillers that are actually atlatl league ues all over the world but most of the best dart shooters are here ryan grossmeier is an engineer at the university of missouri grossmeier has taken the dimensions of those old wooden atlatl shafts found in the yukon and has made exact replicas to study their effectiveness as hunting

tools

these are all accurate replicas of individual darts that have been recovered from patches of ice on mountain tops when thrown at small darts they have to flex a lot to fly correctly the dart shafts wobble wildly in the air from the force of the throw but then amazingly find its mark on the target.
the mystery of the 9 000 year old hunting tools frozen in the yukon secrets from the ice odyssey
The feathers are important to keep the dart flying straight. When you apply force to the back end of the dart, it can cause the dart to spin like this. The feathers are what make the dart start to spin. rear to stay behind the front otherwise you can cause the darts to spin in flight these yukon darts are actually very sophisticated in fact they are more sophisticated than any modern darts thrown by modern competitors would have carried long time to do it with stone tools but i think it was integral to how they fly accurately ok the official order uh in terms of accuracy there are competitors here today who can easily hit a saucer sized target from about 20 meters ryan grossmeier and that's definitely accurate enough to take down something like a caribou or any kind of deer in my mind i envisioned, say, half a dozen hunters looking for a herd of caribou one or two get hit by the darts and in the meantime, the darts that didn't hit the target maybe got buried in the snow and then incorporated into the ice, so it's like a congeal. or giant, anything that got lost in the ice or at the edge of the ice or died. around ice often gets entombed in ice for hundreds or thousands of years and we happen to be in the decade or century that that ice is melting, we don't know how old this particular patch of ice is.
the mystery of the 9 000 year old hunting tools frozen in the yukon secrets from the ice odyssey
The last thing we found here I think is 900 years old, but other ice patches are up to 9,000 years old, so it's a real window into the past. We have a preserved record of the hunting techniques and traditions of ancient peoples. it looks like what we have here is perhaps a swan or goose foot bone that has been split and one end ground into a point that is probably used as an awl to punch holes and leather and items to repair items immediately popped into my mind goes to what's the story behind it because i have a storyteller mom i'm always like oh i wonder how it got there what's the story around the person who made it so this is definitely the first time i think we found a all good on a good patch it's one of the first times we've found a non-projectile point on the good patch that's a beauty is it a woman's tool or a man's tool it's a um how did they lose it in this valley here or this next one over there this is friday creek that runs down this area the artifacts tell a story that the old people heard from their grandparents that these mountains were once overrun by caribou we are in the ridge between the friday ice patches and the alligators and this is a stone hunting blind that is one of a series of seven blinds that run along the crest of this ridge and i first came here around 1999 and art showed us where these blinds were when did you first know about these blinds?
Oh boy I can't, I was about eight or nine years old. Dude, let's say there were people behind each set of blinds and the caribou or sheep would go through them and then you would shoot them with your arrow or dart. We didn't find anything organic that we can date to, but last year two years ago. it was the first time we came here we found a couple of broken spearheads and from our work inside the ice patches we know that spearheads were used up to 1200 years ago and then replaced by antler arrowheads and bec Because we have spearheads right next to these blinds.
We know that they are more than 1200 years old. There were a lot of caribou up here. I don't know why, but they disappeared from this area in 1898 because you asked the old man. -the timers on the caribou will say there were so many caribou in those mountains back there you think the whole mountain is moving with caribou and in these snow patches they prove it you see all those dark streaks in the ice it's all caribou dung and when caribou biologists first found it in the mid 90's it was amazing news no one knew how it got there because as far as everyone knew the herds had disappeared a century before it was amazing how you could look while standing melted caribou dung. almost like it was deposited days ago in some cases huh looking pretty new so we knew this wasn't a recent phenomenon that had to have been deposited by generations and generations of caribou so we said ok we better col ect some of it while collecting their dung samples don russell and his partner found the pieces of what they thought were fragments of an arrow shaft and took them back on white horse and then said in the first place it's not a arrow shaft is that little chef and then we set a date because it looked like an arrow shaft and I said oh that's cool we set a date it's over 4,000 years old and we oh I think the fecal sample that I collected was I think 1600 years old and the atlatl dart was 4300 years old so that started it all and all of a sudden we're not getting just the stone, we're getting the whole weapon, we're getting, you know, the spears. with the stone tips the wooden shafts and the feathers and the sinew we get the arrow the air shafts with the feathers and the sinew and the ocher on them and we are seeing for the first time as archaeologists the complete weapon and we were absolutely flabbergasted that we never had air conditioning cess to that knowledge before right was it you know what we could learn from talking to old people about life in the old days and suddenly we have a mistake we can date it we know exactly what it is you know 150 years or 300 years or we can take a dart and say oh no this is 6,000 years old so we couldn't do that with stone now we could they could get an age on artifacts because organic material can be carbon dated stone can't the ice was melting and at the base of the ice, sometimes on the surface of the ice there were artifacts lying around and it was incredible that summer summer of 1999 the helicopter was every day ptero was coming back with amazing new artifacts that no one had ever seen before was amazing, so the dung and artifacts were very old, but one big question remained: why did they find it all so high up in the mountains?
Why weren't hunters just killing animals in valleys where they weren't needed? spend so much energy climbing i Turns out they were walking to where their prey was finding relief from the summer heat. One of the things is that caribou are very well adapted to cold conditions and not very well adapted to warm conditions, so it's an opportunity to help them regulate thermally. that by congregating on the ice by lying on the ice they can keep cool, but I think more important than that was to avoid the pestering insects, to see those caribou twitch like that, they're being pestered by flies and butterflies, you can just see the whole animal shivering and shimmering to try to get rid of those yeah its just hot days in summer when you find them on the ice in patches of snow in the high mountains we climbed on an ice patch to drink water on a hot day and a big mountain caribou came up to us and didn't see us his eyes were drooping and his tongue was lolling out he was hot and upset and there was a swarm of flies the flies are chirping like a bee looks like a bee and buzzes like a bee and drives them crazy but doesn't bite them lays eggs on the feet in the fur when they hatch a small larva would pierce the skin and through the bloodstream to the back and then leave anice little hole which is ok in a hide you can't see the holes but in a piece of leather full of holes not many people can appreciate that when they get to the ice those bugs stay away. to the sides, they can't fly, they don't congregate around the caribou, so the caribou ease up when they're on the ice and then it's a matter of whether the caribou is 20 meters or 40 meters, can you?
Hit him with the dart can you shoot him with the arrow do you have to get closer I said holy that's a long way to throw a spear or a long way to throw a grown up but to throw a good grown up grown up , you know. you've got to put your hand back like this and you've got to have that momentum to be able to throw that's technology and that's experience imagine the anticipation every summer heading here to see what these ice patches have to offer next, but also imagine that the artifacts they are family heirlooms left there by their ancestors each piece found carries with it a charged double meaning this is one of our um i guess most illustrious artifacts is a moccasin which was found in the gladstone ice patch several years ago and it was only through the efforts of our conservator that it was determined that it was actually a moccasin she spent hundreds of hours preserving this material she said it was like working with wet toilet paper trying to put this in a frame and get the right shape and all , and little by little it was learned that it was a moccasin, it has been dated to about 1500 years and this is without a doubt the oldest moccasin to be found. ever found in canada the huge Glastone ice patch is the largest in the Yukon and has been producing artifacts for years gladstone is in southern toshoni traditional territory for greg to visit the ice patches he has to get permission from the different first nations w Hose members are eager to get on and participate themselves.
She found this old projectile point. they are all between and 3009 thousand years old, so it is quite difficult to say what this is, but you can see that it is a very good quality church. This is a very pretty little stone. the arrow shaft or the arrowheads coming out of these patches of ice um, they're just part of the history of this land um, they're, they're not the story itself, they're just a part of that story, they're part of that caribou story they are part of my grandmother's life they are part of my great grandfather's life and that has given us life here to this day, so when we look at some of those items and that's like, um, it's the Histories are alive but the artifacts really help solidify that t that narrative I think and um and then for our younger generation they can have that tactile proof that um we have history here tactile proof one of the key jobs for an archaeologist is to substantiate history inside the landscape to reveal to us that the people They were here and told us what they were doing this is central Norway that petroglyph carved into the rock represents a reindeer a first cousin of the North American caribou experts believe it was engraved in n stone 6000 years ago and tells a story of how important reindeer were to the people who hunted this land beyond the tree line in the dovra mountains the ice patches seem incredibly familiar just like the yukon they are getting too melting revealing their own secrets these really in norway and in the yukon these high alpine places are removed from towns and city centers and places where archeology is usually done and has not been very well researched and now for the first time we are looking at the im Percentage of the margins and we're seeing how adventurous and how comfortable people were at high elevations.
There's a shaft piece here. Why? This one is hard to say. It could be 800 years old. It could be about 300 years old. somewhere in between martin kalanin is an irish man studying ice patch archeology at the university of trondheim this place lies between central norway and the coast and was heavily traveled by people we now know as mountain vikings in the middle ages in the late middle ages they really started using this place a lot and I think it has something to do with it being relatively close to town or village at the time and that this was their local snow patch in a way that Martin ends getting a lot of his artifacts come from trusted local collectors who know what to look for tor breton is a park ranger with an eye for new items in the melt water he and his colleague meet martin at the opto parks office to reveal his la la la test finds it's wonderful yeah when you see the arrow and realize that oh it's narrow it's like uh hard to describe it feels like a shock and Electric in a good way at first, you say, oh, that's a narrow shaft, can I find the arrowhead, where is the rest of Oh, yes, it's complete.
I found at least 47 different artifacts, arrow or bow pieces found over several years in small fragments, so maybe 250 different arrow pieces or both. It seemed to me that it was like that when I found it when I tried to lift it. it occurred to me that it tells a story about my ancestors because my ancestors who hunted there and I am also a reindeer hunter and on a warm day I would hunt on a patch of ice so this shaft melted and it was found about in the middle of the snow patch yes they are in different fragments but as you can see they fit together and there is good preservation on this we have the blow to the back that the archer would have sustained when he released rope. from the bow the last pe The person who touched this arrow before Ingle found it on Thursday was probably the hunter 16 or 1800 years ago when he launched the arrow hunt and the question is do they belong together and this is part of the shard game , if it doesn't fit.
I'm going to have to go back there and search there again, but I think it fits, but I don't dare get the wonderful hammer. One of the tricky things about snow patch archeology is that ice patches pass from the sky to old items frozen in an ice stable and it's the perfect environment for organic material like wood, bone, or antlers, but in the moment the objects come out of the ice, it becomes hell because then it is very important to secure the object immediately. Once thawed, the wooden artifacts are damp, even soggy, they will need to be dried and then treated with preservatives in a burial ground near Vong in Norway.
These mounds mark Viking Age graves. Archaeologists estimate that there are between 750 and 800 people buried. here for 1500 years. The thing to remember is that the people who lived here in Scandinavia during the Viking Age were also farmers, hunters, they worked in the landscape around them and some of the arrows we found in the snow patches may have belonged to the people who they lie in the graves here in fact you find arrowheads in the graves and some of the graves are exactly like the arrows we found in their ice patches as they melt well not exactly the metal hunting points recovered from the graves vikings are corroded by chemicals in the ground you can get an idea of ​​what they would look like when new by their shape but when you see a similar reclaimed spot from the ice where those chemicals are not present well just look at it it is pristine it was found early in the morning and the way the light was shining on the patch of snow and it had really melted off the ice it's almost like the hunter had e Been there the day before and would have missed it, so it really captures what ice patch archeology is all about just trying to be there at the right time and salvage the object as best we can.
Maybe a metal spike is something they love to find in the Yukon, but that artifact hasn't turned up there yet? The key strategy in both places is to be ready to spend your summers keeping an eye on what's on offer next. you're looking at here there's a little knob at the top where the bow would have been attached and you can see a fragment of the bow arm of course it would have been a lot longer at the time but the hunter would have held it maybe here and only this part has been preserved maybe maybe this is exactly where it broke so this may be one of those other moments where the hunter has skewered his uh arrow, pulled his string and instead of releasing one arrow, bow has cracked and then was puck arded in the snow patch so there may have been wailing and lashing of teeth around this piece in the 80s there was a little fight or two 2000s early 2000s 2003 just explodes explodes in central norway southern norway we started hearing news from southern canada yukon they have hundreds of fines and then we realized this is a very different thing and i think this applies to glacial archeology as a whole, we're all in sort of a rescue mode and we're trying to figure out the best way to document things right now, here and now, really detailed research and study of these things will come, you know, decades and centuries in the future, this is research material and this is material for archeology for archaeologists for generations this is the front line of climate change archaeology I think there is a lesson we are shown something here that when objects out of five thousand six thousand years old begin to melt from alpine ice, that something is changing in mountain landscapes and you know there are many other indications all around us, this is just one of many different signs that something is changing in nature that we surrounds with the speed of climate change people now know anything could come out of the ice next and with each discovery the past speaks louder and more s clearly, challenging us to interpret our human history in dramatically different ways, the importance of finding even the bones you're not sure if they come from the last hunt a year or 40 years ago is that the ice that persists here preserves everything so this could be ten years old it could be three thousand years old you just can't tell it by looking at it but you literally have to collect everything you find and you do the scientific tests later because we found that when you collect everything you create this amazing archive of animal life in the alpine that can be studied. ed for genetics or trace elements and you can really learn a lot about the past we have sheep we have caribou we have bison we have wolves we have bears basically everything that lived around the ice and died on the ice even if it wasn't hunted by humans could be preserved in ice probably the best example we have is this sheep skull that we found next to an ice patch a few years ago and when we started doing the analysis on the cut marks we decided to radiocarbon this one and we sent a very small sample and it turns out to be about 4,500 years old, so it's a lot older than we thought it was going to be, but it's the best example we have of someone in ancient times killing one of these animals, so these are cut marks from cutting tools. stone on the forehead of this sheep skull, you know people have iconic spearheads and arrows and scrapers and that sort of thing in mind, but really when it comes If you go to an archaeological site and you're digging, you hardly ever find those perfectly preserved spearheads and arrowheads, what you find is the scrap flakes, the slough that comes off when people make stone tools, so this represents a very general archaeological site in the subarctic where there are hundreds not thousands of debris flakes and when I look at this collection today it just pales in comparison to what we're learning from the ice patches or the quality of the tools and I think this is really typical for most of the archeological sites in the subarctic we are in the gladstone ice patch and sheila they just found another stone spearhead you can see if you know it's basalt or darcy another day another historical find it's within that range this time it's stone hunting point from the tip of an atlatl you're getting a better your eyes are starting to train greg hare is with the e college student nansana murphy member of champagne first nation asia yes it really stands out and with anthropologist sheila gr eer and you can shape it they chose that the elders knew what they were doing they chose rock that they could shape as if they had seen someone personally pick it up a stone tool and voila you want to say this is made by my ancestors and you say yeah I don't know it's crazy I love it it's great to know this has been here for hundreds of years and you're looking at it now for a great Part of the 20th century, the era of residential schools separated First Nations children from their relationship. to earth i was five years old when i was separated from my family and not here i dont know people really realize the kind of impact it had on communities the discovery of that first artifact in 1997 coincided with a yukon native culture beginningto meet again almost no one was doing traditional carving and there were no traditional dancers like the dhaka kwan troupe now seeks to preserve the culture and a connection to the land is the same for those young people now that they are going to be the caretakers they are the ones going to take care of the land they have to know where they come from and we're trying to make sure that the young people involved in the ice patch work have that growing awareness of this land here that they call their homeland like you can feel it um viscerally through your body when you're picking up a piece it's like which ancestor really touched this like who was that person where they were how they look how they live you know it's not just an artifact it's a part of who you are 20 25 years ago no child in the yukon would have known what an atlatl or a throwing dart was and today if you go to almost any school in the yukon every kid knows what it is to throw a dart or an atlatl they know how to make them they know how to throw them and that's a culture shift that just happened in 20 years the first ice patch discoveries also coincided with the yukon first nations signing their land claim accordingly elements gave them power and gave them a say over how heritage would be handled and interpreted and then in 1999 this happened to some sheep hunters in north britain columbia just across the yukon border found a body melting from the ice scattered pieces of her belongings, including her fir root hat, her gopher skin rope, a bag of tools, and various wooden implements, indicated that she was not a recent victim, she now has a human. now you have a relative and that really hit the community and you know you want to know who this person is that you really want to know i mean this could be you know your relative and you really need to know it's beautifully made not just finely made it's beautiful, we really had to take the driver's seat, we really had to, um, as a first nation, we really had to, um, get control, that was, I think, the biggest task we had to make sure that we're not going to allow the scientists or whoever comes and dictates or tells us how we were going to treat our own relative since the early 90's people all over the world have been finding bodies melting in the lost ice. mbers hikers two missing soldiers since world war 1 and utsi etsy is world famous a 3,300 year old ice man who has been studied since he thought of leaving the alps in 1991. a thing about etsy although no indigenous group claimed him as his was a different story in north america take the 9,000 year old skeleton of the kennewick man a bitter fight broke out in washington state over who should have control of his remains the government or the first nations no one in the yukon or bc wanted a repeat that you know everyone had kind of a bad taste in their mouths from the asian champ of the kennewick man situation and the bc govt was able to come up with a resolution that allowed the science to take place and still honoring cultural values ​​a resolution was born out of compromise not only with scientists but also within first nation communities, there were people who felt n that it was a bad idea to disturb the remains of this man, whoever he may have been, even now the images of the body c cannot be displayed due to sensitivity and respect for the dead.
I think the biggest lesson for the community is that I need to honor what my ancestors I need to honor what my ancestors have taught me, so they gave this lost man a name kwade dansen chi. south toshone for a long time ago man found and then bc government scientists were told they could study his remains and belongings but only for a year you know science got its results from the project but also rights and respect for others the beliefs of the people or the beliefs of the first nations and have also been respected in the process, so this balance or this compromise agreement seems to me from the outside at least a very Canadian solution to a situation Canadian and we knew from the beginning that he would eventually be cremated so we really tried to take the best samples we could and do the best analysis we could at the time, we were really surprised when I looked at his bone which gives him a sort of 10 year diet record of all these breakfasts, lunches and dinners for 10 years and it was almost entirely a marine diet so it looks like it would have passed the Most of his time on Shore, scientists were able to isolate Quade Dan Sinchie's mitochondrial DNA and determined that he was connected to native groups of the Pacific Northwest, meaning given the radiocarbon dates, they suggest he knows he's between 200 and 300 years ago it makes sense that it's related to people and that was the height of trade between the coastal clingets and inland Athabascans was in that time period so people were coming and going a lot for a lot of people that was a really profound discovery and uh made the importance of that. much more significant even more significant was the news that kode dan sinchi was related to 17 people living today makes you feel really solid you know um yes we belong yes it's you k now our traditional territory and just um it's right in your bones it's It's in your blood and you feel really good about it, you know when we got the phone call from Pearl it really hit me and it stayed with me for a long time. curious about what he was doing up there where he was going what his story was who his family was back then and above all how it happened how he died and why he found himself alone that is where science scientific knowledge and traditional knowledge know that they come together and they agree with each other and we also buried his ashes on the mountain where they found him and we did it in a very respectful way. having the advice of an elder from the coast and inland i personally think he would have wanted to share with the world what he had to offer no one really knows why quade dan sinchie was crossing the ice inland but the message he delivered a f centuries after his death is profound for the people who live here now that this vast, open wilderness has long been a human place huddled at a lookout in snohetta norwegian hikers learn about the animals in their local mountains and how much ancient hunters headed for the ice but the story becomes more complex in the traditional territory of the southern sami people they were reindeer herders and their history here dates back thousands of years martin kalanin is only laying the groundwork to start looking for the Sami ice patches with no artifacts though, but in their early days, the history of the Sami is almost identical to the government's treatment of the natives from the yukon, so they had a very strong policy that made the kids from the summit go to boarding schools they had to speak norwegian and they alone in norwegian in the schools and they had teachers who came from the south who were teachers in this area and actually it was forbidden to teach in the ice patch mountain sami language so th These sami hope that archeology can help them recover part of their culture.
I believe that all the things in the eyes that we have not seen before will come and I believe that these types of findings will be a way of establishing that prehistory and saying that this is what happened, what are you?, what are you?, it will be a way to recover history. I think it would be very important to see it to have something to say. Look, this is my story. ethnic context is not one group over another is that is that is part of the job of archeology is to help add the past as a quality to our life and trying to weave the past into our present is not like that we really belong to one or the other group that are here today now the point of that for me is if you come from an ethnic Norwegian you say you see aha this is my past but it's also important to remember that the southern sami also got to go back in time and say ha ha ha this is my past too and they have the same sense of belonging and deep time to this landscape that norwegian visitors have also sometimes it resembles a treasure hunt during a good yukon summer like this discoveries keep coming well so we have three pieces of an arrow here is kind of interesting because these two broken pieces one is the small end so it will be on the proximal end of this arrow and the other piece next to it will probably go to this e side, so let's see what we get here.
It is a beautiful straight arrow shaft. Put it back on and let's see what these other pieces look like. Oh look, that's the punch. It is a beauty. most archaeologists would die and find out they had gone to heaven to find something like there aren't just archaeologists you know someone we have an almost complete era the chance to find something like this that just melted out of the ice after a thousand over the years it's amazing greg hare's team has learned that even the most inconsequential-seeming patches of ice deserve attention they know that once upon a time hunters might have lurked there it's one of those things you would never have predicted like when you're in college and you're studying things that you would never have imagined that the opportunities within archeology would change so drastically that you would be involved in something that is redefining the discipline, i'm just going to take a video of the context here greg here is going to remove the artifact and we'll see what we have here, oh great it has a blade on the end and i have seen you attach the blade with a massive copper point attached to the end end of caribou antler arrowhead feathers is a feather ok let's see what you got looks like it might be another stick it has that general shape oh my gosh here oh oh my gosh yeah oh Oh my gosh, isn't that it? something wow yeah that's amazing isn't it something?
Oh my gosh oh it's perfect it was to see the full tip of the spiked antler with a copper and a blade that's something we haven't seen before here in the yukon it's just one perfect piece and yeah finally we got one oh my gosh it's stunning it's nice it's just beautiful wow this is our new kids poster it just got elevated the craftsmanship of this copper hunting point attached with sinew to a barbed antler is amazing when the team carried out carbon dating tests they later found it to be 850 years old. Other tests showed that the tip was processed from local copper nuggets, so the metal was not a foreign trade good. whoever lost this not only lost a weapon but something of value. maybe a talisman there is an incredible story here embedded in this one piece little by little the ice is revealing its secrets we only have one shot at this you know 10 years from now many of these patches have melted or the artifacts that were present have been melted and they're gone, so we have this one chance and we're trying to make sure that

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