The Entire History of the Akkadians // Ancient Mesopotamia DocumentaryNov 12, 2021
baghdad iraq site of so many conflicts in recent years dictators foreign invasion civil war the scars of
historyrun deep in this landscape with a population of some 8 million people it is the fourth largest in the middle east but this is not the first big city in dominating the southern
mesopotamian plains not remotely heading towards the scorched deserts to the southeast of the city it doesn't take long until great mounds and dirt line the horizon for this is a land of vast tales made by the hills built from the debris of thousands of years of occupation that still watch over the country they once ruled now desolate and remote halfway between baghdad and the persian gulf, just southwest of the city of nazarea, lies one of the greatest of all those mounds Long ago the broad banks of the Euphrates ran through here, though little evidence of this can now be seen.
Now the great life-giving river left the place more than two thousand years before leaving only rubble. The earth and the bones and remained so for more than 2,000 years the wind and time buried the place completely in the middle of the 19th century. However, strange artifacts began to appear in nearby markets. A great revolution in archeology was taking place at the time and due to the painstaking efforts of an
entirely new branch of scholarship, serialogy, the
ancientscript in many of the cuneiform elements was deciphered, allowing unprecedented insight. of that world before so long ago and what the scholars read of that great mound of nazarea completely boggled the mind its name was er and it had been mentioned in the bible as the very place where abraham was born, the progenitor of three of the great religions of the world, before leaving with his wife and children to wander the world after the disappearance of the city at the time he was born.
More Interesting Facts About,
the entire history of the akkadians ancient mesopotamia documentary...
The field of archeology was primarily concerned with collecting tablets and artifacts from
ancientsites for further investigation elsewhere, but by 1920 new more vigorous scientific styles were favored and a comprehensive investigation of the city itself would be attempted for the first time. The man who led that mission was Leonard Woolley. He had worked with the pioneer discoverer of Minoan Crete, Sir Arthur Evans. From Arabia on his team accompanying Woolly was Max Malawan and his future wife Agatha Christie, who would later write a book inspired by the journey the world was seeing, was to be one of the most famous of all archaeological expeditions to unearth Some of the largest treasures ever found in the ancient world matching the tomb of Toot and Carmoon almost immediately confirmed that the city was a major center of early Bronze Age Sumerian culture.
Excavations would continue for another 14 years revealing continued occupation of the site from around 5000 to 500 BCE. At its height the city had been home to an estimated 65,000 people one of the largest the world had ever seen although European work in the Middle East had begun as an effort to find the origins of the Hebrew Bible, eventually revealed far more revolutionizing our understanding of the Sumerian world immensely elaborate tombs of citizens kings and queens a culture that surpasses even egypt in its antiquity and importance thousands upon thousands of tombs were discovered in er filled with a wide variety of objects revealing links across the globe known world a vast royal burial ground in particular dated to the mid 3rd millennium BC was the most spectacular gold lapis lazuli ever found lazuli carnelian chlorite bronze silver and other semi-precious stones flowed along with expertly crafted items musical instruments and more a world much more older than the bible the heyday of the woolly sumerians was unlocked and those who followed him were able to build an incredible tally of ancient riches and privileges such as the puabi queen whose grave goods can still be seen today and er was not just one of a glittering collection of metropolises in the span of barely a millennium the Sumerians had established the humanity's first real urban centers with imposing walls and religious shrines known as ziggurats the skyscrapers of their day building possibly the world's most advanced civilization in In a landscape utterly devoid of natural resources, the Sumerians radically improved farming and irrigation techniques, resulting in larger grain surpluses and an increase in the general food supply, ultimately allowing many within their society to put down their plows and pursue other endeavors, such as advanced mathematics and science.
Perhaps the most famous of all Sumerian inventions, however, was the development of a complex writing system used first for accounting and then for recording its own
history. All of these innovations helped lay the foundation for some of the world's most powerful and wealthy cities. -States the world had never seen whose rulers presided over small but significant kingdoms in just a few centuries from queen pawabi; however, in the 24th century B.C. C., this prosperity was already coming to an end from its beginnings. most people didn't do it at all and around 2400 B.C. C. the world of ancient Sumeria reached a breaking point. the impoverished common people, most of whom were so indebted that they had to sell their own children into slavery in an effort to pay it off, though not as well documented, similar circumstances are believed to have prevailed in the other city-states as well in sometime between 2350 and 2340 BC those scholars debate the exact date a new type of ruler became king of the great riv city-state of umar lagash.
The two had all been fighting in armed conflicts for centuries and Lagash he was usually the victor, perhaps out of spite or a desire for revenge. This new ruler brutally attacked Lagash and is said to have massacred many of its inhabitants and destroyed its great temples. he went on to conquer and annex other city-states ultimately claiming to have forged an empire that stretched from the persian gulf to the mediterranean sea although most scholars do not take lugel zagazi at his word he may have only controlled the town. United States of Sumer, which in itself would have been a remarkable achievement. land is also remembered in the akkad bible though his birth name is not known he would later call himself shahrukh kin meaning rightful king we know him by a different name sargon th The first great king of the usually Akkadian empire considered to be the first in history within a few hundred years the Sumerians would be forgotten eclipsed by another power revered by each state that would arise in the region over the next 2,000 years this is the history of that empire but first a word quick from our sponsor hello and welcome to story time as always im your host pete kelly currently in my secret underground lab working on new videos the research for this one was done by the great story with psy go check out his channel for all the related to ancient history now i'm still mostly a one man team when it comes to doing these things and they take ages to ha cerlas so i'm sure you won't mind me taking a moment to thank the sponsor of this is magallanes tv a long time supporter of the channel like netflix for academics magallanes tv has a library of thousands of documentaries to choose from space geography history science it's all here streamed seamlessly to whatever device you choose.
For example, when I'm stuck looking for new ideas, I often put on some of his playlists from the bronze age to outer space. There is something here for everyone. acadians and there are many other ancient history software to choose from too and now i have teamed up with magellan to bring you an exclusive free trial just click the link in the description below thanks now back to the ancient world every now and then in a extremely capable and charismatic leader and, for better or worse, disrupts the world he lives in by completely altering it forever, be it Cyrus the Great of Persia in the 6th century B.C.
C. or Julius Caesar three centuries later, the long span of antiquity has seen its fair share of such figures and over a thousand years earlier, in the 24th century BC, the first Sargon of Akkad arose who would become the most powerful ruler. who had lived up to that point, in fact, almost all future kings of ancient Mesopotamia and even beyond would try to imitate his style of rule, adopt the efficient administrative system of his empire, and claim to be his worthy successor. who came after having been the model ruler and the epitome of all that a man could and should be like Charlemagne and King Arthur for centuries to come, was the archetypal king who lived long and well, but despite all his great achievements and fame very little is concretely known about his early life myth history and legend are intertwined given the vast gulf of time since he lived the texts and inscriptions that archaeologists have uncovered about him are generally more legend than fact the vast majority are Babylonian copies from originals believed to have existed closer to the time of sargon, sometimes called the first histories compiled during the era of hammurabi, writer of the first law code during th In the ancient Babylonian period, these clay tablets are copies of inscriptions Original real ones supposedly found in monuments of 500 years before, although a small handful of original monuments survived too.
A victorious king seized them and brought them to Elam during the 12th century BCE. C., where French archaeologists found them. One of the most complete copies from Hammurabi's time, believed by many to have been commissioned by Sargon himself, describes the future king's humble beginnings, claims to be the son of a priestess, says his father is unknown, unable to care for him, his The mother put him in a covered reed basket which she sent down the river, where she was later discovered by a water-puller named Aki, who raised the child as her own. Garden of Eden concepts that also have their roots with the Sumerians although they do not tell the story of his birth another document known as the Sumerian King The list first compiled several centuries after Sargon's death emphasizes his humble roots by stating that he was the son of a gardener.
Eventually, even early in his career, we are told that Sargon became cupbearer to a man named erzababa, ruler of the city. -state of kish an important northern Sumerian city that rises upriver from all the great fortresses to the south and exists at a time of intense river management at times in its history kish seems to have been able to control the flow of water to some extent keeping the cities low to ransom, of course, presumably unlike their leader, urza baba, sargon was an akkadian speaker of an east semitic language occupying the regions north of sumerian known as akkad down to the
akkadiansthemselves, however, not much is known about them before the reign of sargon most scholars believe they lived side by side with the Sumerians in many cities being highly influenced by their culture and religion today the Sumerians remain a culture and language with roots unknown although it had fully developed in the fourth millennium BC in vast centers such as uruk and eredu the same place according to mythology to sumeria where man was chiselled for the first time from the mud by the gods although the origins of the acadians are found with the so-called second phase of urbanization occurring in the middle of the third millennium a. in Syria and northern Mesopotamia in massive cities such as the Ebla and sometimes nomadic cultures such as the Canaanites and Amorites who lived on the outer limits of the Sumerian world at the time of Sargon although the Akkadians seem to have shared the same gods than sumer living more or less the same way of life but given his linguistic roots sargon or at least his ancestors were outside of us whether he came from the mountains or the desert is not clear but he is who he is he was given credit for the founding of a new city not far from kish, he called it guarde agarde, the existence of guarde agarde has never been in doubt, appearing in contemporary records throughout the t third millennium BC and onward, however, that great city it has never been found. we know roughly where it was near susa in the far south of sumair and the
mesopotamian lowlands a region with a lack of agricultural potential but excellent access to dis peers in all regions and sargon and his descendants would integrate into his own expanding the horizons of mesopotamia significantly without any archeology to go on although sargon's city remains obscure it may be that he himself actually created the city he supposedly ruled for a ridiculously long time after all, though some scholars now suggest that his cult of personality became so strong that he might have trapped some of his successors' exploits in his orbit, as we know he did those of hispredecessors, because those sargons are often seen as a new dynasty, a break from the old may actually have inherited concepts that came before a continuation of the development of kingship because this was the era of lugals local leaders and warlords who rule through personal charisma and power rather than divine rule had it not been for the actions of one of those Sumerian kings, sargon might never have amounted to anything at all, just as he began his career in kish, the king of uma lugal zagazi moved his capital to the great city of uruk taking it along the wayultimately expanding his rule over all of southern mesopotamia sargon is often credited with many firsts in history first standing army first land empire , but in reality lugel cigarsi may have been the first according to archaeological evidence and the archives of the various city-states. the one who first ruled from the lower to the upper sea dominating over 50 governors and ending the independence of samaria and one of those cities he annexed was kish given this flourishing growth of militaristic Sumerian kingship in his time, not really surprising that sargon had a chance he only had to cut off the head of the serpent to make his power play a serpent with many enemies though the details are murky we are told that shortly after lugal zagazi seized kish sargon with a band of faithful followers who marched directly on uruk sargon the king of akhad the bailiff of ishtar the king of the universe the anointed of ahn the king of earth the governor of enlil defeated uruk in battle and smoked 50 governors in the city by the mace of the god ilaba and destroyed his fortress and captured lugul zagasi the king of uruk in battle brought him to the gate of enlil in a next inventory carrying lugal zagazi to the gate to enlil the holy city of nippor was a powerful symbolic gesture the old king's power was clearly broken and sargon favored by the gods the old king's final fate we are not told unlike in his early days sargon's reign as king thus as the actions of his new government are relatively well documented far more than most at the time and although the records make it seem as though it was easy for Sargon to conquer so much territory, holding on to it, especially the proud cities of Sumer, it turned out to be a challenge for most of the city.
The states he claims to have controlled eventually revolted against him, though he and his men, the beginnings of a professional army personally loyal to him, were able to put down each revolt using a combination of raw fear. Through force and sometimes diplomacy within several decades, Sargon was able to establish himself as the undisputed ruler of both Sumer and Akad, as well as reorganizing and reforming many aspects of the societies that Sargon, King of Akkad, defeated Ur in the battle and smoked the city and destroyed its fortress, devastated its territory and lagash to the sea, defeated uma in battle and destroyed its fortress around 2334 BC.
The Akkadian period begins So famous was Sargon that for the next two millennia Babylonian kings used the title King of Akkad Until the Persian period The Akkadian king became the very embodiment of empire and kingship What it meant to be a ruler Lugel Zagazi se forgotten when European archaeologists began excavating Mesopotamia in the early 19th century seeking to understand the origins of their own civilization almost nothing was known of the ancient history of that land other than biblical stories its mud brick cities had died millennia before one by one as the years passed the great mounds began to be investigated the most important unearthed bible cities among these early discoveries was the assyrian capital at 9veh made famous by earlier cereologist austin henry layard the work went on for decades brick by brick discovering a vast metropolis of the iron age or and a wealth of information about the Assyrian era of the first millennium BC, but beneath that city lay much older foundations in 1931 the latest in a long line of astonishing discoveries was made fifteen hundred years before the Assyrians the place had Originally built by Akkadian workers it was in the Akkadian layers of the city that a number of artifacts were discovered, most notably a large bronze head believed to be part of an impressive statue of an Akkadian king albeit somehow disfigured At the time of his tory today, the head is rightly considered one of the great masterpieces of ancient art providing a rare insight into the art style of the Akkadian world generally believed to represent Sargon or his grandson Naram without actually nearly nothing is known about the head although it is reminiscent of similar gudea heads in the years after Acadian rule, this was a time e n where lifelike depictions of humans were almost completely unknown, making the head completely unprecedented, this precision and skillfully crafted bronze artifact was not just a statement of the king's power, but a perpetual embodiment. of his own being rather than a representation to those who beheld it, this statue would channel the very presence of the king himself working as a substitute in his absence for the fact that the head was possibly still on display and was disfigured many centuries later during looting. from Nineveh in the seventh century B.C.
C. suggests that his power lasted for more than a thousand years after his death in particular, the figure is very different from the usual representations of Sumerian rulers, usually bald with smiling and benevolent features. Sumeria was revolutionary for over a millennium, the ruling establishment had long consisted of the priesthood and the nobility working hand in hand to control nearly every aspect of Sumerian society, especially in the cities, often with single hereditary families that they controlled all aspects of temple life in their respective strongholds when Sargon arrived, however, he broke the power of the priesthood and noble families by replacing them with a handpicked Acadian governess, fiercely loyal to him and him alone.
The Acadians who now controlled these properties were able to keep the vast majority of the crops and income. a considerable part of the wealth of the new empire, such a system also helped to ensure their loyalty and to the new regime by forcing them to serve it because it now gave them a large share in the success of the state that they had bought in the new system this transfer of such productive lands it also greatly diminished, if not completely destroyed, the power and influence of the former religious establishment and ruler because until that time such property had been their main source of income while in most cases the Acadian government compensated to the previous owners the properties were still taken by force if there was resistance to the offer then it is safe to say that there would have been dire consequences for those who refused to make the sale apart from the temple properties those loyal to sargon were also put directly in charge of administering the main temples and religious endowments that were in In most large cities, in one instance, Sargon placed his daughter, who later called herself Eduana, in charge of the large temple complex of the moon god Nana in the city of Ur, allowing her to directly oversee the rich endowment of that institution and the association of the new royalty with divine support.
Consolidating His Control Over Sumer Sargon looked beyond his borders. trade routes under his direct control and providing access to ones even further afield. These were various remote lands inhabited by people who spoke many different languages and worshiped different gods for the first time under the rule of a single government, although most of the places sargon attacked outside of sumer cannot tell their own stories a place can be Discovered in the 1960s by Italian archaeologists, the city of Ebla had one of the largest cuneiform files ever found and a level of destruction in the archaeological record that matches Acadian claims that Sargon may even briefly show in Ebola records. just before the sack of the city as the king of kish or father of the king of kish, having placed his son to rule there, perhaps once one of the great cities of the early bronze age instrumental in the urbanization of syria during the third millennium BC C. ebla now became an Acadian provincial city with its millennial cities religious institutions and complex irrigation networks it could be said that samaria had been the center of civilization for centuries and now sargon moved this center north to acad by establishing his new capital on the euphrates it was here that he built elaborate palaces for himself and his family as well as temples dedicated to their patron deities, particularly the goddess ishtar and with this new loyal city as his base of operations, sargon began the great enterprise of ruling his new empire one of the ways he made it a pillar for all empires to follow through the long span of history was through clever political propaganda boasting for the first time in history the exact number of his forces h advertisement assassinated in campaign swearing to the accuracy of what he reported an unprecedented tactic for the time part of a new developing cult of personality lled to keep his people in submission ruling through fear and awe One of Sargon's first acts was to make Akkadian the official language for all administrative purposes, part of the reason for this may have been to find a common language that he could unify the disparate parts of the empire where, in addition to Akkadian and Sumerian Elamite, various West Semitic languages and dialects were also spoken. although Sumerian was not abandoned, although scribes still studied it and used it extensively in scribal schools, but as time went on and the government promoted more use of Akkadian as well as resettlement of large numbers of people Acadian-speaking in sumair, it was gradually replaced as common. the language survived for thousands of years more when Sumerian died out, as well as the political center of the empire.
The day of the agar became its main commercial center. Ships carrying goods from Dilman and Magan today docked at their ports in modern day Bahrain and Oman, respectively. Caravans storing a variety of tradable goods flowed in from Anatolia, Elam, Arabia, and Levante merchants preparing for the future and not only the Akkadians benefited from this system, surviving records from Sumerian cities suggest that it significantly broadened the horizons of those they had access to before they were no longer intermediaries but had direct links to the other side of the world around 2500 BC this burgeoning global trading system was already booming largely frequented by independent traders who would rarely make the
entirejourney from east to west themselves, instead moving goods from one region to another, it seems like the Romans did Much later, the Acadians brought all or much of the trade system under their direct control. ecto succeeded where all the mesopotamians after them failed by directly controlling the elam ii and acadian traders went far further in the mysterious ruins of konar sandal in eastern iran once a city of 20 or 30 000 people part of the culture jiroft still largely unknown recently discovered there a clay seal from akkad has been discovered complete with cuneiform and two typical facing figures of sargon and his successors it appears that Acadian travelers came here to barter with the merchant lords of girofft, standing Along with their Indus Valley Civilization contemporaries, in the barter of skillfully crafted chlorite vessels by the region's workers, and because of these direct links to Iran, the Gulf of Egypt, and even the Eurasian steppe, some of the first evidence of horses was found in the middle east around this time prosperous akkad cedar wood or flowing from lebanon dill diorite moon grain from sumer tin from the mountains of elam lapis lazuli chlorite and tin from far away afghanistan and the indus valley civilization trade ships of malua mahashi and dil moon coming into port due to bream With n's conquests the world grew larger along with trade, although Agarde became fabulously wealthy from the taxes collected from the various provinces of the empire, it must have been a truly spectacular place in its day and surely one day day will be found The Sumerian King List states that Sargon ruled for 56 years, an incredible length of time in which such a charismatic leader would no doubt have left an indelible mark on the society he ruled.
However, when Sargon died in 2279 B.C. the heart of the Sumerian country erupted in rebellion once more against all the artifacts of the world from the bronze age, the monuments, the statues, the inscriptions that come down to us today, few would compareFeaturing a single piece of metal casting supposedly ordered by the second monarch to rule over the Akkadian empire, though it did not survive to the present day due to the audacity and opulence of its construction, it surely would. It has been the envy of the world for Sargon's son and successor, Rimush, according to inscriptions referring to him, not only began to consider himself among the gods in a harbinger of his nephew's total deification a generation later, instead he ordered a statue of himself to be made. made from pure pewter one of the world's rarest materials immensely expensive imported largely into Mesopotamia from half a world away and found only in trace amounts in a handful of places the piece would be similar to a pure diamond statue today clearly intent on counterfeiting divine legitimacy for the new ruling dynasty, as well as protecting its image of immense wealth and power, it may well be that, like his father before him, rimoush was forging his own cult of personality and, as we shall see, he needed it after Sargon's death almost immediately.
The massive state he had forged erupted into war and chaos. It is not known why Sargon's first son, Manish Tushu, was passed over for the position of king, but he was given the The tendency of later Mesopotamian rulers to do the same may be that Rimush possessed certain regal qualities that they wished upon their brother, such as determination and a certain level of cruelty that would be vital if the empire survived the death of its founder. be the due to a complete lack of primogeniture or succession policy simply the strongest ruled and rimoush seized power from his older brother for rimush, as with all Akkadian rulers, would be a baptism of fire with most of the major Sumerian cities rising to fight him, including er lagash adab and uma, clearly inheriting his father's strong standing army, the king's retribution was swift by his own account remoush tore down the walls of rebellious cities brutally killing several thousand Sumerian soldiers while He sold thousands of the survivors as slaves, but he went further and expelled even more thousands of non-combatants of fighting age in the defeated cities subjecting them to cruel punishments mass deportations and forced labor the documents discovered in the city of uma seem confirm this, as they speak of citizens working and dying in what can only be described as death camps. work once the rebellions had been crushed rimoush stripped many of these cities of the remaining land they held and as Sargon distributed it to his followers in one of the largest land deals ever recorded in ancient history in one fell swoop the The new king seized and redistributed approximately 134,000 acres of farmland from the cities of Lagash and Uma lands they had fought bitterly over for centuries before redistributing it to the new Acadian landowning class that his Sargon father had created only a few decades before. a whole landed class of cronies promoted by the new regime Acadians and Sumerians too new men all happy to go against the old order and tradition to promote themselves and their families this culture of nepotism was extremely significant because it meant that the elite and priesthoods of the temple of these city-states after perhaps thousands of years per they gave up all claims to their ancestral lands;
It was just another example of how many of Sumer's centuries-old institutions were being dismantled as a result of the new Akkadian order, the priests had been instituted by the gods and were now being demoted, but the revolts continued to rage during the reign of Rimoshi. in many parts of akkad as well as in the south one of them was in the city of kazulu on the euphrates river which years before had also revolted against sargon only to have many of its citizens massacred. Contemporary chronicles tell the city fared no better under Rimoush whose men brutally crushed any resistance Acadian texts state that 12,000 rebel soldiers were killed and another 5,000 sold into slavery Kazulu's walls were demolished Similar accounts have also been given for campaigns in elam a similarly ancient region of city builders In addition to the thousands of butchered inscriptions on various objects, detail the vast amounts of booty brought to a gaday and the city of Nippor, center of Mesopotamian religion at the end of his reign , Rimousha's success in mercilessly defeating his enemies had clearly gone to his head from the start. thinking of himself less as a man and more as a god very soon, though he would prove to be mortal after all after having ruled for only nine years, Rimoush fell into the hands of assassins within his own court who supposedly did not use daggers or poison, but cylinder seals that strangled him in a back room The texts that have been discovered so far do not indicate who orchestrated the assassination despite being such a brutal ruler with no shortage of enemies, although the most likely scenario is that The assassins acted under the orders of the older brother Manish Tushu, who quickly ascended the throne, inheriting the many wars his brother had started some 4,260 years ago. 964 men sat down to a feast in the land of akkad large chunks of mutton and pork roasted on spits bread olives vegetables and of course large amounts of beer were flowing and yet all was not well 49 witnesses were present ominously watching the events of the day ready to intervene if necessary no doubt for those 964 people who are giving up their land in exchange for just two years of crops, the men watching may even have been the ones to be assigned to this land the second generation of a new elite of men seeking the patronage of the king who intruded on the old landlords of the kingdom and this scene engraved on tablets during the reign of the third Acadian king manish tushu was common like the two kings before him this new ruler constantly sought expand their own home at the expense of local institutions.
This is the story told by the vast amounts of administrative documents recorded on cuneiform tablets. tel brak and tel leyland were apparently built in part to oversee the vast land reforms being carried out by large armies of bureaucrats recording it all and yet, compared to his brother's reign, manish two shoes seems to have been much more stable, it is possible that many of the Acadian court preferred the new ruler to rimoush due to an inclination to keep the peace in an empire perpetually torn by war, a situation per perhaps added to the outrage of Manish Tushu had been past. overlooked to rule in favor of his younger brother, it may even be that manish tushu and his court faction worked behind the scenes to remove rimoush from power themselves perhaps even instigating an unrecorded civil war between the two men that probably never we will know all that manish tushu says is that enlil called him to power instead of starting new wars by giving brutal examples of those who rebelled manish tushu quietly ended his brother's conflicts before focusing his efforts on promoting trade and opening trade links with places as far away as egypt at that time few alive had experienced a life outside the yoke of acadian royalty archeology suggests that the empire actually now stretched from c to the sea an immense land empire stretching from the borders of anatolia to the deserts of iran a remarkable achievement many elements survive from this era from excavations throughout the middle east and yet However, one relic in particular is perhaps the best example of the immense power of these early emperors the 1.4 meter tall Manish Tusu obelisk this inscribed black diorite stone is a legal record telling of the distribution of four great estates of land granted to the king's officials in the kish region, we are told in Akkadian that the stone itself it was taken from magan across the persian gulf in what is now oman loaded onto ships and docked at the key in akad where the king fashioned his statue and dedicated it to enlil this is a material previously unknown in mesopotamia and then just like his brother before him in 2255 BC.
C., the king was conveniently assassinated, his son, already on a military campaign, waited patiently in the wings, he would be one of the greatest Acadian rulers of all, overseeing an unprecedented new era. of sophistication in art, society and commerce this is the era of naram sin in the 6th century BCE. nearly 2,000 years had passed since the heyday of the Akkadians it would be another 2,500 years before leonard woolley began his excavations at ur in other parts of the world this was the age of confucius buddha and the flourishing philosophers of ancient greece Paradigm shifted new styles of thinking during this so-called Axial Age, and yet in Mesopotamia where the great kings had never really lost their power simply by consolidating it into the strongest contender an almost unbroken line of culture still stretched back to the earliest cities. of the world and at that time Babylon was the largest of all about 200,000 occupants lived and died in the middle of the magnificent center of gardens and colonnades of the almighty Neo-Babylonian empire and it was here in the year 550 a. where one of the first archeological excavations in history was carried out in that year, we are told that king nabanidus led men to sipar to discover the foundation deposits of the temples of samas the sun god anunnatu la warrior goddess and the shrine that naram sin had built for the moon god at haran nabanidus then he restored all these sites to their former glory, but he also went further in attempting to date the archaeological artifacts at the naram sin shrine, although his estimates were wrong in about 1500 years. naram sin was clearly still a popular and recognized figure in nabanidus' time, but what about that? king why he and not his father or hot uncle like sargon naram sin was portrayed as the model warrior king later in his career had presided over the heyday of the state the heights of architecture and material goods a well known era in art history as the classical Akkadian era to differentiate it from earlier and later eras and yet would also be one of the most controversial rulers of Mesopotamia with a scathing story later told about him and of course his reign started very badly with the biggest revolt that broke out against the new order was a conflict that could very easily have ended the empire before it really got going describes the war as the great revolt led by the city s of kish and uruk then still perhaps the city largest in the world soon enough most if not all of the cities of sumer along with the empire's territories in elam and the west called their flags up Massing against their imperial overlords according to naram sin's inscriptions took at least nine battles, but eventually all the rebellious cities were defeated and order returned to the kingdom in what had now become standard practice in Akkadian warfare the vanquished suffered tremendously in kish the euphrates river was filled with the bodies of the dead soldiers who had defended the gates of their city while another 2500 were slaughtered once the Akkadians breached the walls and the destruction did not stop there after the fighting reached his end as punishment naram sin tore down the walls of kish and flooded the city meanwhile in the heart of sumeria uruk led a massive rebel coalition that included the cities of lagash umar adab issin shuripak and even the religious center of nipp or them too especially uruk, suffered almost the same fate as kish with thousands dead, its already lofty ancient city walls were torn down ribadas and in what seems to have been a hallmark of Akkadian campaigns their cities were flooded, it may seem excessive, but Naram without clearly an astonishingly capable military commander wanted to point out that any descent into the Akkadian kingdom would be met with death and the destruction.
Finally, with the state under control, Naram Sin could focus not only on ruling but expanding his borders further in the 36 years that Naram Sin ruled. It expanded the territories of the Akkadian Empire network and tributary states at their greatest extent from roughly the Kingdom of Marhashi which is believed to have been in what is now central Iran to the waters of the Mediterranean and perhaps even the island of Cyprus one of its many victories is commemorated in the famous naram sin victory stele in which he is seen defeating the zagros mountain tribes by trampling the bodies of their fallen warriors, it may have been naram sin who finally destroyed the age of ebla bronze within the empire, such was its iron fist that it seems to have reached a level of stability that allows it to promote less warlike activities, for example naram sin was the first Mesopotamian ruler to boast of his hunting prowess, a tradition that would continue for millennia although, asall Acadian rulers, he failed to integrate the traditional Mesopotamian leadership with his new order.
Naram Sin's reign was the most magnificent period in the entire history of the empire. both militarily and economically it is from the records of his campaigns abroad not to mention the great monuments erected as his victory stele that naram sin is mostly remembered as a fierce warrior king, however he was also a great builder along with other shrines such as that in hara completely renovated the most famous and sacred temple of ancient mesopotamia the echo in nippor that it was dedicated to the god enlil the building was to be the crowning achievement of his reign once finished it would have been an immense spectacle to contemplate one of The most ornate documents ever built discovered from that city detail much of its construction activities, as well as the sheer amount of precious metals and the number of workers involved in its renovation overseen by Crown Prince Shakali Shari, one text records that in addition to hundreds of workers there were at least 77 special carpenters 86 goldsmiths 10 sculptors 54 carpenters and other groups of skilled workers brought there from across the empire at the time, very few if any left alive had experienced a time before Acadian rule thus naram sin dominated the religion, perhaps seeing the downfall from his predecessor in that they were only considered mortal.
Naram Sin had other ideas that sought to claim a complete monopoly. On religion, he had several daughters establishing them as priestesses throughout Sumer, thus forging intimate links with the various Naram temples. Although he not only worshiped other gods and goddesses, he also believed that he himself was a god in an inscription found on a monument in the ruins of a temple the great king wanted the world to know the following naram without the mighty king of agadha when the four parts of the earth attacked him together through love ishtar borhym was victorious in nine battles in a single year and captured the kings who had risen against him because he had defended their city in crisis the people of his city asked him to be the god of their city agarde with ishtar in iyana with enlil in nippur with dagan in tuttle with nihusag in keshe with enki in eredu with sin in ur with shamash in sipa with nergal in kutha and they built their temple in agade, but unlike sargon naram, sin proved to be especially unpopular with generations to come.
Later, his self-deification, along with what many felt was his vanity, would be remembered by end-time authors. r epic literature as just a few of the reasons for his downfall, most notably the curse of agarday, a largely fictional account of the fall of the empire with the sin of naram as the reason for his demise, as we have seen, the truth seems to have been far from this, though he may have believed himself divine after 36 years on the throne of akkad like any mortalnaram without he died not as a warrior's death in battle or by the blade of an assassin's dagger, but that we are simply told that natural causes come with old age soon enough, though everything in the empire was to change in 2217 BC.
When the new king Shakali Shari came to the throne, the Akkadian empire was at the height of its size and prosperity only 25 years later, only a rump state around Akkad remained beset by hostile enemies on all sides, sadly, to Unlike his predecessors, there are relatively few inscriptions dating from his reign, so it is difficult to get a clear idea of what was going on in Mesopotamia at this time, we know that he fought a bitter struggle against the amassing Gutian and Amorite invaders on the peripheries of the kingdom and shortly after his reign the south finally managed to rid itself of Acadian although exact details are lost, various revolts are mentioned in Acadian sources, but the outcome of these events, given the Acadian propensity for propaganda , often remains uncertain.
True, there were several short-lived kings who ruled in Agardae after Shakhali Shari's death, though their relationship to Sargon's Akkadian dynasty is unclear. The last of these rulers was Shu Doral, who, according to later texts and traditions, was killed when a village of the Zagros. mountains, the gutians breached the walls of agardai and set fire to the city as mentioned above, although the ruins of agarde have not yet been found, so this part of the story cannot be confirmed with archeology yet , although surely a city like Agade must have come to an end. in a siege in recent decades, most scholars often name a new culprit for the empire's demise; this drought which may have also ended the ancient kingdom of egypt and a variety of other bronze age states lasted for years, possibly even decades, this new lack of rain would have resulted in increased desertification as well as reduced in the vital flow of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, thus reducing the amount of arable land that could have been irrigated and cultivated, which would soon lead to famine and a general collapse of the regional economy and mass riots among the general population in such conditions, it would have been extremely difficult for any ruler to hold such a large state together no matter how great such conditions would have also given people like the Gutians a chance and perhaps they would need to raid the Acadian spear and finally reach the agarde capital, which as Later texts make it clear that they destroyed before ruling themselves as the new lords of Mesopotamia du For a century or more, the story does not end there, though at least not in the popular Sumerian and Akkadian literature that would follow a century or two later, once some semblance of order had been restored by the last Sumerian dynasty, that of er which formed his own successor empire to the Acadians, there are several legends about Sargon in particular that mainly revolve around his life and conquests which were compiled into various mini-epics and recited by poets and bards as they traveled from city to city recounting stories of the great figures of the world.
In the past, interestingly, there were also several literary works dealing with the life of Naram Sin, but unlike Sargon's, they are more cautionary tales than tales of valor, the most famous of which is The Curse of Agarday, a work of fiction loosely based on historical events the curse of agarday tells of the fall of naram sin and the glorious city of agarde for reasons unknown to naram sin enlil the chief deity of the sumerian pantheon withdraws his favor from the city the akkadian king implores the gods to give him a sign or an omen as to how he can regain his favor but all to no avail after seven years of frustration in naram rage sin sends his men to destroy t he echoes enlil's holy shrine in the city of nipple as punishment for his actions enlil sends the mountain people known as the gutians along with famine to devastate agarde and his people the general moral of the story is that no one should question the gods let alone act with such haste and disrespect towards them, the archaeological finds along with various texts from the reign of naram sin tend to contradict much of what has been described in the curse of agade, and yet the events that may have ultimately brought about the city's downfall, namely gutien attacks and widespread famine seem to have some basis in the story, though likely to have taken place towards the end of his successor's reign, perhaps later misinterpreted by narrators in reality, naram sin himself was a very pious individual who, as mentioned above, ordered the renewal of the echo And made him greater than ever, regardless of their depictions in later literature, both Sargon and Naram would be remembered for centuries to come as two of the most powerful rulers of ancient Mesopotamia.
Their stories and achievements would inspire many of the kings to come. after them to establish their own great empires the Acadian rulers completely changed the landscape of the Near Eastern world forever more gone are the days of small city-states whose citizens fought wars over parcels of farmland and whose lives revolved around around their patron deity as part of the Acadian state, these cities became part of a much larger and more dynamic political entity than had ever been seen before thus setting the stage for all empires to follow Sargon and his descendants opened up a whole new world for the people of the ancient Near East who were not sustained by power alone , but by encouraging trade and exchange of ideas with most known civilizations at the time, not only this, but future Near Eastern empires would imitate aspects of the Akkadian model of administration and center. government established for at least two millennia after the fall and eventually the Acadians gave the region and surrounding areas their Akkadian language, which became the lingua franca for the Near East until replaced by Aramaic nearly 1,500 years later thanks for watching my name pete kelly you've been watching story time don't forget to like and subscribe to see all the content i've already done on my old story and for much more to come check out my other channel namesake story too to see a lot more videos on history and archeology thanks for watching and see you next time
If you have any copyright issue, please Contact