Spherical electron (extra footage)

Jun 08, 2021
Now, the impact is okay, so that's the first thing you do so they don't see this deviation, what is its impact? Well, who cares? The reason it's important is that or one reason it's important is that if something has an electric dipole. moment if the

electron

has an electric dipole moment that breaks something called uh time reversal symmetry. What does that mean? What does time reversal symmetry mean? If you rewinded the movie back in time you would see exactly the same thing as if you were going forward in time, the presence of the electric dipole moment means that you violate that time reversal symmetry, it is no longer symmetrical in time, which has an effect in chain because there is a property in particle physics that we believe is symmetric and that is the product of charge multiplied by parity parity is when you move from plus x to minus x times the time, so these three things together c p t is called cpt symmetry, we think it holds if you break the t symmetry, that means you also have to break the cp bit because together they hold together well, so now let me put the t symmetry aside, it's getting a bit complicated, hang in there , why is cp symmetry? why is it necessary to break it? a fantastic physicist named Andre Sakharov demonstrated it in order to take into account the asymmetry of matter antimatter in the universe we need to break the violation of cp we need to have a violation of cp we need to break that asymmetry that is symmetry sorry between charge and parity to be able to account for it of matter, antimatter is symmetry in the universe, which is what we observe, so if I go back, remember what I said: choosing to observe an

electron

, the electric dipole moment of the electron would imply that you have broken the symmetry t, if you have broken t symmetry, that implies that you have broken the cp symmetry, so if you have broken the cp symmetry and that means that you are beginning to understand the origin of the matter and antimatter asymmetry, so the measurement of this small quantity which until now does not deviate from zero, but if it was going to be measured and when it is measured, then it tells you. something about the origin of the antimatter asymmetry kills, which is one of the big fundamental questions in particle physics, and that's one of the key reasons why it's such an important experiment when the experiment is finished, it's done. perfectly well, it's a sphere, the best result or it's not a sphere at all the best result is not a sphere it has to be it's not a sphere we know it's not a sphere because even in the standard model of particle physics that is already understands very well and explains many of the properties of particles and interactions we know that there is already a mechanism that will create the electric dipole moment of the electron, it is just that it creates it at such a small level that it is not actually good enough to explain the asymmetry of matter and antimatter, is broken by violation of symmetry. in such a small amount that you can't explain it, then we need something bigger, so we hope it's there, if it's not there, then something quite dramatic is happening in our understanding of particle physics and that can happen and it's possible.
We may have to go back to the drawing board and start that part over, but so far the limits are becoming such that they are still eating away at many of the particle physics models, but they haven't been completely traversed, so they are they're throwing out some of them, but there's still a lot left, and of course the theorists, being theorists, will find some clever mechanism that will explain why they haven't seen it, but the idea is that they will see it, maybe it'll be worth it. I'm just giving a little bit of anecdote because I know them and you know their fantastic group, Ed Ed, came up and gave us a seminar and explained to us, you know, he was explaining the physics behind this and what they have to do in this incredible experiment. , the most important.

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spherical electron extra footage...

What they've been trying to do is they know that they have to reduce the errors if they have a value that is zero, which is effectively what they have, the sphere means that this dipole moment is still consistent with being zero, so you better tell Make sure your errors around zero are so small that you have a sensible result to talk about, that means you have to get rid of what I call the systematic and the statistical that you do. experiment many, many times they did that experiment over the course of three months 25 million times, okay, a lot of statistics, the systematics, you know, the devices that have to mix, they have to have incredibly uniform electric fields, they have to protect the apparatus from the magnetic fields.
They shouldn't have indexed external magnetic fields that can screw things up, so they have to reduce and reduce and reduce all these kinds of systematic errors, and they have, but they believe they can do more and that's why they believe that this limit can be reduce more and more, but he was explaining that in their analysis they have all this data, all this data and, of course, everything is done on the computer and everything is also analyzed on the computer. There's a box there or a screen that will constantly give you the electrical dipole moment, but you cover it up because you've covered it up because you don't want to be influenced by the guy while you're trying to do it. reduce all your mistakes, you don't want to be influenced and take a quick look and say, oh, if we tweak that a little bit more, we'll fix it and it's very important that you do that, it must have been like that.
It's very difficult for them not to go and take a quick look to see what they were seeing and what they do is eventually get to a stage where they think they've basically taken into account everything they can explain in a moment. sensible period of time and uh they take off the screen take off the screen cover and look and I saw Ed Hans yesterday. I was on a panel with him and I asked him what it was like and he told me that they took it away. I had a meeting and they said it was time.
The first time there was disagreement. People thought they could still work on some more systematics and finally the group said yes, let's do it. We did it. He saw the result. I was there. He opened a bottle of champagne and the world found out. The media has been portraying electrons now as the most

spherical

objects in the universe. Does that seem fair to you in terms of loading? Yeah, yeah, I still like to think of them as pointing like objects that, you know. There is a limit on the size of the electron from particle collisions, you put a limit on the actual physical size and that limit is approximately if the electron is less than 10 to minus 18 meters just to remind you the size of an atom.
It is approximately 10 to the power of minus 10 meters an angstrom the size of the nucleus of the atom is approximately 10 to the power of minus 15 meters that is a fermi so the size of the electron has been limited no one has seen a physical electrical point as an object that is can say that's the electron, you see the distribution of charge, so the limit of the actual size is um 10 to the power of minus 18 meters, that is, it is less than that, so what we are seeing here is the distribution of charge and yes, it is a wonderfully

spherical

experiment, amazing, absolutely amazing, it is still very far from the experiment in terms of units, it measures a deflection and an electric dipole moment of a well, limits it to less than 10 to the power of minus 28, it is call e centimeters. electron charge multiplied by centimeters the standard model prediction, which, if you remember, I said was very small, is about 10 to the minus 39, it's still 10 orders of magnitude away, so if it ever reaches that level, then We'll have to ask something serious. you ask where the asymmetry of the universe's antimatter symmetry came from and that would be like scaling, probably scaling this if it went down to that size, in other words, if they didn't detect an electric dipole moment. until you were down there assuming that they probably could never reach that degree of sensitivity anyway, but it would be like scaling the system to something like the size of a galaxy and being the width of a hair and then we'd be struggling to explain antimatter matter. . but hopefully you'll see it in the next two or three years.
They think that in the next two or three years they will be able to increase the sensitivity by perhaps a factor of 100, which would bring them into the realm of most particle physics models that people have. seriously consider as candidates to explain the interactions of nature