Salisbury Cathedral: Gothic Home of the Magna CartaJan 02, 2022
hey everyone welcome back to another mega project episode this time we are venturing back in time a bit further than we normally would to discuss an old mega project so lets jump to 90 miles southwest of london sits the small town of
salisbury, england, the city has only 30,000 inhabitants but its most famous resident is undoubtedly the
cathedralchurch of the blessed virgin mary commonly known as
cathedraldespite making its
homein such a small town the cathedral Salisbury Cathedral has a long list of impressive superlatives to its name not to mention a unique style and a significant part of history, it is a symbol of the early English Gothic style and was built in just 38 years today we are diving into salisbury cathedral In the early 13th century the future city of Salisbury was a hilltop fort known as the Old Sauron, the local Anglican church was e Founded within the city walls, however, the city's clergy regularly feuded with false military intentions that rose so high that the church decided the only way to avoid direct conflict was to relocate at that time.
The local bishop was a rich man ironically named Richard Poor who undertook to buy the land needed to build a new cathedral a safe distance away. Myths and stories about the final location abound. from church some more plausible than others a common tale tells of bishop richard paul went out into a field with a bow and arrow fired a projectile determined to build wherever it landed but did not land hit a deer which carried the arrow a short distance before dying on a flat meadow with no obstructions poor bishop saw this as a sign from god of the perfect place to build peace by naturally killing one of his beautiful creatures another slightly unbelievable story comes from the location of the cathedral some 10 miles away of Stonehenge Early 20th century conspiracy theorists believe that a perfectly straight line drawn from Stonehenge to Salisbury Cathedral would pass terribly correctly through the old sarum, these theorists claimed that the precise location of the structure indicated the involvement of a higher power or perhaps intelligent beings from another planet because of course they thought They were conspiracy theorists.
Satellite images have of course shown that the ley line is not as straight as initially believed, however the three structures line up remarkably close to a straight line, but it has nothing to do with aliens unfortunately the The most probable history of the location is also the least interesting. Records show that Richard Paul attempted to purchase land. Several miles west of the final site, his offer to purchase was rejected and the actual location was chosen because of its flat, open land despite it being essentially a swamp the entire cathedral was funded by donations from wealthy members of the church in the region, many of whom were required by their local church leaders to pay an annual fee for the entire 38-year construction process. project i mean we've talked about a lot of things that took a long time on mega projects 38 years might be the longest yet but i'm not sure construction started in 1220 with the laying of the first stones the swampy land meant that the The water table was unusually high, so the construction team was only able to place the stones 1.3 meters deep.
The designs were largely based on the Cathedral of Wells which had been under construction for nearly 50 years when the well was opened. land at salisbury wells was the first example of pure
gothicarchitecture in england, as architects moved away from more traditional romanesque designs, the wells at salisbury are examples of the early english
gothicstyle that spread across the country in the late the middle ages and early modern period; However, while most English Gothic churches, including Wells, were built over the centuries and incorporated different Gothic styles, Salisbury's is unique in its adherence to a single form.
This is because the main body of the cathedral was s built in less than 40 years and the builders maintained the original plan throughout the process the church was inaugurated in 1258 after the completion of the nave and choir transepts, although other parts were added in the following decades the cloisters the tower The chapter house and spa were all completed in 1320 and kept in the same style overall The construction required 70,000 tons of stone 3,000 tons of wood and 450 tons of lead The tower and spire were the most impressive engineering achievements With a height of 123 meters not only did the structure dominate the local skyline but it made the cathedral the third tallest building in England and the sex Tallest in the world Still many of England's tallest spires and towers from this era did not stand the test of time Lincoln Cathedral and Oldson Paul's London were the only buildings taller than Salisbury and both churches would see their spires destroyed in the middle of the 16th century.
Salisburies rose making it the tallest building in th The entire British Empire until the completion of the Blackpool towers in 1894. While Salisbury Cathedral was built in a remarkably short period of time, no structure survives for centuries without massive renovations . the necessary renovations were those made to strengthen the support of the massive tower and spa, which combined added 6,397 tons to the weight of the building. Local engineers realized that the church would surely collapse under the weight, so they added support and load-bearing pillars to the interior of the building. and on the outside, the columns buckled under the immense weight in the years of their installation, but still managed to support the tower.
Well-trained eyes can see that the spire is tilting about 70 centimeters to the southeast, but it has held its current position for centuries. Other major renovations completed in the 18th century were by an architect named James Wyatt. Wyatt's renovations were controversial because he showed no desire to conform to the original design, instead preferring contemporary features. The most egregious of his changes was to remove the crude screen that separated the nave and the chancel. serving as divisions between areas intended for the faithful and those only accessible to clergy and choir members, he also demolished a bell tower that stood some 300 feet northwest of the chapel, though he retained the clock at the times modern.
Renovations have been limited to art installations or updates in and around the cathedral the church works department repairs old dilapidated sculptures and adds new ones where needed frescoes and paintings are regularly updated where vibrant colors have faded in 2008 the cathedral replaced a century old font with a new one designed by an artist named william pi the new cruciform font is the largest in and england at ten feet wide it is always filled to the brim with water because it is used for christenings but it also creates a beautiful reflection of the cathedral ceiling. We have established that Salisbury Cathedral is unique, but what is it about this church that sets it apart? one, it has achieved a handful of superlatives in architecture and engineering, we've already discussed that it has the tallest tower and largest fountain in Britain, but there's more, it has the largest cathedral cloisters in the country for those of you who don't they are. experts in medieval church terminology so let's say most people a cloister is an arched walkway surrounding an outdoor area, they generally signify adherence to monastic tradition as their purpose was to separate the monks from the world outside and at the same time give them access to the outside world. in salisbury the cloisters surround a lawn with two beautiful cedars that have grown there for almost 200 years an enclosure is all the land outside e the cathedral controlled by the church and its clergy salisbury is a massive 80 acres containing museums religious school historic
homes and scenic gardens four gates that are almost as old as the cathedral mark the entrance to this territory in centuries past the clergy would lock the gates each night hence the term the great estate gives visitors the option of viewing the church from any angle.
They like postcards, and painters like to capture the cathedral from a diagonal angle that shows the contrast of the light earth-colored walls with the gray-blue of the ceiling. however, the west-facing front features the most intricately detailed part of the exterior. The facade that includes the entrance of the cathedral is almost a perfect square of about 33 meters high and wide. It contains 130 shallow niches or recessed areas that house statues, although only 79 are currently occupied. The niches are separated into five distinct levels, each designated for a particular class of religious figures The Toll Through Tears are dedicated to angels Arch angels Old Testament Patriarchs Apostles Evangelists Martyrs Philosophers and even doctors Lower levels include Royalty Priests and others with connections to the cathedral above them all is a mandala alcove or small almond shaped frame housing a statue of christ and majesty the west front is perhaps the simplest design of any english gothic church whilst spiers and towers dominate many cathedrals of the era salisbury maintains a much simpler design than its counterparts perhaps the most appropriate feature of the period The façade is the inclusion of 19 pointed windows.
These tall, narrow windows with a pointed top can be found in so many English cathedrals of the period that it is sometimes referred to as the lancet period. The interior of the church shows the benefit of all those windows and the most striking thing. innovation of light gothic cathedrals while romanesque churches were often dark gothic church has let in enough sunlight to show the church and all its beauty salisbury makes the most of the light with walls made of light gray chilmark stone bright enough to reflecting some of the light through the cathedral while much of the piping and columns are in a dark purbeck marble which creates a rare contrast of dark and light for an english church of course it wouldn't be salisbury cathedral if there weren't a couple of superlatives on the interior first, the quai stalls are the largest and oldest complete set in britain which may not seem too impressive considering the quai stalls are literally just seats for members of the choir but like everything else they are over the top because of how ornate and huge they are secondly the vaulted ceiling of the choir it is the second tallest in britain reaching 25.5 meters its architectural ends salisbury cathedral also contains two rare pieces of history that set it apart the first is the oldest working clock in the world built in 1386 the clock it was housed in the bell tower until the architect james wyatt renovated it destroying its tower luckily the clock was unscathed it was placed in a storage area where it was forgotten for almost two centuries until it was rediscovered in 1928 and restored to working order in 1956.
Si you are picturing a big beautiful white clock with roman numerals and fancy dials, although you are as far from reality as can be, the clock has no dial or dial, the machine simply keeps track of time and strikes a bell on the hour in that it was the first after all the most impressive thing is the fact that salisbury cathedral houses the best preserved copy of the
cartathe c The Arta Magna was a royal bill of rights signed by King John of England in 1215. The document is considered the foundation of modern Western rights as we know them, as the basis for England's legal system, and as an antecedent to the Bill of Rights.
American, a bricklayer named Alas de Dereham was present. dance at runnymede when the letter was initially signed and for reasons that remain unclear, elias was put in charge of distributing copies of the document throughout england. as many as 40 copies were created, only four now remain, all in storage throughout england the salisbury version shows very little wear showing that its keepers appreciated the importance of the document stands in the chapter house which is beautiful and noble in right The hall itself is filled with paintings depicting notable moments from the Old Testament, visitors to the cathedral can see the
cartaup close as it's on display all year round and that's really the end of salisbury cathedral, i I mean the end of our video today, I hope it sticks around for many more centuries, if you enjoyed this video, please hit the thumbs up button below. don't forget to subscribe if you have a suggestion for future mega projects let me know in the comments below and thanks for watching
If you have any copyright issue, please Contact