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Secrets of the Stone Age (1/2) | DW Documentary

Feb 27, 2020
The human race has been building enormous


structures for centuries. What are the origins of these structures? What were these circular constructions used for Many of these structures were sealed thousands of years ago by the people who built them, but in some cases they were worn away by wind and waves. By removing that protective covering over time, these structures are called megaliths. They could be called gigantic works of art. Megaliters and monomethylation in black. It is never built. I got lost through the pyramids. Technical and logistical masterpieces were built that exceed the limits of human imagination.
secrets of the stone age 1 2 dw documentary


structures like these were built. In many places around the world, for example in the far north of Scotland, you will find ancient buildings that are older than Stonehenge. Every hump, bump and bump you see could be a new archaeological site and every year, especially during plowing season, new sites. They are discovered by farmers These discoveries describe an important chapter in the history of humanity until about 12,000 years ago our ancestors were hunters and gatherers, then an irreversible transition to a new way of life occurred. The Fixer way to ease the transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary farming.
secrets of the stone age 1 2 dw documentary

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It was a key development after for millions of years people had lived by hunting and gathering in season and suddenly their lives changed radically much more than during the transition to industrialization or the digital age. This is gobekli tepe, a small hill in southeastern Turkey. In 1994, German archaeologist Klaus Schmidt discovered a series of enormous stone structures that included decorated pillars weighing up to 20 tons. A few years later, Austrian archaeologists Babaca Horesh began investigating the site. This is a simple escape. Italy is normally not only an architectural treasure and one of the most important structures of its kind in the world, it also symbolizes the beginning of the Neolithic in the sense of Youngstown, the good Beckley Tipper complex was built by hunters and gatherers, i.e. before humanity became sedentary, this fact revolutionized conventional archaeological wisdom in the divine beginning through and we discovered a society that was completely new to us, a society that had such a long history and yet some aspects of She was familiar to us.
secrets of the stone age 1 2 dw documentary
An aggressive lion, for example, was as much a threat to the people who built Gobekli as it was to us. us today what is worth thousands of people crave Stanton for those who live near the site a parallel supernatural world was part of everyday life this crane may have symbolized a connection between the earth and the heavens beetles and snakes were important mythological symbols in many cultures seemed There were few barriers between the natural world, and supernatural teams of archaeologists from Germany and Turkey have only excavated a fraction of the site, but they have determined that this period of mysticism was relatively short-lived at Festus gerado.
secrets of the stone age 1 2 dw documentary
Their research indicates that early generations of sedentary societies continued to cover these sites and seal them so that they could no longer be used, but these sites were preserved in the collective memory of the society for a long time. There are good reasons to give that abandoned for thousands of Vedic years. announced in October Baldwin perhaps the first farmers wanted to distance themselves from the practices of their ancestors Gobekli had lost its original meaning the people had become sedentary the director of the State Museum of Prehistory and Halle Horrell Miller says this was an important point of turning point in the history of humanity The veterinarians of these Neolithic houses were truly decisive.
Here we have about four thousand ax heads from the Neolithic period. They used axes to cut down forests and create farmland. They also used them to split wooden beams that were later used to build complex houses. This housing construction was a key element in the transition to a sedentary life that would not hook the sister. Hunters and gatherers also stayed in one place for long periods as long as they could find enough food, but the changes that took place in the Neolithic period were revolutionary, mention of disease after disease. The transition to sedentary life was a key development for thousands of years people had lived as hunter-gatherers a natural way of life they ate naturally and also had relatively few children because women did not get pregnant while they were breastfeeding but all that changed radically with the development of agriculture because that prompted people to change their diets which were then made in the city and Grainne now provided carbohydrates and domesticated animals provided meat and fats, this suits our hood and increased the content of fat in the body.
Furthermore, women became pregnant more frequently and this caused a population explosion which in turn meant that people had to live together in smaller spaces in houses, settlements and villages. The work of archaeologists is often like trying to solve a puzzle: they carefully unearth artifacts that belong to a specific society and then try to recreate a picture of what that society was like. Some objects like these decorated pottery shards have lent their names to entire cultures, for example the linear pottery culture, which coincides with the first appearance of food-producing societies, burial sites. They are often rich sources of information for archaeologists, not only human remains but also various items that were buried with the deceased, for example, an expert can determine whether a person was buried properly, if not, animals may have entered in the grave and have chewed the bones.
Maria Tesla Nicola is head of the department of archaeological biology at the Natural History Museum in Vienna and says that a lot can be learned from the skeletons through Kernan before, for example, we have confirmed vitamin deficiencies and stress symptoms in some remains and that helps us reconstruct what people ate and In other aspects of daily life we ​​find evidence of anemia in the upper part of the eye sockets, semen, we have seen evidence of vitamin C deficiencies in the alveolar ridges and other bone formations . If we analyze this evidence systematically, we can extrapolate it to the entire population and try to reconstruct specific living and working conditions.
Archaeologists always try to determine the age of artifacts. The development of radiocarbon dating was a big step forward in this process during recent years. 20 years genetic analysis has also provided important evidence Experts can now examine human and animal DNA that is, several thousand years old anthropologists Keem Burger say genetic analysis of livestock can provide information about patterns of Migration of Neolithic farmers from Hung Vuong Zoo scene. We did our first tests on domestic animals and determined that all European cattle are descendants of Iranian cattle, today those animals are found in Switzerland or East Frisia or somewhere else, but they originally came from Anatolia and the Middle East and then we thought So perhaps we could apply that hypothesis to the migration of Neolithic kingdoms and after ten years of research we were able to determine that these people from Anatolia, especially from northwestern Anatolia, are in fact the ancestors of all European Neolithic peoples. for fun Allah would allow excessive payments Neolithic rise it is difficult to find well-preserved genetic material from this period in warm environments the bones decompose more quickly and with them the genetic evidence, another problem is that sometimes the oldest genetic material has been contaminated by material newer, producing inaccurate results, yet archaeologists have come up with some interesting findings in Dagenham's genetic analysis, some skeletons from northwestern Turkey, specifically an area south of Istanbul, show that Neolithic peoples in present-day Germany and Spain descended from a people of images that we call genes.
There is evidence that immigrants at that time used both the Mediterranean and Balkan routes. Farmers spread rapidly throughout Europe for several hundred years, but not in an organized way. This research center is located in Austria. Maria Tesla Nicola and her colleague Tomas Prohaska are using analytical chemistry to try to determine the migration patterns of ancient Mogi Curtain TV people, but the technology we have today is incomparably better than 20 years ago. ago we can use invasive and non-invasive methods plus isotope analysis that have been widely used in anthropology for about 15 years to trace prehistoric migration patterns in our c14 here for Houska examines a tooth that is approximately 5,000 years old.
Tooth enamel does not change over time. course of a person's life so that scientists can know by their composition where people grew up the same technology is used to determine the place of origin of some modern foods the place of origin can always be clearly determined whether in plants, animals or humans printed trade orders We can now use this data to confirm a defined pattern of migration and not just a transfer of ideas. Indeed, we have been able to trace the colonization of Europe since I hope our colony sees it. There are some traces of the original residents of Europe. hunters and gatherers who lived there for thousands of years were probably displaced by new settlers or absorbed by new societies at this point Europe had been colonized by immigrants from the Middle East, but what prompted them to move to this new territory dicker in devarim diminish kovanda to sangee beautiful asana it's hard to say I don't think it had anything to do with overpopulation, no at that time the population density was low compared to what it is today, almost ten people may have simply heard of this region and have decided to go there maybe some groups have been there and came back and spread the word.
I can only speculate, but I think one reason may have been the simple human curiosity of the Keynesians. I understand, I understand. Hunters and gatherers eventually learn to travel by sea later, some of the sedentary farmers also use boats to travel west we do not know if they used sailboats or rowboats in any case rowboats were easier to maneuver these immigrants They gradually spread to the Mediterranean islands, including one known today as Malta, the Republic of Malta actually consisting of three inhabited islands, Malta itself plus Kamino and Gozo and several smaller islands that are uninhabited. Malta is located approximately 80 kilometers south of Sicily, on a clear day you can see Sicily from Gozo and in the same way you can see Gozo from Sicily, so it must be assumed that there was a certain degree of curiosity and the people of Sicily wondered what this land was that was a little beyond the horizon, however, it is difficult to understand why people decided to abandon an island as fertile as Sicily to occupy and colonize somewhere. which was very far away the first to arrive were probably explorers perhaps followed by their families about 2,000 years later some of the residents began to build temples the origins of these monumental structures are still a mystery some of these limestone blocks weigh up to 20 tons they could turn to dust before we know more about them Tim Egan has been a marine archaeologist at the University of Malta he is trying to preserve the ruins here he is photographing some of them Goffman turns photos into animated 3D images this is what the temples might have looked like but he says he is running out of time to complete his work.
What is incredible is that the rate of erosion has been much faster in the last 70 years than in the last four thousand five hundred years and that is not only because they have been discovered, but because there are aspects such as contamination by acid rain, carbon monoxide, etc., which are actually accelerating, it's not just the time period since they were discovered, but since we have all these modern pollutants, this is actually accelerating the rate of erosion this is the Hodja M temple complex on the main island is a major tourist attraction the canopy is designed to protect the site from the elements and slow the erosion process you know that these temples are a thousand years older than Stonehenge, which during a country that It's a colony of Britain this becomes something big, suddenly our Neolithic is a thousand years older than the people who rule us, you know, this is also what I mean by the political factor that these structures see play, but why did people build these structures?
We humans want acomfortable life, we don't want to be hungry, we don't want to be sick, and the way to do that was to make sure that the gods smiled at you and a way to make the gods smile at you. God smiles on you was to build monuments in his honor. This is what the site looks like without the canopy. We can now reconstruct what the temple might have looked like in its original form, but we can only speculate about its actual purpose and what kind of rituals might be performed. have been held there who was allowed to enter the inner sanctuary and who there is no clear division between the inner space and the outer space the temple is built covered it is the realm of the priests or priestesses the outside is open to the elements and the edge of the common people this division is clearly thought out in the design of the temples the interior of the temple is hidden from the outside world this hole in the stone may have been used by an Oracle provides a connection to the interior of the temple which was sacred For local residents at the time which gods they worshiped, if any, they had sacrificial rituals we can only speculate the site leaves many unanswered questions the temples of Malta were used for about 2000 years and then abandoned why did that happen at one point? determined and this is very typical of prehistoric cultures?
They could not achieve real social coherence. They had no established traditions that could be passed down from generation to generation, such as written records, a class of priests, or a line. of hereditary rulers those are key elements in cultural development prehistoric cultures that did not have these elements did not last long some of the agricultural peoples who sailed towards Central and Western Europe traveled to what is now Spain and Portugal and the peninsula of Brittany in today's France. The rocky shoreline provided building materials for these new settlers. They created a new society at the dawn of the Neolithic, a society that remains a mystery to this country.
Today, the temples that were built in Malta are unique to that island, just as these rows of standing stones are to the town of Carnac on the southern coast of Brittany. The legacy of these and other structures has been preserved in one of the regional languages, Breton, the word men. here it means long stone Dolman means stone table describes a specific type of tomb it is impossible to accurately translate these words into other languages ​​experts have tried to solve the mystery of the standing stones in vain Serge Khasan is an archaeologist at the University of the area no schizophonic It does not mix with the found impression, everyone who sees people is worse honest for the scope and simply boggles the mind and gives a new meaning to the word monumental.
Well, let me make a monomer 33. The rows of stones cover an area of ​​more than 3 kilometers. The site used to be much larger, each rock is distinctive and each could have its own individual meaning. Some researchers believe that the stones represent an expression of political power. Others believe supernatural forces were at work here and others simply see row after row of tombstones. It's simpler to stick to its original or local design and we don't know its origins, but you can really call it architecture: it takes you to the rows of stones that extend from the coast inland, perhaps they indicated a path of some kind, if thus, where?
Did he lead? It will be given to Einstein. One thing is clear and this applies to all megalithic structures. It is a sacred construction that involves the landscape and living space. You can't really see that in the stone scrolls and they are linked. a sacred site Megalithic sites are found on many Mediterranean islands and along the Atlantic coast as far north as Britain. They were also built along the North Sea and Baltic Sea coasts, but none of these sites exist in modern-day Hungary, Austria, or southern Germany. that is, places where immigrants traveled by land what is the explanation for that, but the Neolithic in the center when these Neolithic peoples left central Anatolia they experienced a sharp reduction in cultural diversity they were farmers when they arrived in Europe as they traveled along the Balkan route who lost their connection with their previous society, including building great monuments, they became highly specialized farmers and were very good at it, but it was not a life rich in culture, all demons, the only light , not long, the Fertile Crescent migrations to Austria continued for almost 5,000 years in many parts of Europe the retreat of the Ice Age glaciers left behind many boulders the Neolithic immigrants found large areas of fertile land and what It is now eastern Austria, but there weren't many large rocks that could be used for construction, so they used other materials in the 1980s.
Researchers analyzing aerial photographs discovered circular shapes in the ground in the Danube region of Austria . This was definitely something worth investigating. I fell in love with Rittany Esna. Building materials like those aerial photos led to excavations and found. These huge monuments that were over 6,000 years old, archaeologists wondered what they had been used for and there was a lot of discussion about it in the 1980s, and for all sorts of possible explanations, from forts to meeting places. , temples. or dairy cattle pens, I think even here archaeologists use radar to scan the area and get an idea of ​​what kind of structures fences, ditches or entrances might have been built here.
Archaeologists Wolfgang no Bauer have used this equipment to investigate sites around the world, for example. Bauer was unable to prove that Stonehenge, perhaps the most famous prehistoric monument in the world, was originally made of wood. These circular shapes can only be seen from the air at certain times of the year, as long as they have not been covered by wind or gut. In 2005, archaeologists Volcon Lobha Sir found a total of 40 circular ditches in the Vine Fatal region of northeastern Austria, and his team reconstructed one of these ditches near the town of Heltonburg. They used stone tools and the same materials that would have been available during the era.
Stone Age, including wooden bones and plant fibers, but it is the stone structures that tell us most about our ancient ancestors. On the North Sea silt island, for example, there are more than 500 burial sites made of stone and several Neolithic tombs can also be found. In northern mainland Germany and Denmark, archaeologists continue to excavate and analyze some of these sites. These large stone tombs were often used for centuries. These are mega light up clay birds. Furthermore, these megalithic tombs gave people a sense of identity. Local residents perform their rituals. It helped them reaffirm their existence, so these sites really helped shape society at the time in their lunch after dimension D.
Thomas Carr's burial practices can tell us a lot about a given society and its people. Miguel, the flavors and the common burial used by the megalithic people. There is little evidence of individual graves at the sites. It is as if the deceased had lost their identity during the early Neolithic period. The focus was on the community, not the individual. Those who could contribute substantially to the community were held in high regard over time. Our ancestors began to create high positions. -Elaborately designed quality pottery, this beautifully decorated bowl was found in a grave near Lüdersen in the eastern German state of Saxony-anhalt.
Items like these and burial practices in general can tell us a lot about the society, including the status of women, that Jerusalem recently derived. We have not observed any important differences in the way men were buried in Neolithic societies. In many cases, women were given burials that were as elaborate as those of men and sometimes even more so, but did Neolithic funerary objects really indicate women's status in society? The buildings represent spiritual immortality, that is, the deceased will be remembered forever. Stein is not the key element in the reconstruction of ancient architecture, whether it is temple buildings or melodies, it is the stone building blocks.
If these structures had been made of wood, we would have found very few remains. I could only speculate on the size of the structure and beam, but the stone blocks really gave us an idea of ​​what it was like in prehistoric times. The Elite Eight monument embraced Oceanside. There is an astonishing variety of Neolithic structures on the Orkney Islands, off the northeast coast. of Scotland excavation work began at this site in 2002 led by archaeologist Nick Card. I think what we're seeing today is really just the tip of the iceberg of what was here 5,000 years ago. Our eyes are drawn to these wonderful vertical monuments, but over the past 10 years, the University of the Highlands and Islands has embarked on a large-scale geophysical program of study around these monuments to see what else was potentially here and What we have discovered is the landscape full of monuments, excavations have yielded evidence of sites. which were used by cults, as well as settlements and tombs the concentration of Neolithic structures on the island is extensive this is the labyrinth Oh burial site the standing stones of Stenness form one of the oldest circular structures in Britain 150 meters away The remains of the Barnhouse Settlement are located.
The entrance to the narrow promontory is guarded by a 5.6 meter high monolith called the watchstone. Further along we found Brodgar Nests, a major settlement that included houses, a huge stone wall and even a Neolithic version of a cathedral. Archaeologists have discovered others. Neolithic structures found directly on the coast. This settlement includes some small stone houses. Much of the excavation site has been covered to protect the masonry from the elements. Visitors are not allowed only with NIC card and their equipment. Neolithic people really were no different from us. see here in a house there is everything you would expect from a modern house without electricity in the water the flat construction protects the structure against storms the thatched roof provides warmth people led a decent life here as far as we know At that time there was no there were no armed conflicts or other serious existential threats.
Local forests were more widespread in the Neolithic and the climate was relatively temperate thanks to the influence of the Gulf Stream. The conditions were ideal for growing crops and raising livestock. There were also abundant supplies of fish during the Neolithic, what we discovered is that Otley had a sort of predominance among many other areas and what we discovered is that this material was brought from all over Britain, but equally many of the ideas that seem to dominate The Britain's prehistory appears to have originated in the Orkney Islands. The Orkney stone circle served as a model for similar structures throughout Britain.
Meanwhile, archaeologists have been able to precisely determine Neolithic migration patterns. All they need to carry out a thorough analysis are a few bones or teeth that contain traces of DNA. This is the same method that showed that Central Europeans descended from the people of Anatolia. Researchers also made another surprising discovery in Anne's life and they slipped wood. They examined genetic material found in what is now Iran, which is the heart of the Fertile Crescent, and found a break in the migration pattern roughly between western Iran and western Anatolia. The population groups had become so diverse that there are indications that they may have divided between 50 and 70 thousand years ago after the migration of anatomically modern people.
The humans of Africa, both major groups, became sedentary, cultivating the land and building houses. High-boned populations made the transition to sedentary culture in both Europe and Asia at about the same time, but of course, independently of each other, megalithic structures can be found throughout Asia and especially in the Korean constellations. Of stars play an important role in Korean mythology until well into the modern era it was not unusual to find images of constellations engraved on tombstones, but it is not always easy to determine the precise age of these relics; The Neolithic Age appears to have been a relatively peaceful period in human history.
Archaeologists have found no evidence of armed conflict during this time. The Neolithic period in Europe came to an end around 2000 BC. When the Bronze Age gave way the stone structures remained, of course, today some of them serve as path markers others acquired a Christian appearance.They built churches over cemeteries and some stone monuments simply faded into the local background. In the Neolithic, temples served the same purpose as mosques, synagogues and churches do today. This period saw the development of communities where people lived in small settlements, raised their families and tended their crops and livestock, idly maintaining these Neolithic elements that still shape our society today, yes, sometimes more than we thought. we think

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