Secrets of the Stone Age (1/2) | DW DocumentaryFeb 27, 2020
the human race has been building huge
stonestructures for centuries what are the origins of these structures what were these circular constructions used for many of these structures were sealed thousands of years ago by the people who built them but in some cases the wind and waves wore away that protective covering over time these structures are called megaliths you could call them gigantic works of art megaliters and monomethylation in black never build got lost through the pyramids technical and logistical masterpieces that exceed the limits of human imagination write large
stonestructures like these were built In many places around the world, for example in the far north of Scotland, you will find ancient buildings that are older than Stonehenge.
Every hump, bump, and bump you see could be a new archaeological site and every year, especially during plowing season, new sites. are discovered by farmers these discoveries mark an important chapter in human history until about 12,000 years ago, our ancestors were hunters and gatherers. Then an irreversible transition to a new way of life began. and meeting in the season and suddenly their lives changed radically much more than during the transition to industrialization or the digital age this is gobekli tepe a small hill in the southeast of Turkey here in 1994 the german archaeologist Klaus Schmidt discovered a series of huge stone structures that included decorations pillars weighing up to 20 tons a few years later, Austrian archaeologists babaca Horesh began to investigate the site.
This is a simple escape. In general, Italy is not only an architectural treasure and one of the most important structures of its kind in the world, but also symbolizes the beginning of the Neolithic Age in the sense of Youngstown the good Beckley dump complex was built by hun collectors and gatherers that is before humanity became sedentary, this fact revolutionized conventional archaeological wisdom in a divine beginning and we discovered a society that was completely new to us, that society had such a long history and yet some aspects of her were familiar to us. aggressive lion, for example, was as much a threat to the people who built Gobekli as it is to us today what is worth thousands yearn for Stanton for those who live near the site a parallel supernatural world was part of everyday life this crane may have symbolized a connection between earth and heaven scarabs and snakes were important mythological symbols in many cultures there seemed to be few barriers between the natural world and the supernatural teams of archaeologists from Germany and Turkey have only excavated a fraction of the site but have determined that this This period of mysticism was relatively short-lived in Festus Gerado.
His research indicates that early generations of sedentary societies continued to cover these sites and seal them off so that they could no longer be used, but these sites were preserved in the collective memory of society for a long time. There are good reasons why they abandoned that one for thousands of years. in october baldwin perhaps the first farmers wanted to distance themselves from the practices of their ancestors gobekli had lost its original meaning people had become sedentary the director of the state museum of prehistory and halle horrell miller says this was a major turning point in human history vets of these neolithic houses was really decisive here we have about four thousand ax heads from the neolithic period they used axes to cut down forests to create farmland they also used them to split wooden beams which were later used to build complex houses this house building was a key element in the transition to settled life the dimension would not hook sister hunters and gatherers also stayed in one place for extended periods as long as they could find enough food but the changes that took place in the Neolithic period were revolutionary, disease after disease, the transition to sedentary life was a key development for thousands of years, people had lived as hunter-gatherers. natural way of life they ate naturally and had relatively few children because women didn't get pregnant while they were nursing, but that all changed radically with the development of agriculture because that led people to change their diets at that time. the city and the Grainne Strait now provided carbohydrates and domestic animals provided meat and fat.
This is well suited to our neighborhood that increased fat content in the body. together in smaller spaces in homes, settlements, and villages, the work of archaeologists is often like trying to solve a puzzle, carefully unearthing artifacts that belong to a specific society, and then trying to recreate a picture of what that society was like. Some objects such as these fragments of decorated pottery have lent their names to entire cultures, for example, the linear pottery culture that coincides with the first appearance of food-producing societies. Burial sites are often rich sources of information for archaeologists, not only human remains, but various items that were buried with the deceased, for example, an expert can determine if a person was buried correctly if not animals may have arrived in the grave and chewed on the bones Maria Tesla Nicola is the Director of the Department of Archaeological Biology at the Natural History Museum in Vienna.
She says that much can be learned from the skeletons through Kernan before. For example, we have confirmed vitamin deficiencies and stress symptoms in some remains and that helps us reconstruct what people ate and other aspects of daily life we found evidence of anemia in the upper reaches of the eye sockets semen we have seen evidence of vitamin C deficiencies in alveolar ridges and other bone formations if we analyze this evidence systematically we can extrapolate it to the whole population and try to reconstruct specific living and working conditions archaeologists always try to determine the age of artifacts the development of dating by radiocarbon was a big step forward in this process over the past 20 years genetic analysis has also provided important evidence experts can now examine human and animal DNA that is several thousand years old anthropologists i Keem Burger says genetic analysis of cattle can provide information about migration patterns tion of Neolithic farmers from the Hung Vuong zoo scene we did our first tests on domestic animals and determined that all European cattle are descended from Iranian cattle today those animals are found in Switzerland or East Frisia or somewhere else, but they originally came from Anatolia and the Middle East and then we thought maybe we can apply that hypothesis to the migration of the Neolithic kingdoms and after ten years of research we were able to determine that these people from Anatolia, especially northwestern Anatolia, are in fact the ancestors of all European Neolithic peoples. for fun Allah would allow overpaying Rise of the Neolithic it is difficult to find well preserved genetic material from this period in hot environments bones decompose faster and with them genetic evidence another problem is that sometimes older genetic material has been contaminated by newer material that produces errors The results even archaeologists have come up with some interesting findings in Dagenham's genetic analysis.
Some skeletons from northwestern Turkey, specifically an area south of Istanbul, show that Neolithic people in present-day Germany and Spain descended from an image people we call genes. There is evidence. that immigrants at that time used both the Med Overland route and Balkan farmers spread rapidly throughout Europe over several hundred years, but not in an organized way. This research center is located in Tor in Austria. Maria Tesla Nicola and her colleague Tomas Prohaska are using analytical chemistry to try to determine the migration patterns of ancient mogi peoples curtain TV yet stop the technology we have today is unmatched better than 20 years ago we can use invasive and non-invasive methods more isotope analysis that has been widely used in anthropology for about 15 years to trace prehistoric migration patterns in our c14 here for Houska examines a tooth that is around 5000 years old. foods of the day the place of origin can always be clearly determined whether in plants animals or humans printed business or So that we can use this data to confirm a definite pattern of migration and not just a transfer of ideas, we have indeed been able to trace colonization of Europa since I hope our colony sees that there are some traces of the original residents of Europa. the hunters and gatherers who lived there for thousands of years were likely displaced by the new settlers or absorbed into new societies at this point Europe had been settled by immigrants from the Middle East but what prompted them to move to this new territory dicker in devarim decrease kovanda to sangee beautiful asana hard to say i dont think it has anything to do with overpopulation no at that time the population density was low compared to what it is today almost ten people may have simply heard of this region and they decided to go there, maybe some groups have been there and came back and spread the word.
I can only speculate, but I think one of the reasons may have been the simple human curiosity of the Keynesians. d I get it hunters and gatherers eventually learn to travel by sea later some of the sedentary farmers also use boats to travel west we don't know if they used sailboats or rowboats in any case the rowboats were easier to maneuver these migrants gradually spread to islands in the Mediterranean, including one known today as Malta, the Republic of Malta actually consists of three inhabited islands Malta itself plus Kamino and Gozo and several smaller islands that are uninhabited Malta lies approximately 80 kilometers south of Sicily on a clear day you can see Sicily from Gozo and likewise you can see Gozo from Sicily so it must be assumed that there was some degree of curiosity and that the people of Sicily were wondering what it was this land that stretched just beyond the horizon.
However, it is difficult to understand why people decide to leave an island as fertile as Sicily and to occupy and colonize a faraway place the first to arrive were probably explorers perhaps later followed by their families some 2,000 years later some of the residents began to build temples the origins of these monumental structures remain a mystery some of these limestone blocks weigh up to 20 tons they could turn to dust before we know more about them Tim Egan has been a marine archaeologist at the University of Malta is trying to preserving the ruins here he is photographing some of them Goffman turns the photos into 3D animated images this is what the temples would look like but he says he is running out of time to complete his work the amazing thing is the rate of erosion has been so much more faster in the last 70 years than in the last 4,500 years, and that's not just because they've been discovered. but because you have things like acid rain, pollution, carbon monoxide, etc., that actually accelerate, so it's not just the period of time since they were discovered, but since you have all these mo Dern pollutants this is actually accelerating the rate of erosion this is the Hodja M temple complex on the main island it is a major tourist attraction the canopy is designed to protect the site from the elements and slow the erosion process you know these temples are a thousand years old older than Stonehenge, which for a country that is a colony of Great Britain becomes a big thing, suddenly our Neolithic is a thousand years older than the people who rule us, you know, so this is also this is I mean about the political factor that these structures come into play, but why did people build these structures? we humans want a comfortable life, we want not to be hungry, not to be sick, and the way to do that was to make sure the gods smiled on us. you and one way to make the gods smile on you was to build monuments in your honor this is what the site looks like without the canopy now we can piece together what the temple might have looked like in its original form but we can only speculate on its actual purpose and what kind of rituals could have been carried out there who was allowed to enter the inner sanctum and to whom there is no clear division between inner space and outer space the temple is covered over it is the realm of priests or priestesses the outer it is open to the elements and the edge of the common people this division is clearly thought through in the design of the temples the interior of the temple is hidden from theoutside world this hole in the stone may have been used by an oracle provides a connection to the interior of the temple what was sacred to local residents at the time what gods they worshiped if any had sacrificial rituals we can only speculate that the site leaves many unanswered questions Malta's temples were used for around 2000 years and then abandoned.
Why did that happen? to achieve real social consistency they did not have established traditions that could be passed down from generation to generation as written records a class of priests or a line of hereditary rulers those are key elements in cultural development prehistoric cultures that did not have these elements did not have them last long ago some of the peasant peoples sailing into central and western europe traveled as far as what is now spain and portugal and the brittany peninsula in present-day france the rocky coast provided building materials for these new settlers they created a new society in the dawn of the Neolithic a society that remains a mystery to this day the temples that were built in Malta are unique to that island as are these rows of standing stones are to the town of Carnac on the south coast of Brittany the legacy of these and other structures has been preserved in one of the Breton regional languages the word ra men here means long stone Dolman means stone table describes a specific type of tomb it is impossible to accurately translate these words into other languages experts have tried to solve the mystery of the standing stones to no avail Serge Khasan is an archaeologist at the University de no schizophonic are no mix the mixed impression of everyone who sees people worse honest by reach and it just boggles the mind and gives new meaning to the word monumental ok let me do a monomer 33 rows of stones cover a area of more than 3 kilometers this site used to be much larger each rock is distinctive and each could have its own individual meaning some researchers believe that the stones represent an expression of political power, others believe that supernatural forces were at work here and others simply see row upon row of tombstones, the simplest ones sticking to their original or local design and we don't know their origins, but it can really be called architecture - it takes you, the rows of stones stretching from the coast inland perhaps indicated some kind of path, if so, where did it lead?
Einstein will be given one thing is clear and this applies to all megalithic structures, a single one is a sacred construction involving the landscape and living space you can't really see in the stone scrolls and they are linked to a sacred site Megalithic sites are found on many Mediterranean islands and along the Atlantic coast to northern Britain, they were also built along the North Sea and Baltic Sea coasts, but there are none of these sites on the current Hungary, Austria or southern Germany, which are places where immigrants traveled by land. What is the explanation of that? then but the Neolithic in the center when these neolithic peoples left central Anatolia they experienced a sharp reduction in cultural diversity they were farmers when they arrived in Europe as they traveled along the Balkan route they lost their connection to their earlier society including the building large monuments they became highly specialized farmers and they were very good at it but it was not a life rich in culture all the devils the only light not much migrations from the Fertile Crescent to Austria continued for nearly 5,000 years in many parts of Europe receding Ice Age glaciers left behind mounds of boulders.
Neolithic migrants found large areas of fertile land and what is now eastern Austria, but there weren't many large rocks that could be used for construction, so they used other materials in the 1980s, researchers looking at aerial photographs discovered circular shapes in the ground in the Danube region of Austria, this was definitely something worth investigating. rittany esna gave me love bread building materials like those aerial photos they took to excavations and found these huge monuments that were over 6000 years old archaeologists wondered what they had been used for this course and there was a lot of discussion about it before in the 1980s, and for all kinds of possible explanations, from forts to meeting places to temples to cattle pens, milk, I think even here archaeologists use radar to scan the area to get an idea of what kind of structures could have been built here, fences, ditches or Gateway archaeologists Wolfgang no Bauer have used this equipment to investigate sites around the world, for example no Bauer could pr despite the fact that Stonehenge, perhaps the oldest prehistoric monument famous in the world, it was originally made of wood, these circular shapes can be seen from the air only at certain times of the year, as long as there is no have been covered by blowing earth, no intestines found, a total of 40 circular trenches in the vine fatal region of north-eastern Austria in 2005 archaeologists volcon lobha senor and his team reconstructed one of these trenches near the town from Helton burg used stone tools and the same materials that would have been available during the Stone Age including wood bone and plant fibers, but it is the stone structures that tell us the most about our ancient ancestors on the island of slime. of the North Sea, for example, there are more than 500 burial places made of stone, several Neolithic tombs can also be found in mainland northern Germany. and in Denmark, archaeologists continue to excavate and analyze some of these sites.
These large stone tombs were often used for centuries. ave also these megalithic tombs gave people a sense of identity local residents performing their rituals helped them reaffirm their existence so these sites really helped shape society at that time in their lunch after dimension D s Thomas Carr's burial practices can tell us a lot about a given society and its people Michael knows and megalithic people used communal burial sites there is little evidence of individual graves it is as if the deceased lost their identity during the early Neolithic period the focus it was in the community not the individual those who could contribute substantially to the community were held in high esteem over time our ancestors began to create high quality pottery with elaborate design this beautifully decorated bowl was found in a tomb near lüdersen in the eastern German state of saxony-anhalt, items like these and objects fu neraries Practices in general can tell us a lot about society, including the status of women.
Jerusalem is recently derived. No major differences were observed in the way men were buried in Neolithic societies, in many cases women received burials that were just as elaborate as men's and sometimes even more elaborate, but did Neolithic grave goods did they really indicate the status of women in society? stone buildings? they represent spiritual immortality i.e. the deceased will be remembered forever Stein is not the key element in the reconstruction of ancient architecture, be it temple buildings or tunes, it is the building blocks of stone if these structures had been made of wood we would have found so little remains that we could only speculate on the size of the structure and beam but the stone blocks really gave us an idea of what it was like in prehistoric times the Elite Eight monument hugged Oceanside there is an amazing variety of structures Neolithic sites in the Orkney Islands off the north east coast Scotland excavation work started at this site in 2002 led by archaeologist Nick card I think what we are seeing today is really the tip of the iceberg of what was here 5000 years ago, our eyes are drawn to these wonderful monuments, but for the past 10 years, the University of Highlands and Islands has been has embarked on a large-scale geophysical program of studies around these monuments to see what else was potentially here and what we have uncovered is the landscape that was littered with monuments the excavations have yielded evidence of sites that were used by cults as well such as settlements and tombs the concentration of neolithic structures on the island is extensive this is the labyrinth Oh burial place the standing stones of Stenness form one of the oldest circular structures in Britain 150 meters away are the remains of the settlement of Barnhouse the entrance to the narrow promontory is protected by a 5.6 meter high monolith called the clock stone further on we found the brodgar nests, a major settlement that included houses, a massive stone wall and even a neolithic version of a cathedral archeolo Gists have discovered other Neolithic structures found directly on the shoreline .
This settlement includes some small stone houses. Much of the excavation site has been covered over to protect the stonework from the elements. Visitors are not allowed. from ourselves what you see here in a house is everything you would really expect in a modern house with no electricity in the water the flat construction protects the structure from stormy weather the thatched roof provides warmth people led a decent life here until now As we know, there were no armed conflicts or other serious existential threats at the time when local forests were most extensive in Neolithic times and the climate was relatively mild thanks to the influence of the Gulf Stream, conditions were ideal for cultivation and cultivation. cattle ranching and there were also plentiful supplies of fish during the Neolithic, what we find is that Otley had a sort of dominance nce, among many other areas, and what we find is that this material is strained from all over Britain, but equally many One of the ideas that seems to dominate the prehistory of Britain seems to have originated in the Orkney Islands was the stone circle. from Orkney a model for similar structures across Britain meanwhile archaeologists have been able to pinpoint Neolithic migration patterns all they need to carry out a comprehensive analysis are a few bones or teeth containing traces of DNA this is the same method that proved that central Europeans were descendants of the Anatolian people.
The researchers also made another startling discovery in Anne's life and slipped wood. They examined genetic material found in what is now Iran, which is the heart of the Media Fertile Moon and found a break in the migration pattern roughly between western Iran and western Anatolia, the population groups had become so diverse that there are indications that they may have diverged between 50 and 70 thousand years ago. following the migration of anatomically modern humans from Africa. Both main groups became sedentary. They farmed the land and built houses. High bone populations. They made the transition to sedentary culture in both Europe and Asia at about the same time. but of course, independently of each other, megalithic structures can be found throughout Asia and especially in Korea.
Constellations, the patterns of the stars, play an important role in Korean mythology well into modern times. It was not unusual to find images of constellations engraved on tombstones, but it is not always easy to determine the precise age of these relics The Neolithic era appears to have been a relatively peaceful period in human history Archaeologists have found no evidence of armed conflict during this time the Neolithic period in Europe came to an end around the year 2000 B.C. Way into the Bronze Age, stone structures remained, of course, today some of them serve as road m In the Neolithic, temples served the same purpose as mosques, synagogues, and churches today.
This period saw the development of communities where people lived in small settlements raise their families and tend their crops and livestock idly keep these Neolithic elements that still shape our society today yes as sometimes more than what we think
If you have any copyright issue, please Contact