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Secret Antarctica - Scientist Discovered Something Frozen On a Mountain And They Are SCARED

Mar 30, 2024
The line of Homo sapiens descends from a line that goes back about 6 million years, not much further than that, if we accept conventional evolutionary theory, 6 million years ago Antarctica is supposed to be as cold and

frozen

as it gets. is today and there is certainly a time when

they

found fossils in Antarctica, there is certainly a time when Antarctica was lush and green. The question is whether it was lush and green during the life of the human species. Yes. Graham Hancock's theories about an ancient civilization in Antarctica are quite intriguing, although

they

vary significantly. From conventional scientific points of view, he speculates that a part of this lost advanced civilization was located in what is now the

frozen

expanse of Antarctica.
secret antarctica   scientist discovered something frozen on a mountain and they are scared
This is a surprising thought considering Antarctica's current icy conditions. He links this to the crustal displacement hypothesis of the entire outer crust of Antarctica. The Earth like the skin of an orange could change leaving most of the Earth in place. This theory suggests that Antarctica was not always at the south pole, but may have been in a more temperate region, allowing a civilization to thrive; However, it is crucial to note that this idea of ​​shifting the Earth's crust is not supported by current scientific understanding of plate tectonics, which does not allow for such rapid and dramatic changes of the Earth's crust.
secret antarctica   scientist discovered something frozen on a mountain and they are scared

More Interesting Facts About,

secret antarctica scientist discovered something frozen on a mountain and they are scared...

Hancock also delves into mythology by drawing connections between various global myths, legends, and religious texts that he interprets. These are allegorical references to this Lost Civilization, focusing particularly on stories of great floods or cataclysms. He proposes that such a cataclysm perhaps a flood or comet impact led to the downfall of this advanced civilization. To me, the obvious answer is that we are dealing with fingerprints. of the Lost Civilization that mapped the world and left evidence of that mapping according to his theory, the survivors of this catastrophe could have traveled the world spreading their advanced knowledge, significantly influencing the development of later civilizations such as the Egyptians and the Sumerians, one of the most fascinating aspects. of his theory is how he points out similarities in architectural structures and astronomical alignments at various ancient sites; he sees them as potential evidence of a shared origin of knowledge, suggesting that this knowledge could have been transmitted from the previous civilization.
secret antarctica   scientist discovered something frozen on a mountain and they are scared
Hancock believes that the origin of this civilization's legacy includes not only advanced architectural techniques and astronomical observations, but also other potentially lost technologies and wisdom. The date that the COG in Turkey was built 11,600 years ago, which interestingly is the date that Plato and Critius give for the sinking of Atlantis, while their ideas certainly capture the imagination it is important to remember that they are viewed with skepticism by the community. Scientific Antarctica during the Eocen The epic was a completely different world from what we know today. It was actually located above the South Pole as it is now, but the climate back then was very warmer, which allowed for a completely different type of environment. different.
secret antarctica   scientist discovered something frozen on a mountain and they are scared
This was a time when the continents were still moving after the breakup of the supercontinent Pangia, so Antarctica, which was part of what we call Gondwana, was slowly moving towards where it is now, all isolated in the background . In most of the world, this shift of continents such as Australia and South America played an important role in changing ocean currents and climate. One of the most surprising things about Antarctica back then was that it didn't have the huge ice sheet it has today. This absence of ice was mainly due to the much warmer global temperatures at the time, which had a huge knock-on effect on the planet's climate, since the reflective ice that sends solar radiation back into space was not there, which increased the general heat.
The movements during the Eocene were also quite significant. The breakup of Gondwana was a major event that reshaped the layout of Earth's land and water. A key moment was the opening of Drake Passage. The stretch of water between Antarctica and South America. This opening was a turning point. Because it led to the creation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which is a massive ocean current surrounding Antarctica, this current had a major impact on the climate. In a way, it put Antarctica in a climate bubble by circulating cold water around it and preventing warmer waters from entering. The north to go through this is thought to have played a major role in the cooling of Antarctica and led to the ice covered continent we know today as to what life was like back then, the fossil records are really fascinating and show that Antarctica supported a diverse variety. of plants and even animals, we are talking about temperate to subtropical forests with beaches, conifers and ferns.
Let's imagine that instead of today's frozen desert, these fossils tell us that the climate was much warmer and wetter and then there is the sea level, which was much higher than it was. Now we see why there weren't those big ice caps enclosing all that water. This is how you know that sea level has risen. There are certain corals that can only exist within a certain number of feet from the sea surface. meant that the coast and shape of the land were quite different and some places that are now dry land were underwater back then, warmer temperatures and higher sea levels would have made marine life around Antarctica was rich and diverse, very different from what there is now, according to EOS.
The epic that lasted approximately 56 to 34 million years was a really interesting time in Earth's history, it was part of this larger period called the Paleogene period and is part of what

scientist

s call the Cenozoic ERA. This era is often nicknamed the Age of Mammals. because it was when mammals began to diversify a lot, especially after the dinosaurs had their big exit at the end of the Cretaceous period during the Eocene, the continents of the world were in motion, moving towards where they are now, this movement was a big problem because changed the way ocean currents flowed and affected the climate in many ways.
Now, one of the most dramatic things about eosin was this event called the Paleocene eosin thermal maximum. This occurred about 56 million years ago and was a time when the Earth became very warm. Temperatures rapidly soared by 5 to 8° Celsius in just a few thousand years. Scientists believe this could be due to the release of a ton of methane from the ocean floor. This warming had a huge impact on life on Earth. In the oceans some species are gone. became extinct while on earth they began to evolve and diversify like crazy, the CO2 levels in the atmosphere were also much higher than what we have today, estimates say it was between 1000 and 2000 parts per million, which is a lot Compared to the pre-industrial level of around 280 PPM, this high level of CO2 came from things like volcanic activity burning organic matter and because natural carbon sinks were not as effective, one of the big differences between the Eocene and now it was that there were no significant ice sheets at the poles.
This is really different from today, where we have large ice caps in both the Arctic and Antarctic because the Earth was much warmer and the temperature difference between the equator and the poles was not as extreme as it is now. The regions were much warmer than they are today and because there was less ice, sea levels were higher, meaning that a lot of water that is currently frozen in ice was in the ocean back then, This greatly affected marine life, changing where different species lived and leading to the development of new types of marine ecosystems. One of the things I find most surprising is the presence of Antarctica on old maps because we did not discover it until 1820.
Now Graham has a really fascinating theory about an ancient advanced civilization that he believes existed a long time ago. Before the civilizations we commonly recognize as the Sumerians of Mesopotamia, the idea of ​​it pushes back the timeline of advanced human societies tens of thousands of years, possibly even to the last ice age. This is a huge leap from established historical understanding that generally sees complex societies and civilizations. Hancock, who has emerged more recently, points to the incredible architectural feats of ancient megalithic structures such as Gocke in Turkey, Stonehenge in England, and various sites in Egypt and Mesoamerica.
He sees them as evidence of highly advanced architectural knowledge. Additionally, it speaks to the astronomical precision of these structures, for example how the Great Pyramids of Giza align with the stars of Orion's belt or how Stonehenge aligns with the solstices and equinoxes, these are not just random locations, they suggest an understanding deep of the stars and the seasons. He also believes that this civilization had impressive navigation skills that could explain how similar architectural and astronomical concepts appeared on different continents, but it's not just about the buildings and their alignments with celestial events. Hancock believes that these ancient monuments reflect a comprehensive knowledge of astronomy that was integrated into the culture and religious practices of the While he also suggests evidence of sophisticated urban planning in ancient ruins that indicate a level of social organization and knowledge of construction of cities that is not normally attributed to prehistoric societies, then the idea of ​​a global diffusion of knowledge arises.
Hancock theorizes that similarities in architectural and astronomical styles. Knowledge from various ancient cultures around the world points to a common advanced source of knowledge. This knowledge could have been spread by the survivors of this ancient society. Graham Hancock's theory really takes a global perspective when it comes to the influence of this ancient advanced civilization that he proposes. He thinks that this civilization had a great impact on the entire world. It is not just a localized phenomenon but

something

that spanned all continents. According to him, we can see traces of this civilization in the myths, architectural designs and astronomical knowledge of many different ancient cultures. suggesting that there was a type of cultural diffusion that took place from this Lost Civilization to later societies, so when we see similar styles in buildings or common themes in religious beliefs and astronomical practices in various ancient cultures, interpret this as evidence of their influence and goes further.
He speculates that after a major disaster brought down this civilization, the survivors could have spread to different areas of the world. These survivors were believed to have passed on their advanced knowledge and this played a crucial role in the development of the civilizations we know. Now, when it comes to evidence, Hancock looks at archaeological sites and finds findings that he feels conventional archeology hasn't been able to fully explain, talks about structures that seem to him like they needed quite advanced engineering, or knows how to build astronomical he also dives into texts and ancient myths, interpreting them not just as stories or legends but as allegorical records of real historical events.
Think of tales about great floods or lost lands like Atlantis. Hancock sees them as collective memories of the Lost Civilization. He also notes that there are cross-cultural similarities, such as how the Myths from different parts of the world seem to share common themes or how architectural styles and astronomical knowledge seem to echo each other even in cultures that supposedly never interacted to associate. shared an older source of knowledge, so if true and it is true, it would return the Sphinx to a much older period, which would relate to Schaller's work and the later work of John Anthony West that he had signs that dynastic Egypt as we know it.
The return to approximately 3,000 BC. C. was actually a legacy of what I now call a previous cycle of civilization. Robert M. Shock, a geologist with a PhD from Yale University had a fascinating idea in the 1990s about the age of the Great Sphinx of Giza. Something interesting about the erosion patterns on the Sphinx in the surrounding area, unlike the typical wind and sand erosion that would be expected in the deserts of Egypt, these patterns seemed rather caused by water. This was a big problem because he suggested that the Sphinx could be much larger than we now thought.
Graham Hancock, a well-known British author who loves to delve into mysteries.ancients, found the shock theory really interesting and started supporting it since the early 1990s. Question marks have arisen over the age of the Great Sphinx of Giza in Egypt, Egyptologists think. It is approximately 4,500 years old, although there is not a shred of inscription evidence to support this date. Independent researcher John Anthony West and geology professor Robert Shock at Boston University have argued that the Sphinx must be much older than that, and Hancock is known for questioning the usual stories we hear about historical and archaeological sites.
The shock theory caught his attention because he suggested that the Sphinx existed during a time when Egypt had a lot of rain, which was around 8,000 to 10,000 BC. C., this idea of ​​heavy rains leading to the erosion we see on the Sphinx today is really cool, but also quite controversial. Traditionally, archaeologists have dated the Sphinx to around 2500 BC. C. during the time of the pharaoh. They are based on where the Sphinx is located in the Giza pyramid complex and how it looks in comparison. to other things from that period, but if the shock is correct and the Sphinx was actually built when it was much wetter in Egypt, then it could be thousands of years older than we thought, perhaps even dating to the Neolithic, that is A pretty big change in how we think about ancient Egyptian history, to put it bluntly, the Sphinx did not originate with Kaa in the Fourth Dynasty and it was really the beginning of my serious work and career analyzing ancient civilizations.
Instead of the Typical wear and tear that would be expected from wind and sand in a desert, the Sphinx had features such as deep cracks, wavy lines on its limestone walls, and smooth, rounded edges. These are the types of things that you normally see with water erosion, not with wind or sand, now the Sphinx is made of limestone, which is quite easy to be worn away by water and the interesting thing is that this limestone is Made up of different layers, some harder than others. I saw that water erosion affected these layers in a way that it wouldn't.
I don't really see if it was just the wind and sand that caused the damage, but this is where it gets even more intriguing: you look at the climate history of the Sahara Desert and the Giza area and find that between 10,000 and 5,000 BC . C. This place was not the dry desert we know today, it was actually quite humid thanks to

something

called the subplaal phase of the Neolithic. We know that there were Ultra Hypererit Sahara conditions on the Giza Plateau for the last 5,000 years or so and this relates to the origins of civilization according to standard history, which is that civilization began between 4000 and 3000 BC.
C., this was a time when it rained a lot more, so shock thinks this rainy period could have caused the type of water erosion we see on the Sphinx, suggesting it is much older. than we thought, perhaps it even dates back to these wetter times, this goes against the usual dating of the Sphinx to around 2500 BC. C. during the reign of Pharaoh Caffrey according to its style and its location in the Pyramid complex of Giza. The idea of ​​shock definitely shakes things up in terms of how we think about the age of the Sphinx, so Robert didn't just look at the Sphinx in isolation when thinking about this whole idea of ​​water erosion, but he actually compared the wear of the Sphinx with other ancient limestone views that had been exposed. lots of rain, this was his way of checking if what he saw at the Sphinx matched known patterns of water erosion elsewhere.
It's like looking at different worn-out genes to discover if they were torn off by climbing trees or simply by washing them. On many occasions he found places with a clear historical background where they knew for sure that the rain had had its effect over the years. When he looked at these places, he noticed that the erosion patterns were quite similar to what he was seeing at the Sphinx, this kind of reinforced his argument that the erosion at the Sphinx really could be due to water, not just wind or sand, You look at the evidence and that's where I'm coming from, but my point is that even in the late '80s and early '90s, when I first got involved in this.
If I looked at it critically, the evidence was not so definitive for the age of the clash of the Sphinx. The approach to the Sphinx clash was quite comprehensive. He wasn't just a geologist looking at rocks, he was also considering climate patterns from thousands of years ago and what archaeologists were saying. about these ancient sites it's like he's putting together a big puzzle of different fields of study but of course there are always different sides to a story; Some critics pointed out that the erosion could be due to other natural processes unique to the Giza area, such as fluctuations in groundwater or the way certain chemicals in the air could wear away the Rock and then there is the whole matter of what archaeologists have found around the Sphinx, such as artefacts and artefacts suggesting it was built around 2500 BC.
C. during the time of Pharaoh Kaff. Contrary to the shock idea that the Sphinx is much older due to water erosion, so it is a bit of a puzzle that is still missing some pieces. Graham Hancock has this really intriguing idea about an ancient civilization that he claims existed long before the ones we normally know about. In history books like the Egyptians, the Sumerians, and the Indus Valley people, he estimates that this civilization existed many many millennia before and which could have been annihilated by the enormous impact of a comet around the year 10,000 BC. C. he imagines that an entire Advanced Society disappeared in the blink of an eye. eye leaving only pieces behind and this is where it gets even more interesting.
Hanock believes that this civilization was not simply in one place, but was everywhere having a global influence. He suggests that after whatever disaster struck, survivors could have traveled far and wide sharing their knowledge and helping to boost other ancient cultures. Hancock also delves into myths and oral traditions from around the world. He not only dismisses these stories as old wives' tales, but considers them as potential historical records - for example, he is actually interested in flood myths that arise in different cultures. He believes they could be a collective memory of a real event that had a great impact on this Lost Civilization.
The best explanation is that floods of ice water released by the heat and kinetic energy of the impacts flowed. the North American ice sheet and the Atlantic Ocean, where they disrupted the Gulf Stream, a key element of our planet's central heating system, hence the sudden and dramatic cooling. Now Hancock is a big fan of astronomy and points out how some ancient structures like the pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx align with certain stars and constellations. He believes this is not just a coincidence but a sign of advanced astronomical knowledge. He also likes the idea that these ancient people understood the procession of the equinoxes, which is a fancy term for slow change. on the Earth's rotation over a 260,000 year cycle, if he is right, it means they were way ahead of their time in understanding the cosmos.
Graham Hancock has this captivating theory about ancient civilizations and their architectural structures. He's really interested in how these ancient structures, like the pyramids of Egypt, Stonehenge. and those incredible megali lithic sites in South America show some serious architectural and engineering skills. Hancock believes that to build these things with such precision and detail, those ancient people must have had some advanced knowledge and technology that we don't normally give them credit for. for example, the way stones are cut at Puma Punu in Bolivia. Hancock points out that the cuts are so precise that it's like they have access to some really advanced tools and when it comes to building massive structures, he worries about what techniques they should use. that he has used, he is amazed at the precision with which these enormous stones were put together, often without mortar, and he wonders how on earth they moved and placed stones weighing several tons. engineering and possibly some clever uses of lever and pulley systems.
He now he doesn't stop there. He is also fascinated by the mathematical and geometric knowledge that these structures reveal. He talks about the use of the golden ratio. High and precise angular measurements showing sophisticated understanding. of mathematics and geometry such as the Great Pyramid of Kufu, its alignment, the way its base is perfectly level and the precise angles of its sides, Hanock sees this as evidence of an understanding of geometry and engineering much more advanced than what we might think. Monumental buildings in Mesoamerica such as the Pyramid of the Sun in Toot Waken and the Mayan pyramids Hancock highlights their architectural sophistication, urban planning and the use of large blocks of stone, all of this for him points to a level of mastery and technological knowledge that goes In short, far beyond what we have traditionally thought was possible for these ancient cultures.
Hancock is looking at these ancient structures and says, "Hey, there's more to the story here," he suggests that these civilizations had deep knowledge and skill in construction engineering and mathematics. that challenges our conventional understanding of ancient history, it wasn't something the Mayans invented, the alchs used that same symbolism, so the Mayan calendar is actually an allet calendar and if we then consider the possibility that the Alx may simply be The last or oldest surviving manifestation of that calendar could date back to then there are toot waken in Mexico hanock looks at the layout of this ancient city and sees a kind of mirror image of the planetary orbits of our solar system to him this suggests that people Those who built Teaken had a nice detailed knowledge of astronomy and space.
Stonehenge in England is another example. Hanok believes it was used as an astronomical observatory because of how it aligns with the solstices. He considers this to be more evidence that ancient people understood celestial movements very well and let's not forget the pyramid. of kulan at chichin itsa during the equinoxes this pyramid casts a shadow that looks like a snake Hancock sees this as a sophisticated way of tracing the sun's path again, showing an advanced understanding of astronomy. Hanock also dives into the idea of ​​procession, which is this slow sway. As the Earth rotates, which takes about 26,000 years to complete the circle, watch as the pyramids of Giza align with Orion's belt and the Sphinx align with the constellation of Leo during what is known as the Age of Leo, around 10,500 BC.
C., believes that these alignments are not random, but deliberate, which shows that people back then understood this complex astronomical phenomenon, so, in a nutshell, Hancock is really interested in the idea that ancient structures in Everyone did not build them just for the fun of it, but believes that they were deliberately aligned with stars. constellations and celestial events showing that ancient civilizations had a much deeper understanding of astronomy than we usually give them credit for. If you mention the word Atlantis to any archaeologist, they will tend to roll their eyes. The appropriately named Eye of the Sahara is by far the most likely location for the lost capital city of Atlantis, when you look at all the areas around the planet that have been proposed for Atlantis, I think there is one place that fits the most of its details and is the sunken plateau, the rishat structure often.
Known as the eye of the Sahara, it is an extraordinary and unique geological formation with some fascinating features spanning around 40 km in diameter. It is so large that it can be easily detected from space. The structure is not a perfect circle but rather takes on a slightly elliptical dome shape adding to its mystique. One of the most striking aspects of the royal structure is its series of concentric rings. These rings are quite intriguing because they are not all the same, they vary in terms of width, what they are made of and how they have eroded over time, this creates a complex layered look that is quite captivating.
The rock on the edge of this was laid down in the Cretaceous about 90 million years ago, so at that time it was under the ocean, so it was uplifted. I think this is about 14 years old. or 500 feet above the sea, so it has been eroded. You see, all this here is like an erosion. How these rings formed is a story of erosion in action over millions of years. Forces of nature, such as wind and water, have eroded the Dome, revealing these distinct rings. each layer of the structure erodes differently depending on whathow hard or soft it is, that's why we see this range of rings.
Now let's talk about what the rishat structure is made of because it's a big mix, the outer rings are mainly made of something called azoic. quart site, this is a very hard rock that is weather resistant and is incredibly old, we're talking over 600 million years old. Quartzite is formed from sandstone that has been subjected to a lot of heat and pressure, so it has been through a lot as we go inland. The story changes here, we find softer sedimentary rocks such as limestone and sandstone. Limestone composed primarily of calcium carbonate usually forms in ancient marine environments.
Sandstone, on the other hand, is made up of sand-like mineral particles right in the center, the rishat structure has something called La celiciosa breia, which is basically a bunch of angular rock fragments stuck together, breia usually forms in areas with a lot of volcanic activity or where the Earth's crust has been moving and shaking. All of these different types of rocks in one place make the large structure quite special. It's a visually stunning landmark, but it's also a valuable place for geologists to study, so the connection to ancient Egypt that Solon draws and that Plato conveys is actually very real, it's very strong, and I'm pleased to say that now There has been a complete translation of the educational text when it comes to how the rishat structure was formed, there are a couple of theories floating around the most widely accepted is what geologists call the Raised Dome theory in simple terms, this theory suggests That natural forces beneath the earth's surface layers of rock pushed up created a sort of bulge on the surface over time.
This dome was worn away by erosion, which is basically wind and water gradually wearing away the rock. This erosion did not occur uniformly, with softer rocks being worn away faster than harder ones. those leading to the formation of those distinctive concentric rings we see today, there is now another more speculative theory proposed by Jimmy Corsetti. He has this interesting idea that the almost perfect circular shape and unique layers of the raich chat structure might not be entirely natural. He thinks that ancient human activities could have played a role in shaping it. The circular city was also said to have a seaward opening in the south, which not only coincides with the southward opening of the Rishat anomaly, but even has existing evidence of a saltwater flow. which is still visible to this day the Sahara desert environment has also played an important role in the formation process of the Rat structure the dry and arid conditions mean that wind erosion is particularly influential in shaping the structure and let's not forget that the Sahara has not always been a desert, it has gone through several climate changes over millions of years and these changes have influenced the rate and nature of erosion in the region some of the rocks are incredibly old and date back to more than 600 million years ago.
This period covers a large part of our planet's past, from approximately 2.5 billion to 541 million years ago. It is a crucial era for Understanding how the continents formed and how early life evolved, now let's imagine the amount of time it took to form the great structure that has formed over millions and millions of years. Many factors played a role in shaping the movements of the rehat structure in the Earth's crust, as shifting tectonic plates has been a big part of this, then there is the impact of climate changes over the centuries, especially In the Sahara region, all these changes influenced the erosion patterns that gave the structure its current appearance and, speaking of erosion, it has been the main one.
Strength to sculpt and expose the different layers of rock in the raat structure. One of the most interesting things about the rishat structure is its distinctive circular pattern, as said before, it is so notable that astronauts use it as a reference point when they are in space. This pattern really stands out against the surrounding desert landscape, if you take the concept of Atlantis seriously, archaeologists and their friends in the media consider you some kind of lunatic and I have always found this strange because because the source, the most Ancient survivor of the Atlantis tradition is the highly respected figure of Plato.
Plato's description of Atlantis found in his dialogues tus and critius really captures the imagination. Aren't they written around 360 BC? C.? These works come from a time when Athens was at the height of its philosophy and cultural influence. Plato was a thinker who loved to delve into ideas about morality and the reality of society and used these dialogues as a way to explore these topics. It is as if he were having a conversation through his characters, allowing him to present different ideas and The current arguments about Atlantis itself describe it as a huge island city located beyond the Pillars of Hercules, which most of the People think it is the Gibraltar straight.
Plato went out of his way to describe it as larger than Libya and Asia combined, which really paints a picture of its mythical size. The layout of the city is fascinating with these concentric circles of land and water. Imagine the engineering it would have taken to build something like this in ancient times, with canals and bridges connecting everything. It was said that the heart of the island, its Central Plain, was super fertile and perfect. for agriculture and was surrounded by high

mountain

s rich in resources and natural protection and Atlantis was not just about stunning landscapes, it was also a center of resources and technology.
Plato talks about having all kinds of metals, including this mysterious orala, as well as gold. and silver, the infrastructure was top-notch with water systems, temples, palaces and docks, but Atlantis wasn't just about buildings and resources. Plato describes it as a complex society with its own laws, customs and political organization; It even had a powerful army, but in his The story of Atlantis begins as an ideal place and then becomes corrupted and finally falls. Plato includes precise scientific information in the story and this is what archeology ignores when it says that everything is a made-up fantasy story and that it has to do with that 1B meltwater pulse. that I mentioned that, uh, that put an end to the youngest drers 11,600 years ago and raised sea levels enormously.
Now let's talk about the theory that connects the rishat structure, also known as the eye of the Sahara, with the legendary city of Atlantis, as described by Plato. It's a pretty fascinating topic, especially the ideas presented by Jimmy Corsetti. This is where it gets interesting. Corsetti and some others have pointed out that these rings bear a striking resemblance to Plato's Atlantis, which in his dialogues tus and critius was described as having similar concentric circles of earth. and water Now, while geologists understand these rings in the rishat structure as a result of natural erosion processes, the similarity to the mythical Atlantis has sparked quite a bit of interest and speculation when comparing the size of the rishat structure to what Plato described there for Atlantis.
There appear to be some parallels, although there are notable differences in the exact measurement. Corsetti's theory even suggests that changes such as erosion over time could have altered the appearance of the rishat structure, possibly bringing it closer to what Plato described, but here is an important twist in the story: the rishat structure. It is right in the middle of the Sahara Desert, while Plato's Atlantis was described as an island in the Atlantic Ocean. This stark difference in iCal's geographic context has led to some interesting speculation. Some theorists propose that the landscape around the rishat structure could have been very different in the past possibly closer to water or even more hospitable than the Sahara we know today and have been shown writings of the priests on the Walls and told what they said those writings and the priests then unravel the entire history of Atlantis and tell how there was this great advanced civilization, which at one time was extremely beneficial and positive for the world, but which lost harmony with the universe, the eye of the Sahara is all An archaeological gold mine, a variety of artifacts have been found in this particular region.
It was found to shed light on the lives of people who lived there thousands of years ago. We are talking about stone tools such as arrowheads, scrapers and axes that were probably used for hunting and making these tools tells us a lot about their daily activities and skills. ancient people, then there is pottery, finding pottery shards in the area is like taking a look at their domestic life, it shows that they had developed pottery making skills, which is very important to understand the cultural and technological progress of any civilization, And you know. Even more intriguing, there are hints of more permanent forms of settlement, although it is not definitive, the remains of structures could mean that it was not just nomadic people passing through, but a community that settled, but this is where it is found. becomes really interesting.
Rock paintings and engravings. These are found on the cliff walls and in the caves around the rishat structure. The artwork is not only beautiful, it is like a storybook of ancient life. There are paintings of animals such as antelopes, elephants and giraffes that suggest a time when the Sahara was teeming with wildlife. They are human figures depicted in various activities that give us a glimpse into their social and cultural practices and the symbols and abstract designs could even indicate their spiritual beliefs. Dating these rock arts can be complicated, but many are believed to be from the Neolithic period, this suggests That the region had a thriving community during that time is not just about finding old things but about reconstructing the history of human occupation and development in the area.
The presence of these artifacts and works of art indicates that there was a stable human population in the area. sometime in The possibility of permanent settlements, although unconfirmed, is certainly tantalizing and calls for more extensive archaeological investigation. These findings are like pieces of a puzzle that help us understand the prehistoric Sahara, which was once a greener and more hospitable place than it is today. They tell a story of human adaptation. and migration of how people responded to the climate changes that turned the Sahara into the desert we know now is not just about the history of a particular region, but about contributing to the rich tapestry of African prehistory and understanding the diversity and complexity of primitive human societies.
On the continent, isn't it amazing how much we can learn about our past from things left in the sands of time? The Amazon basin has an area of ​​7 million square kilometers and within it 52 million square kilometers remain almost entirely unstudied by archaeologists. We have done world archeology but we have simply ignored the Amazon. What we find in the Amazon are thousands of henges that are now beginning to emerge from the cleared area of ​​​​the jungle and others that have been identified for the first time with lying discoveries. of ancient civilizations in the Amazon rainforest have revealed a complex and sophisticated history that challenges previous assumptions about the region.
These discoveries were made through a combination of aerial surveys, satellite images and ground expeditions that reveal the existence of large, well-planned urban settlements, extensive road networks and outposts. Agricultural techniques suggesting a much higher level of social organization and environmental management than previously thought, the Kuhikugu complex in the upper Shingu region of the Brazilian Amazon offers incredible insight into the advanced urban planning and social organization of civilizations. pre-Columbian long before European contact was established. In the remote Amazon basin in present-day M Gro Brazil, this area is a treasure trove of biodiversity. The dense tropical forests and network of rivers likely played a key role in the development and sustenance of this complex society covering approximately 50 square kilometers.
The kui kugu complex. It is home to over 20 settlements, these are not simply randomly located, but are strategically located to make the most of the region's natural resources. What is fascinating is how these settlements are connected. Imagine a series of straight roads, some of which extend for several kilometers, arranged with such precision that they often align with the cardinal directions, this not only facilitated travel but also showed a high level of planning andcoordination. Then there's the canal system, an impressive display of hydraulic engineering that was probably used for everything from transportation to water management and maybe even fish farming.
The variety of structures within the complex is equally notable, from large public buildings and ceremonial spaces to individual houses, the architecture reflects a hierarchy in construction techniques that hint at different social or functional roles within society and, speaking of society, Estimates suggest that at its peak, the Kuhikugu could have supported a whopping 30,000 to 50,000 people. This is deduced from the large number of residential structures and expanse of agricultural land along the Amazon. Reported seeing incredible cities Arts and Crafts advanced millions of people a thriving culture the rediscovery of the kokugo complex in the amazon is a fascinating story that combines modern technology with traditional archaeology.
Initially, this hidden gem was revealed through aerial surveys and satellite images. Imagine flying over the dense Amazon rainforest and suddenly seeing the outlines of an ancient civilization; Then, archaeologists like Michael Heckenberger and his team took charge of the realization. In extensive ground excavations, they employed advanced techniques such as liar, which is like X-ray vision for archaeologists to see through the forest canopy and map the area accurately. Now let's talk about the antiquity of this place using carbon dating, a method of determining the age of artifacts and Soil

scientist

s

discovered

that people lived at the kuhikugu complex for several centuries, dating back to 800 AD. and they found all kinds of things, like ceramic stone tools and ornaments, that give us an insight into the daily life and creativity of the people who lived there. here's the kicker Before finding kuhikugu many thought that the Amazon was mostly an untouched desert before the Europeans arrived, but this discovery changed that idea by showing that the area was home to a large and complex society, it's like find a hidden chapter of history in your The backyard of this place shows us that humans had a huge impact on the Amazon much earlier than we thought, they even created their own super fertile soil called Tera praa, which is still rich and productive today.
The really interesting thing about kuhikugu is how it shows that the people there knew how to live sustainably, they had advanced agricultural practices, they managed water well and lived in harmony with their environment. It's as if they were ecological before it was fashionable. This discovery also made us rethink the role of indigenous societies in the Amazon it turns out that they knew a lot about how to manage the land and shape the landscape, it is a reminder of how important it is to value and learn from indigenous knowledge and finally, the current biodiversity in the Amazon could be due partly to these ancient civilizations, to the variety of plants near these archaeological sites.
The sites are much more than in other areas of the distant forest. The Amazon is basically a garden. The Amazon is an artificial rainforest. There are certain trees like Brazil nuts or ice beans, which are food crops that are very, very valuable. Maro Island at the mouth of the Amazon River is like a time capsule that takes us back to the Marara culture, a sophisticated civilization from around 800 to 14400 AD. Imagine an island almost as big as Switzerland right at the meeting point of a river in the ocean, this place with its mix of forests, savannas and wetlands is not only large but also incredibly diverse, it is the perfect setting for the Marua people Thrive by providing everything from food to resources for your unique lifestyle.
Now the Marua culture is something special, they were known for their artistic touch. especially their ceramic vessels and plates with intricate designs, complex patterns and images of animals and people. They weren't doing them just for fun. Pottery was a big part of their culture and beliefs, like the large, beautifully decorated NS they used for burials. They had quite complex ideas about life, death and everything in between, but it's not just their art that's fascinating. They built these huge lands and mounds more than 10 m high. Think about it, that's like stacking three buses on top of each other.
These mounds were probably used. for everything from homes to ceremonial sites and could have even protected them from frequent flooding. This shows that they were quite intelligent engineers and architects who adapted in style to their challenging environment, the way they organized their society was also something notable, it seems that there were a clear hierarchy with some people leading the way in resource management and religious practices and they had different roles for men and women, which we can deduce from the things they left behind. Now let's talk about your farming skills. They were ahead of their time.
They created raised fields to keep their crops safe from flooding. Their diet was a mix of what they grew. along with the fishing and hunting of the surrounding area and they were clever in managing the water with their canals and ditches, which was quite crucial in a place that floods a lot. Santa right where the tapa horse meets the Amazon River is a fascinating place, especially if you think about its history this place was like the Grand Central Station of its time, full of commerce and culture, ships coming and going carrying all kinds of goods and ideas from different parts of South America.
The area around Santarem was rich in resources that helped the settlement. Prosper Now, Santa's people were known for their amazing pottery. We're talking about really intricate designs. Here geometric patterns, images of people and animals and even mythical beings. The level of detail in these pots and plates is simply mind-blowing and was. It's not just about looking good, these designs tell us a lot about their culture and beliefs. The way they made this pottery was quite advanced. In addition, they had techniques for molding, firing and painting that were far ahead of their time, the variety of colors and the way they used them.
The glazes show that they really knew what they were doing when it came to chemistry and kiln construction. It's as if they are master pottery chefs knowing exactly how to cook the perfect piece. Santarem was more than just a local market, it was a cultural center, the different styles and motifs on the pottery suggest that they were mixing with all kinds of cultures and not only trading goods, but probably also exchanging stories, ideas and practices. The city itself, from what we can see from the ruins, was quite well organized. They had different areas for living, working and probably for community gatherings or ceremonies.
It's like they have their own urban planning, but going back to the pottery, it's not just about how it was made, but what it tells us about the people of Santarem. a peak in their daily lives what they valued and how they connected with others the geoglyphs in the amazon, especially in the brazilian states of aa and rondonia, are like a

secret

world that has been hidden under the dense forest canopy for centuries, It wasn't until the late 20th and early 21st centuries, primarily due to deforestation, these incredible workers of the earth began to come to light thanks to technology like satellite imagery and lidar, which is basically like having vision.
X-rays from space. More than 450 of these geoglyphs have been mapped. This discovery has completely changed our view of how people lived in the Amazon before Columbus. Now these are not just a few lines on the earth. We are talking about huge designs that can stretch over a Coler and cover several square kilometers. They come in all kinds of shapes. circles squares rectangles and more intricate shapes, some even have patterns like radial spokes that increase their complexity. The large size of these geoglyphs hints at a society that was really well organized and could bring a lot of people together to create these massive works, but how did it do it?
They make them well. They would remove the top layer of soil and vegetation, revealing the lighter-colored Earth beneath. This contrast made the design stand out when viewed from above. They appear to have used a variety of tools made from materials such as stone, bone, and wood. The precision in these geoglyphs shows that they were not only skilled but also had serious planning skills. Some of these geoglyphs align with astronomical events such as solstices and equinoxes, suggesting that they could have been used to track celestial events or for ceremonial or religious purposes. groups of people gathering at these geoglyphs for festivals or rituals, it must have been quite a sight, but here's the really interesting part: these geoglyphs tell us that societies in the Amazon before the arrival of Europeans were much more complex than previously thought. that we thought could modify their environment.
It was large in scale and had a social structure where leaders could organize large projects and despite the size of these geoglyphs, they were done in a way that respected and integrated with the surrounding landscape, so discovering these geoglyphs has really changed our Understanding the history of the Amazon. It is no longer seen simply as a vast untouched wilderness, but as a place where complex organized societies lived and actively shaped their world. It's a reminder of how much history there is still to discover and how much we can learn from it, but before the Aztecs and before the Mayans there was a culture referred to as Almax.
The history of settlement in the Americas is much more complicated. What we know what we've realized and what DNA is doing is telling us that there was something really strange, strange, strange, strange, in the late 19th century and early 20th century, there was a growing fascination with ancient civilizations, particularly in the Victorian era, this interest was driven by a mix of cultural trends, colonization and a certain romantic appeal. Wedded to the discovery of lost cultures, major institutions such as museums and universities, primarily in Europe and the United States, began funding expeditions to unearth ancient artifacts and understand the history of indigenous civilizations in the Americas.
It was a time when archeology began to evolve from simple treasure hunting to a more scientific approach focused on careful excavation and detailed analysis. One of the things I have realized is that there is no classic Native American characteristic that Native Americans have a very complex genetic history with many different elements incorporated. Interestingly, during this period, many artifacts, especially the colossal heads and stone structures found in the Olch region, were often mistakenly attributed to other known civilizations such as the Mayans or the Aztecs. Because the unique aspects of MCH art and iconography were not immediately recognized, in part due to the lack of a general framework for understanding the history of the region before Columbus, a pair of notable explorers, John Lloyd Stevens and Frederick Catherwood, played an important role in sparking interest in Mesoamerican cultures with their explorations and writings, particularly their books about travels to Central America and Yucatan, their detailed accounts and illustrations captured the public imagination, sparking a wave of interest in These ancient cultures, while primarily focused on the Mayans, their approach to systematically documenting their findings and combining travel narratives with academic observations greatly influenced future archaeologists who studied Mesoamerica.
Archaeologists have known for quite some time that there are anomalous skulls in parts of Brazil that appear to show very strongly Polynesian or African features very similar to the characteristics we see on the heads of the Tech. At this time there was also a trend in comparative archeology where They compared discoveries from different parts of the world, which helped place Mesoamerican civilizations in a global context. Museums began to move from simply storing artifacts to becoming centers. of research and education playing a crucial role in the dissemination of knowledge about ancient cultures, this era also marked the beginning of interdisciplinary AR approaches in archeology that integrate fields such as anthropology, linguistics and early forms of environmental sciences. .
This broader, more inclusive approach helped rebuild a more comprehensive understanding. of ancient civilizations, including the intriguing and complex MCH culture, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when Western archaeologists were exploring the mesoam, they began to find these enormous stone heads, some of them measuring over 9 feet tall and They weighed several tons with distinctive characteristics such as flatness. fleshy noses and cheeks often adorned with helmet-like headdresses, but here's the thing, despite their impressive size andunique features, their true cultural significance was not immediately understood, what they are most famous for are these huge carved human heads, uh, which may be on a scale. up to 20 to 25 tons that have curious characteristics that have been variously interpreted as African Polynesian that do not resemble classic Native American characteristics.
One of the first significant finds was made by José Melgar Sano in 1862 in Tes zapotes in Veracruz. He unearthed what we now know as one of the first ancient colossal heads, Melgar Sano even described the head with Ethiopian features, which tells us a lot about the perceptions and prejudices of that time, but and this is crucial, his discovery did not really generate A broader understanding of Olch culture immediately for a long time these heads were seen more as intriguing oddities than pieces of a larger cultural puzzle. It took several decades and much more research before the significance of these heads really began to be appreciated.
Initially, many people thought that the artifacts could belong to other known civilizations such as the Mayan or Aztec because the idea that the MCH was a distinct early Mesoamerican civilization had not taken shape, but it was not until the mid-20th century with more systematic excavations. led by archaeologists such as Matthew Sterling. As the true picture began to emerge, they found more colossal heads and other artifacts and this really helped establish the MCH as a significant and influential civilization in its own right, predating and possibly even influencing others like the Mayans and Aztecs back in 1945. A major expedition led by a guy named Matthew Sterling took place, he and his team headed to San Lorenzo right in the heart of what was once MCH territory.
This wasn't just any adventure, it was a big deal because the Smithsonian Institution was backing it. They saw the potential to discover more about alch sites that could really shed some light on Mesoamerican prehistory. Before Sterling got there, they had snooped around the area a bit, mainly because people kept finding these huge stone heads. These finds were intriguing, but I can't give the full picture, so in comes Sterling, who was already quite well known in archeology circles and had a real gift for Mesoamerican cultures. He was the perfect guy to take on such a complex task now that it was not an easy job, the siege of San Lorenzo.
It was in this tropical area covered by thick jungle, getting to the site and starting to dig was a big challenge, they had to clear a lot of jungle without ruining any artifacts that might be hidden there and let me tell you the weather didn't make it any easier. To make things easier, it was humid, unpredictable, and not the best for keeping ancient artifacts in one piece. The site itself was huge, stretching for several kilometres. Sterling and his team had to figure out where to start digging because there was no way they could cover it. Throughout the area they did an initial survey that required a lot of time and planning and then decided on the most promising places to start digging.
They had to be very careful with how they dug things up. The artifacts were old and fragile, especially in the humidity. They had to keep track of everything they found, where they found it, and all the details, which was crucial to understanding the site later. It wasn't something the Mayans invented. The alchs used the same symbolism, so the Mayan calendar is actually an allet calendar. What they found in San Lorenzo was surprising. It turned out to be one of the oldest large cities in Mesoamerica, dating from around 1200 to 900 BC. C., even before civilizations like the Meer and the Aztec, with which most people are familiar with the artifacts they unearthed.
Especially those huge stone heads were a big deal, they were carved from individual bass blocks and had all these unique facial features. It was clear that the people who made them were incredibly skilled. All of this hard work on San Lorenzo really helped piece together the history of Alme giving us a clearer timeline and showing how complex and advanced their society was by diving deeper into San Lorenzo which is very important when it comes to understanding civilization, it is considered the oldest major city in Mesoamerica and dates back to around 1200 to 900. BCE, that is long before other famous civilizations like Meer and Aztec, radiocarbon dating was key here, it helped archaeologists to pin down the siege's timeline, providing a much clearer picture of when the Olchs were doing their thing.
Now the most famous things found in San Lorenzo are definitely the colossal heads, these huge sculptures were carved from individual basal blocks and are known for their unique facial features such as Armen-shaped eyes and wide noses. Many of them also have these intricate headdresses that could have been a sign of high status or have some kind of ceremonial purpose, but there is still a lot of debate about what all the symbols mean. The size of these heads is simply mind-boggling, some measuring up to 3m tall and weighing around 50 tonnes. Imagine the skill it took to carve them, but it wasn't just the On their heads they found Jade figures and a lot of different styles of pottery that tell us a lot about the art of their daily life and even the trade in Jade things suggests that they had trade networks because Jade was not lying everywhere and in the buildings they found large structures like platforms and what could have been houses for the elite this points to a society that was very well organized and had the resources to build large The shape The way San Lorenzo was laid out is also fascinating, it had a central axis indicating that the city was carefully planned, there were separate areas for ceremonies and housing, showing a sophisticated urban structure and hinting at a social hierarchy.
All this about San Lorenzo has been super important for understanding the old people, it has given us a much clearer timeline of their civilization and showed how complex their society was, the variety in artifacts, from colossal heads to ceramics, shows that not only were they skilled at stone carving but they also had artists and craftsmen who were really good at what they did, it's as if San Lorenzo has given a window into a past world showing us how they lived, worked and created These ancient peoples After the exciting discoveries at San Lorenzo in the 1940s, archaeologists turned their attention to Lena, another keych site in Tabasco, Mexico, in the 1950s.
This change was very important because Lena offered a new window into the MCH world known as one of the first complex societies in Mesoamerica. Explorations here were more focused and methodical thanks to archaeologists such as Philip Ducker and Robert Heiser. These guys weren't just digging, they brought techniques from Other fields like anthropology and geology provide a more complete picture of slow civilization. It is very important to understand the heyday of the culture. The site was at its peak around 900 to 400 BC. C., a time when the Olchs really showed their artistic and architectural skills. One of the most prominent features of Lenten is the Great Pyramid, it is not like the pyramids of Egypt, this one is made of earth and clay and has a unique conical shape, it was one of the largest structures in ancient Mesoamerica at that time, which which tells us that the mxs were quite good at organizing large construction projects the pyramid was probably more than just a large building, it is believed that it was a key place for ceremonies or religious activities, something like the heart of the ritual life of MCH by The way they built it and other structures in slow motion and the way they aligned them with the astronomical bodies shows that they were quite knowledgeable about engineering and astronomy.
It was probably a bustling cultural center where important ceremonies and meetings occurred. When archaeologists began digging at a slow speed, they did things a little differently than before. They were super systematic in their approach. They relied on the soil layers and context of each artifact they found, but they had a lot of work ahead of them. The tropical climate and the fact that many Allme structures were made from Earth really made preserving and understanding these Vines difficult. They had to be meticulous in recording. Everything they unearthed, which has been a gold mine for future analysis, is now, as in San Lorenzo Lenda, famous for its enormous bass heads carved into enormous rocks.
It is believed that these heads are representations of MCH rulers or other bigwigs in their society, but there is more. The site is filled with altars with intricate carvings depicting people, animals and all kinds of symbolic scenes. It's like taking a look at their mythology and rituals, and then there's Slow Jade which showed off a ton of Jade artifacts, from beautifully carved figurines to Kelts. just pretty things to look at, they showed how skilled the olchs were and hinted to Ed about long trade networks as Jade was not just lying nearby but this is where it gets really interesting, the burial sites they found were complex with all sorts of elaborate practices that I also found mosaic pavements made of serpentine and various offerings that probably had deep religious meaning.
All this slow material has been very important to reconstruct who the alchs were, their social structure, religious beliefs and artistic talents; However, keeping Lenter in good shape for future studies is a challenge: the view fights against natural elements and human factors, so preserving this incredible place is crucial not only for archeology fans, but also for understanding a part key to human history. It will mean a 1200 mile journey over Rock and Sand on camel and foot vehicles and it is a dangerous journey they call it the land of fear takes its name from the Arabic word for void Al Zahara which is the vast area that was submerged during the end of the I AG has never been studied by archeology at all and they're not in a position to say that they know that there is no possibility of a civilization lost during the Ice Age until they have investigated those 27 million square kilometers that are now under the water, when they have not investigated the Sahara desert, when we think.
We think of the Sahara Desert as infinite sand, but what really lies beneath all the sand, the Sahara Desert, is like a time machine that preserves the ancient history of the Earth, beneath all that sand, the Nubian civilization that flourishes in what is now Sudan and southern Egypt is an incredible chapter. of History that is often not as prominent as it should be this civilization that spanned from around 2 2000 BC. C. until 350 AD. C. shows us how advanced and rich in culture, architecture and politics an ancient society could be. Imagine a civilization that lasted more than two years.
Millennia that peaked during various periods such as the Kerma kingdom, the Napatan period, and the Meroitic period. Nubia was strategically located along the Nile River, stretching from the first cataract in southern Egypt to the sixth cataract in central Sudan. This privileged location along the Nile was not only to show that it played a very important role in establishing Nubia as a powerhouse of trade and economic activity. They were known for their abundant gold mines, which practically made them the ideal place for luxury items such as ivory and ebony incense. These products were highly sought after in both sub-Saharan Africa and the Mediterranean world making Nubia a crucial center in ancient trade networks.
In fact, that was one of the main arguments that the archaeological police used to try to dismiss John West and Robert. They said to show us another culture that is 12,000 years old. anywhere in the world and we could listen to you, but we know that there is no culture capable of creating something like the Sphinx until 4,500 years ago, so of course the Sphinx was 4,500 years ago, but of course that changed completely with Gobec Kei which is a buried site deliberately buried 11,600 years ago now let's talk about Nubia's relationship with ancient Egypt it was nothing short of complex and fascinating the interactions ranged from trade and cultural exchanges to direct wars and conquests there were times when The Nubian pharaohs actually ruled Egypt, especially during the 25th Dynasty, this period is a testament to the strength and influence of Nubia in the region.
The Nubian kingdoms located along the Nile in what is now Sudan and southern Egypt truly tell us an incredibly rich history, full of architectural wonders, let's take a closer look. Seeing what made these kingdoms so notable, starting with Kerma which dates back to approximately 2500-1500 BC, it is fascinating to think that this was the first statecentralized in Nubia. It was more than just a political center. Its strategic location on the Nile made it a breeding ground for The architecture here was also quite unique, with large mud brick structures called defas. Their purpose, well, it is still a mystery whether they were temples, palaces or something else, and let's not forget the artistry in their pottery and crafts, especially the red wear with black cover and their work with ivory and gold, then it is nepata around the year 1300 BC C., which really left its mark as a cultural and religious center.
This is where nuia began to exert its influence over Egypt, especially during the 25th dynasty. Think of the temple of Amun at Napata, it was not. Just a religious site but a pivotal place influencing Nubian culture and politics and royal burials from this time with pyramids at sites such as Eluru and Nuuri show how much they were influenced by Egyptian culture fast forward to around 300 BC. c. 350 AD. C. and we see how the capital changes From Napata to Meo, this movement was not only geographical, but also meant a change in political and cultural power. Meoi was a center for arts and industry known especially for its iron industry and the development of Meroitic writing, one of the first African written languages ​​outside of Part of the problem with the Egyptian hieroglyphic system is that very ancient structures, thousands of years Older than archaeologists assume, they may be hidden in plain sight surrounded by other younger structures and the best example of that is the Great Sphinx of Giza and these two temples.
These two temples in front of it, this Temple is simply a New Kingdom Temple, much later even than the accepted date of the Sphinx, but that was about 4,500 years ago, but the Sphinx and these two temples are deeply anomalous. Now let's talk about the architectural wonders. of Nubia, the pyramids, yes, Nubia had over 200 pyramids, mostly concentrated in places like eluru Nuri and Meo, these were not like the Egyptian pyramids we often think of, they were smaller with steeper sides and often They featured elaborate carvings and hieroglyphs, these pyramids were royal tombs and the burial chambers beneath them were often richly decorated.
These larger royal cemetery pyramid complexes included temples and chapels of Mory that showed a deep belief in the afterlife. The Garaman civilization centered in what is now the Feden region of southwestern Libya is a real eye-opener on how advanced ancient societies were. In environments as challenging as the Sahara, this area known for its oasis environments was crucial to the sustenance of life and the Garamantes were quite ingenious in adapting to these harsh conditions, so if we imagine this between 500 BC and 500 BC. C. and 700 AD. C., the Garamantes were at their peak. It wasn't just a flash in the pan, it was a long period of development and stability.
They were ahead of their time in agricultural techniques, urban planning, and establishing far-reaching trade networks. It's like they are the ancient masters of making the desert work for them in archaeology. Excavations in the region unearthed some very interesting things to start with, they found these elaborate tombs that really say a lot about their beliefs in the afterlife. Something that many ancient civilizations had in common. The complexity and size of these tombs also tell us that there was a social hierarchy. With different levels of wealth and status, the goods buried with the deceased give us insight into their cultural practices and beliefs.
The ruins of the Garamantian cities are something out of an ancient urban planner's dream. They had organized street designs that show a high level of social organization. and civil engineering skills, what is most impressive are their water management systems in a place as dry as the Sahara, they managed to create reservoirs and irrigation systems that were crucial for their survival and agricultural activities, they also had defensive structures that gave to understand that they were prepared for potential threats. Now let's talk about trade, they found Roman coins at the excavation sites, which means that the Garamantes had trade connections with the Roman Empire.
Imagine the caravans coming and going through the desert. They also found Egyptian amulets and items from sub-Saharan Africa showing that their trade network was vast. and varied, the diversity of products found at these sites underlines their role as an important commercial center and their interactions with different cultures. And curiously, near Kusco we have this curious masonry and we also have it in Al lakah hoyak in Turkey, exactly the same. What kind of thing is this a coincidence or is there something going on behind the scenes of the story that we haven't been fully informed about yet? um and and interestingly these patterns these T-shaped pillars that we see in gobec Tei are repeated in The Temple of Edfu in Upper Egypt and also in Peru, now in Tacy Njer in Algeria, it is truly one of those places that transports you in the time to the early days of human civilization, located in the southeast of Algeria, right in the heart of the Sahara desert this area is a treasure trove of history imagine these vast sandstone formations cliffs deep valleys and rock shelters it is not just a landscape impressive natural these features have been key in the preservation of incredible prehistoric rock art now let's talk about this rock art that is not just a few drawings here and there, we are talking about works of art that date back to the Neolithic period, some from 12,000 years ago years,

discovered

by a French military expedition in the 1930s.
These paintings give us a fascinating insight into the lives of the people who lived. Back then there were human figures, wild and domestic animals, and scenes depicting everything from hunting and gathering to dances and rituals. What's really interesting is how the art changes over time, starting with wild animals and hunting scenes and gradually moving to domesticated livestock and herding. It's like a visual story of how these ancient people went from hunting and gathering to herding, but it's not just about the art: archaeologists have found all kinds of tools and pottery in Tacel Naer, indicating that people have been living here for thousands of years.
These artifacts range from simple stone tools used by hunter-gatherers to more sophisticated items linked to settled communities. It's amazing how much you can learn about past lifestyles and technological progress just by looking at these objects. Now let's not forget to preserve this incredible site. Tasil Najer was declared world by UNESCO. heritage site at 198 2, which is fantastic because it helps garner the necessary support for its preservation, but keeping this site in good condition is not easy, the art faces threats from natural erosion and potentially even climate change, plus there is the impact of tourism. Tourism raises awareness and funds for preservation, but it also means more people walk around these precious works of art.
When you think of the Sahara Desert today it's all about vast expanses of sand and scorching heat, but believe it or not, this wasn't always the case. In this case, there is a whole history hidden beneath those dunes and it has been discovered through the study of fossils and isotope analysis, so let's dive into this hidden past. The Sahara has found fossils of all types of aquatic life. We are talking about fish, mollusks and even plants, and these are not just any old fossils, they are often found in excellent condition. Which is pretty wild considering they've been under the desert for years.
These fossils were preserved because they were quickly buried under sediments in ancient lakes and rivers that kept them safe from decay and the dating of these fossils dates back millions of years. Throughout the history of environmental change in the Sahara, these fossils now tell us a lot about what the Sahara used to be like. Fish fossils suggest there were rivers and lakes around, while seashells hint at the possibility of larger bodies of water, perhaps even shallow seas, for added variety. The number of species points to a time when the Sahara was home to rich and diverse ecosystems, but this is where it gets even more interesting: these fossils are not just found in one place, but are all over the Sahara, which means that these bodies of water were widespread in satellite images. and geological studies have even mapped ancient river systems that line up with where these fossils were found and there is a lot of variation in the types and quantities of fossils in different areas showing how diverse the climate and environment was across the Sahara. , then there is isotope analysis which is like a detective tool to discover past climates by looking at the ratios of certain isotopes in sediment layers, scientists can calculate past temperatures and precipitation.
Higher ratios of oxygen 18, for example, generally mean more evaporation, which points to warmer, drier periods. Carbon isotopes can tell us about the types of plants that were around by giving clues about how much rain there was. This isotope analysis has been very useful in understanding how the Saharan climate has changed over time. It shows variations in rainfall, which helps reconstruct the history of how the Sahara. went from lush and green to the desert we know today and it's not just the Sahara, this data fits into the bigger picture of global climate events like ice ages, so in a nutshell, the Sahara's past It is very different from its present, which was once a place with rivers, lakes and a variety of life.
It is now the iconic desert, but thanks to fossils and isotope analysis we can glimpse its green past and understand the changes that led to its current state. It's a fascinating reminder of how much our planet can change over time.

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