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Onboard the SpaceX Starship 2.0 in Detail - What it takes to go to Mars | Detailed Breakdown

Apr 04, 2024
In 2015, when Spacex made its first successful finale, going to Mars was still a big question mark, however, now that the final tests of Starship 2.0 are underway and we can clearly see

what

it looks like, one would not You can avoid wondering

what

the inside of the ship will be like. It will be like in this video, we will explore what it

takes

to make a safe 6-month trip to Mars, discuss the needs of astronauts and speculate on concepts of the interior of a

starship

using leaked information and extrapolating data on previous technologies such as the international space station and the space shuttle orbiter taking into account the design rules established by NASA during its many decades of research and development.
onboard the spacex starship 2 0 in detail   what it takes to go to mars detailed breakdown
Hello everyone, subject zero here, the design of the ship follows two guiding functional needs: zero gravity and low gravity environment, logically, each floor must be designed to satisfy these two needs plus the survival and psychological need of the astronauts, Naturally, all life support systems will be located on the lower levels along with all hardware tools, among other equipment crucial for space travel and life on Mars. The upper floors are for living. areas and the flight deck A good spacecraft design should follow simple rules, easy to use and solve problems that may arise during the trip, they should be identified quickly and be easy to solve by anyone on board if complex problems arise, crew anxiety and stress can lead to major problems that put the mission at risk.
onboard the spacex starship 2 0 in detail   what it takes to go to mars detailed breakdown

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onboard the spacex starship 2 0 in detail what it takes to go to mars detailed breakdown...

Lastly, everything on the ship must be monitored with visual information available on all floors, especially CO2 levels, the user interface must be clear and simple to understand, maintaining astronauts' vitality during a six-month trip is a challenge, although travel times must be strived for. To finish around a six month time frame, the resources on board the spacecraft should be sufficient for at least 8 months or 240 days, the first missions will most likely be composed of a crew of 10 people for reasons that will be evident by the end of the video note that the maximum mass that can be lifted into low earth orbit is 100 tons with a diameter of 9 meters and a height of 50 meters the crew will have about 17 by 9 meters of divided living space on six floors Although the final configuration may vary drastically from what is presented here, this concept is intended to give you a clear idea of ​​what is possible.
onboard the spacex starship 2 0 in detail   what it takes to go to mars detailed breakdown
The first floor of the ship, just above the fuel tanks, is where most of the storage is located, the oxygen and hydrogen tanks. will be kept right next to the dual-zone airlock to the retractable external lift platform, which could be spacious enough to store a Tesla Model 3 or any vehicle with those dimensions, other machinery needed to maintain the support systems vital equipment, food, tools, among other equipment, will probably be stored on the second level, six months of weightlessness can seriously damage the health of astronauts located on the third floor a gym equipped with several multipurpose zero gravity machines and treadmills for training and exercises also available on the same floor bathing and toilet facilities are now important To highlight that, since the spacecraft will be the main living space for the astronauts when they arrive on Mars, the bathroom and bathroom will have to be designed for use in zero gravity and low Martian gravity, so it will most likely look like a design from your normal shower cabin, however, once on Mars, normal water is one of the most precious resources, so forget about Shower the same way you do on Earth, located on the fourth floor, the crew capsules are specially designed to meet the needs of astronauts during zero and Martian gravity. gravity now, the configuration of this floor can be changed according to the needs of the trip to shorten the trip, like to the moon for example, this floor could be configured to accommodate more people, since traveling to Mars is longer.
onboard the spacex starship 2 0 in detail   what it takes to go to mars detailed breakdown
Privacy and comfort are favored on the fifth floor. where the crew gathers to share meals and enjoy some leisure time, since it is a long trip to Mars, having some type of entertainment is essential, not only that, but this floor is designed to give the astronauts more space to relieve them of the tightness. of living aboard a spaceship and, to the extent possible, simulating some of the most pleasant terrestrial experiences. On the upper deck we have the flight deck. The flight deck level is specially designed to accommodate the entire crew at once and will be used primarily to monitor the status of the ship.
During launch and landing, an astronaut consumes about 2.5 kilograms of food, about 3 liters of water, drinks and 1 kilogram of oxygen per day, the food is freeze-dried and packaged in meal-sized portions. It is done that way for three main reasons: to remove water, which significantly reduces its mass to decrease storage space and to preserve food packages are organized in boxes containing about 10 kilocalories or about 4 days of food, assuming a package dimension of 10 by 30 by 25 centimeters and multiplying by the number of days for 8 months we obtain 60 Boxes of water and drinks add up to 720 liters and oxygen up to 273 kilograms, multiply it by 10 and the storage challenge is evident.
Fortunately, Starship 2.0 has plenty of space, however the only limitation here is that the mass food alone adds up to 6 tons if we had to have food for 5 years, which is the longevity of the mission, we are talking about 45 tons which is almost half the total mass of the launch and don't forget everything is freeze dried the other half is water you basically need a spaceship just for food and water to keep 10 astronauts alive for 5 years clearly We need better solutions no matter how much we try to avoid this issue, let's be honest, if you eat poop, astronauts are expected to produce around 31 kilograms of feces each during the six months of traveling, although the amount of feces is not a big problem , storing the gases produced by fermentation can become a big problem, it can literally turn the container into a poop bomb.
On the plus side, everything humans take to Mars is extremely valuable, including excrement. Recycling is key. Introducing the complete change concept of recycling human waste traveling to Mars and its colonization will require a large amount of recycling that does not require water. The food changing concept is based on torification, which effectively burns any organic waste at 573 kelvin, releasing mainly water, CO2 and everything else is converted to carbon, there is a problem with this method, although its products must be handled with care , if organic waste turns into a big brick of carbon, no problem now, if it turns into dust and becomes airborne, breathing that stuff is not good then. comes oxygen a cryotank of liquid oxygen can carry up to 307 kilograms in a tank that measures 50 by 163 centimeters one tank is more than enough for each astronaut however the mass of the tank adds up to 402 kilograms eight tanks are enough for the crew adding up to 3, 2 tons at the end of the journey most of the oxygen will be converted into CO2, which must be constantly removed or cleaned from the atmosphere.
CO2 levels must be kept below 0.025 percent. Astronauts produce an average of one kilogram of CO2 per day. Robust ventilation. A system located on each floor of the ship will be necessary to recycle the CO2 air scrubbers located on the second floor. They will work tirelessly to maintain those levels. The system chosen for this effort must meet two criteria: Low maintenance and the ability to work continuously for thousands of hours over the past decade, NASA has been developing a robust air conditioning system designed to do exactly that through a system called carbon dioxide capture in the spacecraft atmosphere by deposition or CDEP for short, this machine basically exploits the difference in freezing temperatures of said water, CO2 and oxygen.
A series of six of these machines can recover around 4 kilograms of CO2 per day. 10 astronauts will produce up to 12 kilograms, requiring around 18 machines. Now, at this point, you're probably wondering how all of this will fuel you during the subsequent trip. After several days of research, I came to the conclusion that electricity is most likely generated by a combination of three technologies: fuel cells, batteries and solar panels, while the last one is questionable. Arguably, the

starship

could have ports on the mid-level, just below the first floor, which would open up for solar panels to be deployed, the drawback with solar power in this case is that as you travel to Mars you are also moving away from the planet. sun and the inverse square law comes into effect basically meaning the further away from the sun the less energy is available to be captured to compensate you could simply use more solar panels however the ones used on the ISS measure 12 by 34 meters and generate around 220 watts per square meter if the spacecraft requires the same power as the ISS or 40 kilowatt hours on average.
The perimeter of the starship is only 28 meters, which means that the solar panels will have to be approximately 2 by 30 meters in length for a total of 6 panels. The ISS has 16. But it's no surprise that Spacex is still removing solar panels from newer versions of the starship. By the time it reaches Mars, our solar panel will only capture about 120 watts per square meter, meaning that instead of 30, the solar panel needs to be 2 by 55 meters, which will only add complexity to the craft. Clearly we need a simpler solution, fuel cells that convert hydrogen and oxygen into water is the best option for this endeavor, not only can it generate the energy requirements but, together with solar panels, can create a perpetual cycle of Energy production;
However, as mentioned above, solar energy is inconsistent along with its storage and storage complexity. Hydrogen fuel cells are not only more reliable, but they can also produce energy in a more compact space and produce water that can be used many ways. NASA developed technologies that are small and can produce up to 100 kilowatts per cell. The question now is how much hydrogen? and the oxygen we need for the mission, considering the specific energy of liquid hydrogen of 33.6 kilowatt hours per kilogram and an efficiency of 70 of the hydrogen fuel cell, about 1.7 kilograms of hydrogen are needed per day, which is equivalent to 408 kilograms for the mission, the problem is that it will need eight times more oxygen in equivalent mass or 14 kilograms per day, which is equivalent to 3.2 tons, while hydrogen can be stored in only two tanks.
For oxygen you will need about 10 adding the mass of the tanks and we arrive at 5 tons of fuel as backup in the same place where the solar panels would be located, there is enough space to store batteries. Up to 100 Tesla equivalent electric walls can be stored here, providing up to 1,350 kilowatt hours or enough backup power for 33 days, however many batteries will introduce 11 tons of mass taking that into account, if necessary, the number of batteries could be halved to 48 wall equivalents of energy, enough for a backup capacity of 16.2 days and only 5.5 tons of mass. Now that we enter the most complicated part of the mission, radiation damping is crucial.
It should be noted that water is an extremely effective radiation shield, along with any hydrogen-rich substance such as polyethylene and Kevlar, about three inches of water can reduce space radiation by half. Studies have shown that Kevlar and polyethylene can reduce radiation by more than fifty percent. developed a new type of plastic derived from polyethylene called RXF1 that has three times the tensile strength, is 2.6 times lighter than aluminum, and is about 50 percent better at stopping radiation. Now, according to NASA, aluminum with a thickness of 2.5 millimeters can stop about 50 percent of radiation. space radiation if we take this information into account a few calculations later and we would need an rxf1 layer of only two millimeters.
I know it's hard to imagine going to Mars and being protected from radiation with something so thin just for emotional convenience. let's make the walls about 5 centimeters, a wall that thick will add about 11.2 tons to the ship instead of storing all the water in tanks located on the lower levels,It would be prudent to have tanks located in the floor divisions, 20 centimeter thick tanks in each. The level would be optimal with a maximum capacity of 11.5 tons, as mentioned, the crew will need about 7.2 tons of water. The additional space available will be crucial for storing the water generated by the fuel cells.
Note that radiation in space comes mainly from the sun, so if the spacecraft is aligned at an angle where the tanks are pointing towards it, most of the radiation will be blocked at this point, all components have a combined mass of up to 55 tons or so, so I don't think you can fit more than 14 people on a ship effectively for every astronaut added 5 tons of mass are added the limiting factor is the recycling machines that require a lot of energy to do their job 20 people breathing inside the ship means 20 kilograms of CO2, which means 30 scrubbers, which means 60 co2 tanks and a lot of energy, hydrogen fuel cells, they are amazing for small groups, but not 20, 40 or 100.
If Elo Musk really wants to colonize Mars, there is no other option than to use nuclear energy, a topic I will explore. in my next video, well friends, that's it, we're done.

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