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NASA’s Giant Leaps, Past and Future: Saluting Apollo Heroes and Looking Forward to Artemis Missions

NASA’s Giant Leaps, Past and Future: Saluting Apollo Heroes and Looking Forward to Artemis Missions
just past a two-minute mark in the countdown t-minus one minute 54 seconds and counting our status board indicates that the oxidizer tanks in the second and third stages now have pressurized we continue to build up pressure in all three stages here at the last minute to prepare it for liftoff t minus 1 minute 35 seconds on the

Apollo

mission flight to land the first men on the moon all indications are coming in to the control center at this time indicate the earth roll 1 minute 25 seconds and counting our status board indicates the third stage completely pressurized waiting second mark has now been cast was on full internal power at the 52nd month in the compound garden system third one in Phillips 17 seconds leading up to the ignition sequence at eight point nine seconds they're approaching the 62nd month on the

Apollo

11 mission t-minus 50 seconds and counting we've had P minus 50 55 seconds and counting Neil Armstrong District where the bat that's been a real smooth compound we passed the 52nd month power transfer is complete for on internal power with the launch vehicle at the time forty seconds away on the

Apollo

11 football 20 seconds mentality t-minus 15 seconds guidance is internal 12 11 10 9 ignition sequence hi I'm Mike Collins 50 years ago Neil Armstrong Buzz Aldrin and I suited up in this very room at that time we were on our way to make history with

Apollo

11 the first lunar landing and there they are the men of

Apollo

11 immortalized in...
nasa s giant leaps past and future saluting apollo heroes and looking forward to artemis missions
bronze a seven-foot-tall statue outside the Saturn 5 Center at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida meanwhile inside the Saturn 5 Center we welcome you to our show about NASA's

giant

leaps

past and present hello everyone I'm Darryl nail and I'm Murray Lewis and we are sitting underneath the Saturn 5 rocket just behind us it's the most powerful ever flown the Saturn 5 7.6 million pounds of thrust propelled

Apollo

11 and a total of 24 American astronauts to the moon and America's next

giant

leap to the moon will blast off from right here in Florida and we have teams of Broadcasters astronauts and other guests across the country to help us honor history you see them there they will also help us project the

future

we'll take you to the Johnson Space Center in Houston the US Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville Alabama to Neil Armstrong's hometown of Wapakoneta Ohio to the Museum of Flight in Seattle and to some special guests hey is that Adam Savage there yeah for Mythbusters oh I see him there and they are on the National Mall in Washington DC and I'm Karen Fox from NASA just a few minutes we'll be talking live with

Apollo

11 astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins hi everyone Danyelle Dallas Russa and I'm beyond thrilled to be here at the Kennedy Space Center to be celebrating the

Apollo

11 anniversary where we're gonna be celebrating and taking your questions and comments on social media we're even going to be interviewing...
nasa s giant leaps past and future saluting apollo heroes and looking forward to artemis missions
people live at this Center if we don't get around to your questions or comments on this show don't worry we have a team on standby ready to respond to you all you have to do is remember to the hashtag

Apollo

50th all right thanks Danielle the 50th anniversary of

Apollo

11 is of course why we're here today we begin with our first look at the remarkable historic achievement that the whole world is celebrating that

giant

leap changed history and helped create the world we live in today okay retro go fight Oh guide go control go welcome go kids they go peacock Hill sergeant go Captain John work gofer undocking Armstrong Aldrin and Collins arrived at the moon on Saturday July 19 when we did get close and we rolled out and saw it for the first time it was it was a revelation it was gigantic it filled our entire window the next day Sunday July 20th was landing and a lot of anticipation we finally come to the day the moment that this is about to commence landing on the moon was absolutely the most difficult piece of any

Apollo

mission okay think about it as a controlled fall out of lunar orbit the problem is in this controlled fall out of orbit you only have enough fuel for one fry the trajectory had been wrong with they were targeted into this inhospitable place then it had to fly over this area at a high ford velocity then pitch up to slow down so they killed at

forward

velocity and then start down like a helicopter so now we're critical fuel state and that's...
nasa s giant leaps past and future saluting apollo heroes and looking forward to artemis missions
why the 60 second call was given and in the thirty second call 20 seconds okay engine stop ACA out of detent tokoto both autos even a command override off and then I'm off for 13 events we copy you down eagle tranquility we copy on the ground you got a bunch of guys about to turn blue we're breathing again thanks a lot the landing to me was a great celebration the nation was almost euphoric the United States

Apollo

11 commander Neil Armstrong is forever known as the first man he passed away in 2012 but his small step on the lunar surface continues to inspire our knowledge of the universe around us has increased a thousandfold and more this is the new ocean and we must sail upon it and we must be a leader on it and that caught people's imagination and later will speak to some

Apollo

astronauts live and we'll also hear from Neil Armstrong son mark Darrell look

forward

to that Neil Armstrong son looks just like it - doesn't he I love listening to his great guy we've got our own astronauts here - three talk to us Stan love in just a little bit even as we celebrate the historic milestone of

Apollo

11 we're working hard to return humans to the moon in the next five years as we plot an eventual course to Mars we call it the

Artemis

program a 21st century successor to

Apollo

Artemis

was

Apollo

's twin sister and goddess of the moon in Greek mythology we'll carry that name with us to the moon again landing astronauts by 2024 and establishing...
sustainable lunar exploration by 2028 to get there we're building a powerful rocket the Space Launch System to send astronauts aboard our new Orion spacecraft to the gateway in lunar orbit from the Gateway we'll be able to land astronauts in places we've never been before including the lunar South Pole we'll have a human Lander system staged at the gateway but before then we'll already be back on the moon with robotic commercial Landers carrying science instruments and Technology demonstrations to the moon beginning in September of next year and will generation of spacesuits as we send the first woman and the next man to the moon as we do this we gain more scientific knowledge about the solar system in which we live an American companies large and small are developing advanced technologies to realize these space exploration dreams for NASA and as with

Apollo

many of these technologies will later grow into every day parts of life here on earth and stay tuned to the end of our show we'll have a fun reveal about

Artemis

now joining us live is astronaut Stan Love who flew on space shuttle mission STS 122 to the International Space Station and he's currently working on the development of

future

human spacecraft Stan 12 astronauts walked on the moon between 1969 and 1972 did Neil Armstrong inspire you in any way at any level well absolutely I think anybody my age was interested in science or technology or exploration held the

Apollo

11 astronauts as...

heroes

I remember when I was in grade school six years old my little tin lunchbox had the astronauts in the

Apollo

spacecraft so I had that in there from the beginning and I remember coming to work on my very first day as an astronaut driving in the gate at Johnson Space Center and thinking oh my goodness this is where it happened this is where we landed people on the moon for the very first time there's sort of this sense of awe and an incredible sense of honor to be able to join that effort especially as a crew member and then some trepidation really hoping I was up to the task and indeed you were we got some video of you launching in the Space Shuttle with a camera that had like an inside view it doesn't exciting right oh yeah absolutely when they launch are like those solid rocket motors on the shuttle you know you're going somewhere in a big hurry it's like two strong guys shaking their your chair as hard as they can and it's it's pretty amazing now you're working on

future

human spacecraft tell me a little bit about that involvement so I'm working on the cockpit for the Orion spacecraft that is going to be the backbone the main transportation device to get people off to the moon to lunar vicinity and then bring them back safely to earth and I'm working on the displays and the controls that the crew are going to use to see how their systems are doing guide that vehicle and fly it so it's up to me and the folks I work with to make...
sure that the crews getting all the information they need and that the commands they send out go correctly to the vehicle well that is exciting work and Stan thank you so much for joining us all right send it back over to you Murray all right thanks Darrell and Stan and thank you we'll be hearing more from current and former astronauts throughout this program including Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins from

Apollo

11 and other

Apollo

astronauts as well now let's head over to Houston and

Apollo

's famous Mission Control from the historic Mission Control Center NASA conducted some of its most legendary space

missions

the first u.s. spacewalk the

Apollo

moon landings and even the dawn of the Space Shuttle era of exploration in this room from 1965 until 1992 flight controllers monitored every aspect of the mission power navigation communications and even the health of the astronauts with all that happened here it's no wonder this flight control room was designated a National Historic Landmark but after years of inactivity the historic room fell into disrepair until a new mission was launched to save it a restoration effort set out to bring back every detail of the room as it would have been during the time of the

Apollo

moon landings this is kind of the crowning achievement that happened during in 1969 and so for us to recreate that and get that feel and to honor that time and that success that was really important to us finding the original wallpaper and then...
recreating that finding the original carpet and recreating out and then just getting the seats restored and put back together and then just all the little details you know what was on the consoles what was particular to that flight controller so it's very personalized so it's very historically accurate the work has brought the room back to life capturing a moment time for flight director Gene Kranz the effort goes beyond switches and monitors this room has a has an aura to it but people have worked here they've lived there they made the decisions there each one of these controllers basically left a legacy here in the restoration I think that recognizes the work done in Mission Control by the teams of Mission Control I'm Garrett Jordon in that historic Mission Control and with me is Gene Kranz one of the flight directors of

Apollo

11 who you just heard he's at the very same console he was at fifty years ago when Eagle landed on the moon we also have Charlie Duke the Capcom the capsule communicator coming right from his console when

Apollo

11 landed he was the voice between the teams here in the room and the astronauts of the historic mission later walked on the moon himself during

Apollo

16 gentlemen it's pleasure to have you both here thank you very cool Charlie your famous words back to Neil I believe part of that quote was you got a bunch of guys about the term blue we're redoing it yeah so this was coming right after Neil Armstrong confirmed...
that the eagle has landed how did it feel to hear that hear those words from the moon well very exciting very close we were almost out of gas and so The Heretic contact engine stopped we did was a great relief contention was really high that's right that gene that conversation followed one of the densest parts of the entire mission really the powered descent of Eagle down to the surface of the Moon the flight control was here seems so calm how did they stay that way and so focused during that tense time that's a process of training room discipline the basically these are consummate professionals of the very early age they learn the discipline necessary to accomplish difficult tasks that's right there's not a lot of celebrating in this room right after they landed right so Charlie why not well first off we had to make sure that the lunar module was secure that you sprung a leak when you touchdown or battery dropped off or a lot of things could happen you had to be ready to lift off so we stayed Jean got us all back to attention after a few little smiles and said we go 41 and so we had a set time t1 t2 t3 and I don't remember exactly how long those were but we were focused on making sure this lunar module was safe and secure and ready to go if we had to liftoff that's right gene the flight controllers in this room were not much older than myself I'm about 27 which i think is that about the average age of flight controllers tell me about the level of...
trust that was needed in the team to make that mission a reality basically it's trust that exists between myself and the team between my team and their stock we got and with a program office I think Trust is essential commodity for successful manned spaceflight and I think one of the things that Charlie mentioned here was the t3 stay no stay yeah we had to wait two hours to join the celebration but the rest of the world we're on the console doing our job two hours after landing we could celebrate all right now charlie when those those first steps of Neil Armstrong on the moon and those famous words he said for all mankind did you get to celebrate immediately or when it when it actually hit you the significance of the accomplishment well after we we were off duty after t3 and we went to a press conference if I remember we went and celebrated with a few beers at that point and then I went home and was with my family watching it on TV as he stepped took those first steps out and then it hit me about we were on the moon well I hope we get to have that feeling once again do we have just a c'mere here joining us now she's an astronaut such a launch to the International Space Station here in just a few short months she was selected as an astronaut in 2013 and Jessica you're going through some training right now for a long-duration stay aboard the International Space Station just about six months that's actually more time than all the

Apollo

missions

combined...
tell me what you're gonna be doing on the International Space Station how is that going to help us for our

future

missions

going back to the moon and on to Mars so I'll be up there for six-month mission as you mentioned and really the Space Station is a world-class laboratory right now it's a US National Lab and of course we are working with all of our international partners as well the Russian Space Agency the Canadian Japanese and European Space Agency's so we are conducting all kinds of sin tight scientific investigations and technology demonstrations that are really critical toward our path for

future

exploration so just to name a few for example of course we need to understand how space flight and the microgravity environment affect us and our human our bodies and our physiology so we have decades of research now from all of this scientific research that we've been conducting on the space station and then the programs before we know a lot how to maintain our muscle mass and maintain our bone density we have a few hot topics right now really the the vision our vision and the health of our eyes also what's happening to our blood vessels

looking

at our carotid arteries and some changes that we're actually seeing in astronauts that are very similar to the process of aging so we need to really better understand what is happening here to make sure that we can get astronauts safely to their destination and make sure of course that we can bring them...
safely back there and you'll get to do that firsthand as an astronaut now as I know it actually Charlie Duke here actually inspired you to become an astronaut in the first place yeah he actually was the very first astronaut I ever met so it is pretty amazing it's really an incredible experience to be standing in this room with these two people when I was in high school Charlie was speaking at the neighboring town I grew up in a really small town in northern Maine and we did not have a lot of astronauts coming through I'd never met anybody that worked at NASA or an astronaut so I went to hear him talk and I'm sure he doesn't remember this but he I did talk to him afterward he gave me his card I told him that my dream was to become an astronaut like him and I wrote him a letter and I thought you know he's so busy I'm sure he gets lots of these but he did actually write back to me and this is the actual letter I found it when I moved a couple years ago this is the letter that you wrote to me back in 1996 when I was a freshman in college so maybe that'll jog your memory but thank you so much for doing that it really really was inspiring and it does make a difference thank you yes always good to expose somebody inspire somebody like what's typewritten I love that all right now a gene when we're thinking about our

future

missions

you use the phrase tough and competent thinking about inspiring those next generations do you think those same...
values will apply to the folks that are gonna carry us to business okay well because a tough and confident really address the accountability of a Mission Control team basically to take the actions necessary to protect the crew and accomplish the mission tough meetings that you're forever accountable for what you do and this was done after the

Apollo

1 what we fails to do confident was ever in never again take anything for granted we'll never stop learning from now that teams and Mission Control will be perfect no Charlie what can astronauts today like Jessica do to inspire the next generation well I think what she said just her performance and what she's doing and being out there being able to before the public and and just telling her story writing a letter so all right well thanks to all three of you for taking the time to be with us here today in the historic

Apollo

Mission Control in Houston NASA's

giant

leaps

continues at Wapakoneta Ohio the hometown of Neil Armstrong we'll go there in a moment but first some thoughts about explorers from a different kind of rocket man they want adventure and I really admire those kind of people they they're so brave and intrepid they're pioneers and you know without Christopher Columbus Magellan Marco Polo we wouldn't know Sir Francis Drake all those kind of people the world wouldn't be in what it is today and welcome to Wapakoneta Ohio which is proud to be the hometown of Neil Armstrong I'm ty...
Bateman an anchor with hometown stations in Lima Ohio and we are located at the Armstrong Air and Space Museum which is about an hour north of Dayton Ohio now that of course is the home of the Wright brothers who invented power flight more than 115 years ago now Ohio is also the home of NASA's Glenn Research Center named for another space pioneer John Glenn and we are in the midst of the summer moon Festival which is an annual celebration of the

Apollo

moon landing and right now we actually have one of our 25 astronauts who hail from Ohio and is also a native of Cleveland and a veteran of four Space Shuttle

missions

Don Thomas thank you so much for being with us hi it's great to be here today well let's get right into it Don you of course have been inspired by so many astronauts but how did Neil Armstrong and the other

Apollo

astronauts inspire you you know it was the first astronauts launching in 1961 that first inspired me to be an astronaut I watched their launch on a small TV and I just said I want to do that and so all the early astronauts John Glenn ed white who did the first spacewalk and then Neil Armstrong they were huge influences on my career well done that's awesome so you watched the

Apollo

11 launch on TV and I understand that you also invited Neil Armstrong to watch one of your launches I did you know we're allowed to invite a few VIPs to our launches and I wrote Neil Armstrong a letter said I was one of the Ohio astronauts I told him he was...
one of my

heroes

as a young boy and I invited him to come to the launch he wrote back said I'll be there and I was like wow Neil Armstrong's coming to my launch I was so excited and it was the day before launch I got a call from NASA management down at the Kennedy Space Center and they said mr. Armstrong wanted to meet with me so my wife and I Neil Armstrong and his wife Carol we got to spend about an hour together in the crew quarters just and I'm showing him around and at the end of our hour I had a great moment I was shaking his hand saying thank you for being here I really appreciate you coming to the launch and I asked him how long are you staying in town for meaning how long are you gonna be in Florida for and he

looking

right back in the eye he said how long are you in town for meaning I'm gonna stay here until you launch and we launched right on time the next day and it was a thrill of my life to have him there for the launch incredible Don thank you for those memories well let's take a look back at Neil Armstrong the man Neil Armstrong was born in his grandparents farm house on the outskirts of Wapakoneta we sat down with Neil's brother and sister and asked them to share some personal memories of their famous brother he was very good at telling jokes and accent in the accent a Scottish Scottish accent right and a little bit of German sometimes also but depending on what story was telling but he was good at it because he tells the story and he...
has this you know just a little bit of smile on his face and then everybody laughs and he laughs because he thought it was funny too the legacy hasn't yet been determined in science the doors are still so wide open and I really feel like that it helped inspire the technical aspect of this country you know we had many big technical breakthroughs with the program NASA programming and now you can see that continuing I think my dad would be very pleased with where we are now because we are on the cusp of another age of exploration taking those next steps going back to the moon because that's the place where we can learn the things that we need when we go beyond if we can remind everyone of how the world was uplifted by the

Apollo

program and by these endeavors I think that we have a good chance of staying the course and continuing that exploration

forward

being an astronaut was our father's way of life that was dad's job and and we were all supportive and excited the astronauts the guys when they were up there they they the last thing they wanted to do was to worry about what was happening at home I think the wives just tried to make sure that the family wasn't one of those things that they they had in their checklist of of things to be concerned about the

Apollo

program inspired a generation to want to be better to want to work hard apply themselves and pursue their dreams because

Apollo

made it clear that dreams were possible and I think that made the world...
a better place now as you drive through town or stroll down the sidewalks you'll see just how over the moon everyone is in Wapakoneta more than a dozen restaurants are offering special moon themed items such as cinnamon pancakes and a Buckeye on the moon Sunday it seems every shop is selling first on the moon merchandise souvenirs and memorabilia and history is all around us it's a part of history that I want to be able to say that I helped to preserve it's not so much you know what was it like when he lived here for me personally but to be able to preserve part of history and keep it intact for

future

generations and with me now is Dante Centauri with the Armstrong Museum Dante welcome so let's get straight into it tell me a little bit about what people can experience if they were to visit the museum sure well the Armstrong Guerin Space Museum opened three years to the day after

Apollo

11 landed in 1972 we have artifacts from Neil Armstrong's early life and career the airplane he learned to fly in right next to the Gemini 8 capsule and he flew his first spaceflight in as well as the

Apollo

backup suit from

Apollo

11 actual suit that was part of his mission and to top it all off we also have a moon rock collected from

Apollo

11 collected by Neil Armstrong himself on that mission awesome now how does it feel for you to be entrusted with preserving the legacy of an American Hero well it's very humbling but the best part here is there's a tremendous...
team there's staff the the board everyone supports in the community is such a wonderful support for the museum and and Neil Armstrong's legacy right here in Wapakoneta right Dante thank you so much thank you and now I would like to welcome Sonny Williams another Ohio astronaut she's a native of Euclid and a veteran of two Space Station

missions

including seven spacewalks welcome sunny hi ty it's great to be here in my pack Aneta yes it's awesome here so how does research aboard the International Space Station help us expand exploration not only on the moon but also later getting to Mars right so I've had the luxury of being on the space station two times and I've seen we we're doing all sorts of experiments on propulsion systems life-support systems even spacesuit systems that will help us on our next endeavors back to the moon and even further out of ler low-earth orbit beyond into Mars well you're also set to return to space on one of NASA's upcoming Commercial Crew

missions

tell me more about that yeah I'm scheduled to be on one of the first Boeing Starliner flights to go to the International Space Station along with SpaceX is gret Dragon 2 which will take some of our colleagues up to the space station and this contract to allow these other companies to be able to take people up will allow NASA to refocus on getting out of low Earth orbit back to the moon and potentially onto Mars for the next generation so all of the work...
that's going on the International Space Station including these commercial companies will help us enable us to go further so are you scheduled to conduct any more spacewalks honey well you know the space station is about 20 years old it's like an old house and things need to be fixed and we're doing new things to add on to it so that's it's pretty probable and I would be

looking

forward

to doing that all right sunny thank you for that and thanks from here in Wapakoneta let's head to DC thanks ty NASA and the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum are hosting this celebration of the 50th anniversary of the first man on the moon we've a lot going on here right here on the mall there are tents highlighting both the

Apollo

program and today's moon to Mars plans Lego has an incredible

Apollo

11 display that took days to build and Snoopy is here of course Snoopy was the name of the lunar module on

Apollo

10 the dress rehearsal for the actual moon landing and as you've probably seen people in the National Mall have been wowed this week by a high-def projection of the Saturn 5 rocket on the Washington Monument we'll actually be able to see a recreation of a launch here tonight and tomorrow night it really just gives you a sense of the scale of that massive rocket

Apollo

11 was the culmination of an incredible national effort but started with a promise from President John F Kennedy to go to the moon within the decade we choose to go to the...
moon in this decade and do the other things not because they are easy but because they are hard at the direction of the President of the United States it is the stated policy of this administration and the United States of America to return American astronauts to the moon within the next five years so now NASA is facing another bold challenge and this time the ultimate goal isn't just JFK's goal of land on the moon and return safely to earth but establishing a sustainable presence on the moon and eventually heading off to Mars so we are going to be doing some interesting science when we're there and that's one of the really exciting things for example we will be able to look in the

giant

craters these deep craters in the southern pole region of the Moon their places down there that never gets sunlight and we think there's water there so we're gonna be going and checking that out now let's go to Adam Savage with astronaut Randy Bresnik inside the Air and Space Museum Randy you've flown the shuttle you've flown on the shuttle and spent time on the International Space Station I'm curious the first time you open the hatch to get on the ISS given all the training you had already had him till that point what what surprised you and what felt exactly like you expected it surprised me the most was the fact that there were some crew members on Space Station I hadn't met yet I had trained with you know they were up there doing the...
long-duration mission and so it turns out I have a callsign come from the Marine Corps being a fighter pilot it's comrade and so it was interesting we found the space station you know these Russian crew members who I had man who had been you know adversaries of my f-18 and Marika they here Michael hey comrade come over here well shock to me when they heard you know somebody used that in such a normal term home from the crew members but what was neat about it was even though these were folks are heading it all that flowed across the hatch and it was big bear hugs as if we were like long-lost family members who hadn't seen each other you know in a few weeks and we're just catching up and cook me in because I only had you know two and a half days three days on orbit at that point that here we are now the crew from Atlantis the crew those on station 12 human beings in this magnificent orbiting laboratory 250 miles above the earth going 17,000 miles an hour and we were that was it that was all of humanity in orbit right we were there doing the shared mission and and just how that made us all just part of this one thing didn't matter what language we spoke or where we came from there we were just one family all of it doing the work amazing I know you you've we were talking before and you said you spent 32 hours in space during spacewalks um what do you get used to and what always surprises you about getting into and going outside the spacecraft we'll start...
with that part first because I don't think literature first your fifth or you know I'm like Mike la your generosity on your ninth or tenth when you open that hatch which Ana space station opens yeah right you know you open it up you're inside a steel mill cocoon the whole time and you open the hatch and it is 250 miles or 400 kilometres straight out and so Frank anybody you know has a fear of heights you know it's it's daunting but for anybody who doesn't have a fear of heights if you look the edge of a tall building and you stay on the edge and put your toes on lean over your body tells you get back yeah I mean that you have that intense really intense feeling except type times a thousand two or 50 miles up okay I know I'm not gonna fall I'm gonna float even though I mean this massive you know my own personal space suit going out the door I know that if I go out there let go I'm not gonna fall but your brain your whole life has told you that you it yeah you go out there and just like we practiced in the neutral buoyancy laboratory when we pull down in Houston where we have a space station do you train you reach out you put your hand on the handrails you don't you turn your body the way you normally do you put out your waste tether you put out your you know a lot of your strength tether and you go ahead and you know do what you trained for it's just a view instead of being you know concrete 40 feet below you in the bottom of the...
pool you now have the earth going by at five miles a second to distract you while you're out there oh my goodness I'm curious about your thoughts about how

apollo

-era technology led to the technology that got you into space well there was a basis for everything I mean that it's I am in awe just like you and everybody else especially today it takes time to remember and commemorate this amazing you know historic achievement I mean we had not overhead but 15 minutes in space when the President Kennedy challenged us to go to the moon and within a decade we had the O'Neill buzz and my calls there on

Apollo

9 apart sorry

Apollo

11 that is astounding and everything we've done since then has been based on those amazing investments in technology and the capabilities to live and work in space and and the suit on space o'clock is the grandson of the suit that was on

Apollo

on a lunar surface well famously a Buzz Aldrin was not able to be here but we do have a buzz tribute video which we can run let's run this and see a little bit about Buzz ready are you excited about the

future

of space travel absolutely in the 15 years I've met NASA there's never been a more exciting time we have got you know two commercial vehicles they're getting ready to launch up and put people on the space station we've had 19 years of continuous presence on the space station we've got you know

Artemis

getting set up or we have got the Orion space pickle board...
the world's largest rocket the SLS and then we're going to start launching humans on in two years amazing you know around the moon again and they've never been a better time for it Brandi thank you so much for joining us here today I really appreciate it Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were almost stuck on the surface of the Moon as the crew was coming back in they had to take off their looks large space suits and they were pretty big and the lunar module was pretty small and the process of doing that was bumped up against the engine arm switch the switch that was critical to turning on the rocket motor that wouldn't allow them to launch off the surface of a moon the switch broke off and so when the time came to flip that switch to get ready to launch off the surface of the Moon there was no switch there to flip what's he gonna do buzz was thinking fast he pulls out a felt-tip pen and jams it in to that spot and is able to use the felt tip pen as a pseudo switch and they successfully get off the surface of the moon and come home my grandfather President Kennedy challenged Americans to send a man to the moon not because it would be easy but because it would be so hard NASA and our entire nation answered his call to action and made that dream a reality today we salute the men and women of the

Apollo

generation and look

forward

to the

future

and the new frontiers yet to be discovered and

looking

now over the water we're coming up on launch complex 39 here...
at Kennedy Space Center the two pads that you see in the distance there Pat B is where we're going to launch the first woman to the moon and the next man to the moon right there actually pad a which is SpaceX's pad which is currently of course launching their rockets the heavy and the Falcon but it's a beautiful shot as we fly over the Banana River and into that launch complex they are 39a where of course many a historic launch happened here and we continue to celebrate as well yeah absolutely beautiful and the mood here is just euphoric I mean so many people in awe of this nation's amazing achievement fifty years ago indeed and it's a warm day here in Florida you can see the clouds bubbling up over 39a on the crew access arm that extends out from that pad it's not quite as hot as the rest of the country though because there's a heat wave that's currently got the grip of the nation most of the nation but we're still pretty toasty here in Florida and in fact Murray we're celebrating moon fest at this time a celebration of course of the 50th anniversary of

Apollo

where our own employees got to go out and to the gantry eat moon pies and dress up in 1960s attire I think they're already out of the moon pies so we didn't I don't know if anybody saved any for us but I they did they gave him away for free that was uh that was a nice gesture yes on this historic day yes absolutely and as we continue to celebrate the historic...
achievement of 1969 we look ahead to traveling back to the moon and on to Mars just as in the

Apollo

area era we need many elements to get there from rockets and spacecraft to astronaut life support and more all in support of science and exploration on the surface there's a lot of work already being done to make that happen with our

Artemis

program we're preparing to launch our new Space Launch System rocket and the Orion which is an entirely new space capsule we're also developing a eight-way at the moon will have new robotic and human landers and new spacesuits all this is happening while advances in science and technology will expand our knowledge and enrich life back here on earth and there's that list there those items I was just telling you about and we'll be telling you more about each of those elements you see there on your screen throughout the show today and it's important each one of those elements as they come together to form this program of the

future

artemis

is a very complex program but we want to go back to the moon sustainably and printable and permanently - in order to test our technology to go onto Mars so it's all very key absolutely and we're going to see coming up after this show today starting at 3 o'clock we've got a show called our stem show that's going to show you how students are breaking down a mission to the moon that's gonna be a great show make sure you stay tuned for that at 3 o'clock right...
here on NASA TV

forward

to the moon our stem show it's going to be a good one did you know that one of the most valuable samples brought back from the moon by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin almost didn't happen neela buzz had a series of containers that they put their lunar samples in and they mostly went around and picked up rocks but right near the end of their walk on the moon as Neil was preparing the boxes that shipped back up to the lunar module for returned back to earth Neil looked into one of the boxes I realized that there wasn't a whole lot in there he thought that's not right we should be bringing more back so he took the box and scooped it along the surface and pulled a whole bunch of dirt from the surface of the moon into the box it turns out that that dirt the lunar regolith was really important to helping us understand the solar wind and other properties of moon and that was information that we didn't get from rocks so that impromptu sample collection is actually one of the most valuable samples that we brought back from the moon

Apollo

welcome to the u.s. bass know that the

Apollo

guidance computer I'm the Karla friend and this is the official visitor center for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center now Marshall has been designing and building the rockets that send astronauts into space since 1960 in fact this machine here is an authentic f1 engine that powered the Saturn five the vehicle they launched the

Apollo

missions

the Saturn...
fives chief architect was Marshalls first director Werner von Braun and throughout the 1950s von Braun promoted space travel he also helps spur much of the technology that first took Americans into space and now America is ready for the next wave of human exploration NASA's

Artemis

mission which will take Americans to the moon and will set the stage for putting humans on Mars Marshall is again working on the rocket to get them there the Space Launch System or SLS and Marshall we are proud of our heritage of fire and smoke here's a look joining me now is astronaut Rex Walheim now he flew three different space shuttle

missions

including the very last one sts-135 hi Rex how are you Carl it's great to be here now you didn't get a chance to ride on a Saturn 5 but tell us what it's like as an astronaut to be in a rocket at liftoff well probably the most remember one is your first time and you're loaded into the rocket about a couple hours of for launch and you're strapped in it feels like you're sitting in this very high-rise building solid as a rock then about six seconds before launch the main engine start up and even though you're still bolted the pad it shakes like it's coming apart it's really amazing and then if the engines outfit great for six seconds and the solid rocket boosters light and then you feel that jolt and you lift off and it's an incredible ride from zero to 17,500 miles an hour and eight and a half minutes that...
sounds incredible now as we look back on

Apollo

11 what are your thoughts as an astronaut about re-establishing a human presence beyond Earth orbit well I think it's so important cuz the

Apollo

program they went to the frontier to the moon farther than any humans has ever traveled in history and we need to get back there so we can learn how to do that again because it's very difficult to get there we haven't done it in decades we want to go there learn how to do it and go beyond and go to Mars now we actually have a social media question one Manesh on twitter asks what is NASA's plan for

future

astronaut programs well first

future

astronaut program is similar to the ones today we'll select the best and the brightest the folks from all across the country the most diverse backgrounds we can get the people who've shown that they can excel in various different types of functions and we'll bring them all over on the Johnson Space Center and try to interview - who's gonna work the best it'll be very similar now except there's gonna be a different dimension with the the autonomy that we're gonna need and more of the expeditionary behavior where where people are going farther than we've ever gone before and they'll be far from so far from Earth that'll take minutes and minutes for just communications go back and forth so we have to become four operating by themselves but for the most part it would be very similar to the way we...
pick astronauts today thanks Rex you know today thousands of NASA employees contractors and suppliers are working in all 50 states to turn our plans into reality the

Apollo

program also was a nationwide effort on a

giant

scale with so many unsung

heroes

behind the famous names and faces and many

Apollo

era veterans are right here in Huntsville let's hear from a few of them about their era most of us were just out of college didn't have much of a experience but here's what challenge we're gonna do something in ten months it's never been done before I mean you never went home with your desk cleaned off it was just so much to do well you were just all heads down trying to get ready and you know it didn't matter that I was a co-op it didn't matter that I was 19 years old didn't mind working 80 bucks eight hours a week because when you were gonna do something different you didn't go home until you finished her work that was pretty standard in those days late to bed early to rise work like hell and advertise and we were committed to make it happen the thing about the moon that I thought was peculiar was when the Sun was almost overhead and it was nude down below the moon appeared to be a warm and a friendly place near dawn or dusk place looked distinctly unfriendly what a great tribute to

Apollo

11 command module pilot Mike Collins who joins me now live along with astronaut candidate Zeena Cartman welcome thank you Karen Thank You Xena yeah...
I'm

looking

forward

to hearing from both of you yes likewise it's good to have you here now Mike uh people may not know that after your NASA career you were the first director of this very Smithsonian Air and Space Museum taking charge while the building was under construction and then being here when the doors first opened in 1976 it's been one of the most visited tourist sites in Washington ever since so director Collins welcome back thank you it's so nice to be back the Smithsonian's always and one of my most favorite buildings anywhere in the world and I used to go to the Museum of Natural History and when I was perhaps 10 years old I would watch snails now they had these were not live snails they were snail shells but they had like 37 of them all in a row and I used to for some reason I was totally fascinated by that display I used to count them and figure out why they were big and little and what colors they were and all of those things so that's my upbringing is Smithsonian and Aaron's face of course came much later and I had a lot of help with people like Barry Goldwater who was a senator on the right committees who helped me get money you get the forty million dollars a mass that we needed to dig the hole and bring the building up it was an interesting time well it's a wonderful place to be now let's take us back in time a little bit you were up orbiting the moon during that

Apollo

11 you went around some 30 times alone over about...
24 hours take us there tell us what you were feeling and what that was like you know I was amazed I was always asked weren't you the loneliest person and the whole lonely universe when you were in that lonely command Mazal all by your lonely self flowing around the lonely mode weren't you lonely no no I was at home this was my my little place that Columbia the command module was I had hot coffee I had music if I want her dad if I had some problem or question I just got on them on the radio with Mission Control and they were always very helpful they even tried to talk to me when I was by myself behind the moon haha couldn't get to me in that situation so down on the ground was Neil Armstrong who obviously is a larger-than-life historic figure tell us what you'd like people to remember about him as a crew mate and about the crew mate oh really no personal Neil he was he was an all-american person in in many ways Neil was very intelligent he he had interests in science on both sides of the kind of work that NASA does he he was he was modest he didn't like the spotlight on him but when he was caught in its glare he knew exactly what to say after the flight of

Apollo

11 we were very fortunate to have an around-the-world trip that meal was our spokesperson and he just did a masterful job he had done his homework everywhere we went he he knew the background of the country he knew what to say to the local people by the time he finished one of his short five ten...
minute speeches half of the audience was ready to climb on board Columbia and go with us he was just masterful and all right we are we have two people hoping to ask questions to Xena and to Michael Colin social media though I just realized we may not have the access to the social media questions so I am instead going to turn to a question to Xena who I wouldn't ask a question of as well obviously Michael when you qualified an astronaut you were a pilot and Xena have took a very different path into this so tell us a little bit about your path here my background is actually in microbiology I studied biology in college my thesis was in poetry believe it or not and then I did research in marine microbiology for my master's degree but to me one of the most exciting parts of being in the space program now is just how different a background everyone's come from we are test pilots we're also microbiologists we are geologists we're submarine errs it's a really interesting and diverse group to get to work with and so we are still taking social media questions we're sorry we can't answer them right here and now but certainly will continue to take them throughout throughout the show Xena give us your perspective on

Apollo

11 what what is the legacy Impala van action I'll toss that to both of you tell us about your perspective on the legacy of

Apollo

11 sure it's it's a part of the world that I grew up and I you know I I never knew a world...
before men had left this planet and so I have to ask the people who lived through that themselves what that means to them and they can tell me where they were when they saw that happen they can tell me the exact chair they were sitting in it was just this monumental pivotal moment in human history and so to me that's just it's so touching to know that part of the world that I'm in now and it's this hugely inspiring challenge to my generation what would be our

Apollo

what will be this thing that people around the world will feel a part of a little bit about the legacy I I'm not big on legacies I'm not sure I think maybe 50 years is not enough time to give it a proper spacing for it but I was really taken by something Dina said with her minor is in poetry I love that idea it's great I go to MIT from time to time and talk to the students up there and of course the great push in this country today and rightfully so is science technology engineering math stem and I say now that's not a complete education poetry in there we are going to now toss back to the mall to Adam Savage who has a message not about poetry but for those people who still know thanks Karen amazingly there are still people who choose not to believe that we went to the moon even though to perpetrate such a hoax would have taken far more energy than actually just going to the moon and on Mythbusters early in our tenure my co-hosts Jamie Kari grant and Tory and I busted this...
conspiracy theory in pretty much every way we could have possibly tested it we built miniature models we rode the vomit comet we wore spacesuits we tried everything and in fact our episode is used by moon-landing deniers to bolster their argument they thought that our miniature model of the moon scape looked so good it helped convince them that the moon landing might have been faked by Stanley Kubrick at some secret soundstage in the desert which is total Buncombe and when I am confronted with that sort of willful ignorance well I don't have any answer but apparently Tahira has a question from the crowd out on the mall to hear oh hi I'm Tahira and I'm out here on the no mall in Washington DC it is a beautiful day out here to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the

Apollo

11 moon landing right now I'm following the conversation on social media and Twitter user David says it would have been harder to fake it than to do it in regards to the

Apollo

11 moon landing Adam you broke it down on Mythbusters what do you think Oh without a doubt one of the great pleasures of my life to here is that I get to talk to people at NASA and meet astronauts and come to places like the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum the fact is is the pride that all of the incredible men and women and engineers and scientists who executed this incredible feat and continue to execute it on a daily basis that pride is based in reality not in fantasy and it is my honor to be able to meet and talk to...
these folks when NASA's

giant

leap continues it'll be with fire and smoke from Alabama welcome back to Wapakoneta and the Armstrong Air and Space Museum I'm Ty Bateman an anchor with hometown stations and Lima Ohio and I'm here with a team from the Glenn Research Center that not only developed liquid hydrogen as rocket fuel but also developed electric propulsion and the team is also working on a new generation electric propulsion system that will power our gateway an outpost for astronauts in lunar orbit that will give access to the surface and joining me now from the Glenn Research Center is Mike Barrett hello Mike hi and how does electric propulsion work and how is it different from chemical rockets well traditional chemical propulsion burns a fuel and that generates a high temperature gas that gets pushed out of the spacecraft in one direction and that propels the spacecraft in the opposite direction electric propulsion instead of burning a fuel uses electricity to charge or ionize a gas and then that excel is accelerated out of the spacecraft and that provides that propulsive push now where does the power come from well for solar electric propulsion the power comes from the Sun we use solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity and then that electricity is used to power both the spacecraft and the electric propulsion system so how we roll solar electric propulsion helped NASA get to the moon and eventually to Mars well since solar electric...
propulsion doesn't have to take all that fuel with it and it uses the sunlight for energy then that spacecraft instead of having to take all that fuel can take things like oxygen water communications equipment science experiments anything else the astronauts need to complete the mission that makes the build and design of that spacecraft a lot easier and the efficiency of the electric propulsion helps us make the mission more achievable Mike very exciting thank you so much thank you and NASA's

giant

leaps

continue down at Space Center Houston but first as you see from our show today NASA really is everywhere with technological and economic impacts all across the country innovation for exploration has an impact on our daily lives just as it did in the

Apollo

era all engine running liftoff we have a liftoff Nathan extraordinary television this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal of returning him safely to the earth I think landing on the moon changed the sky from a barrier into a doorway it turned the sort of this the backdrop of all of human history the sky into an invitation I would give anything to remember that moment my mom rhombuses I saw it but I don't remember a thing it might be one of the reasons where I'm a little obsessed with the moon landing I have have the special New York Times edition when they were on their way to the moon July 17th the models of the moon that's where are we that's that there it is that's Sea of...
Tranquility that's that's where they landed right there can I bring my family with me yes yes I would go to Mars they got water there and everything and methane what more do you want hi we're at Johnson Space Center's official visitor center joined by president & CEO Space Center Houston William Harris thanks Brandi welcome to Space Center Houston we're a dynamic learning destination where we share what NASA is doing every day where we spire people of all ages through the wonders of space exploration thanks William for hosting this segment for us and we are joined here today by

Apollo

7 astronaut walk Cunningham Walter was on the first manned command the man's mission of

Apollo

and I gave us the first live views of astronauts from space as well as performing some critical checkouts of the command module thanks for joining us Walt it was really a pleasure to be with you people here after all of these years we appreciate it was like living and working on that command module for 11 days well in retrospect that that 11 days was probably the best 11 days of my life we had worked actually I had worked five years to get after that there was three different scheduled flights and overcoming various obstacles and to this day that's still a longest most ambitious most successful first test flight of any new flying machine ever so I I feel very fortunate to have been there we're fortunate to have you here with us having had the longest most successful...
flight test of a new spacecraft do you have any advice for the astronauts are going to be going up on those first

missions

for Orion and

Artemis

well I probably would have some advice but I I don't believe that the astronauts have as much authority in preparing for these things today as we did 50 years ago that means a lot of a lot of things have been perfected at the same time the Society has changed and the astronauts are not driving everything like we used to get away with as you can see there's a lot of excitement here about the about the follow anniversary that's what you're hearing in the background but also here with Walt and I we have Laura Curie who is one of the people in charge of some of the new technology we're developing to send people to the moon Laura is the deputy program manager of gateway so that is what a key part of getting astronauts to the moon will be in lunar orbit so tell us a little bit about what that is Laura sure the Gateway is gonna be an orbiting platform basically the circles the moon it will provide basically an aggregation point where lunar landers can go from the earth to the Gateway and they can aggregate there and will be able to fly

missions

to and from the moon the great thing about the gateway is it's going to give us access to the entire surface of the Moon how will it be different from the International Space Station it will be different in a few ways for one thing it's going to be much smaller than the...
International Space Station the space station is it's basically the size of a football field roughly the gateways going to be much smaller maybe a tenth of the size so just a fraction we also where the space station is inhabited 24/7 365 the gateway will only have people on it when Orion is visiting so one to start out it'll be about once a year maybe 30 days at a time so our spacecraft is gonna have to be a lot more autonomous than today's space station and then of course the obvious we're gonna be much farther away and this is a pretty new program for us so where are we in the development of Gateway you know we are really making a lot of progress really fast the first elements that make up what we're calling phase one of the Gateway should all be in place in order for us to make and support that 2024 boots on the moon mandate that we have so our first element is the parent propulsion module and it should launch in 2022 we just announced the contractor that's going to help us to build that module max our technologies so they are well on their way the second module that we put up will be a habitation module it will dock with that power an element and we are very very close to getting that modulo in contract and on its way here in probably the next month or two and then the third element that will be part of that first 2024 phase one is our logistics module and we ought to have it on contract by the end of this calendar year so a lot of progress is...
happening really fast yeah lots of balls moving now well is there anything that you know hearing about gateway you wish you had on

Apollo

7 or that having had 11 days in space on

Apollo

7 that you would recommend having on the Gateway personally I find it very difficult to compare things today and what they were then 50 years ago it's because the organization's become more organized many of the problems we have been I won't say solved but are like 98 99 percent compared to 50 percent but I do see a difference in attitude in exploring space today for what it was back 50 years ago when everybody was a fighter pilot test pilot and we saw basically as an opportunity to stick our necks out a little to do it and what's amazing for me when I look at that is here we are 50 years later and I never in my life could have projected this amount of interest and association was what we were doing back then and also at the same time since it's a civilian operation wasn't military if we had all military trained fighter pilots but what's going to happen is a hundred years from now two hundred five hundred years from now there's only going to be probably one thing they remember about the 20th century and that's a man went to the moon and Neil Armstrong he's going to be going down in history we also appreciate your role in helping us get to where we are today and we're thankful that you're celebrating with us well I I feel very fortunate I feel...
more fortunate today because what I was taking for granted back on

Apollo

7 which to this day is still the longest most ambitious most successful first Test flight back in those days it was a challenging job to do we were committed to it we've got to do whatever was necessary to make that a success and now 50 years later I look at it in perspective with our overall accomplishment

Apollo

and frankly I am proud to played one small step in that with

Apollo

7 thank you so much we are

looking

forward

to also having some big milestones to celebrate in the upcoming years the good part of that and getting people back onto the moon is going to be gateway it's gonna be cutting edge technology and that's saying something since we had cutting edge technology 50 years ago you probably know that the spacecraft to get us to the moon was incredibly complicated but you realized that there were six point 1 million parts in the saturn v launch vehicle in the

apollo

spacecraft that had to be assembled and it all had to work correctly for us to get to the moon in July 1969 and welcome back to the Saturn 5 Center at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida a look at the lunar module it was supposed to be for

Apollo

15 but actually never flew once they decided they were gonna take moon Rovers up to the moon but they say it works and it could have gone to the moon yeah and it's it's it's one thing to see it you know the pictures of it are magnificent on camera but when you're...
up close and personal right next to it you really see you know all those little details and it's just amazing that we what we were able to accomplish together as a nation you're absolutely right and back here at the Kennedy Space Center if you're just joining us we are of course celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of

Apollo

and

looking

forward

to our plans for the next

giant

leap to the moon and on to Mars and a reminder that we're taking your questions online using the hashtag

Apollo

50th and that will have a fun reveal coming up a little later about our

Artemis

program at the end of the show a fun reveal yeah you tell me now well know then it wouldn't be a reveal show you got away all right I'm gonna wait well if you want to follow us you can just join us right now online and explore our subscription right there at

nasa

.gov

forward

slash subscribe and we'll keep you updated with our newsletter for weekly updates as we go

forward

to the moon and on to Mars subscribe again at

nasa

.gov

forward

slash subscribe now keep in mind we didn't just develop technology in the

Apollo

years you're

looking

at the gantry right now at launch complex 39 where folks like to gather to watch the launches from pad a and be there and we've got a special live guest out there one of the last two people to walk on the moon and we've got someone out there to talk to him Amanda Griffin Amanda I don't know if your if you're out there I'm not sure...
which level are you on out there at the tippy-top it's a beautiful day but it is breezy up here so hopefully you can get us loud and clear here so behind us is pad 39a currently it is being used for

missions

to the space station and beyond by commercial entities but 50 years ago the first men to walk on the moon launched from there just a few years later

Apollo

17 launched the last man who walked on the moon and one of them was dr. Harrison Schmitt dr. Smith thanks so much for being with us today it's great to be with you I sort of miss seen a Saturn 5 out there no but hopefully soon you'll see and that's the last thing Kennedy Space Center's doing a remarkable job getting ready for that we're excited so can you tell us you were NASA's first astronaut scientist why was it so important that you were on that mission on

Apollo

17 well by the time Neil Armstrong had completed his activities along with Buzz and Mike Holland it became clear that we had the capability to explore in fact it was clear even before that if we were successful in

Apollo

11 we would be able to explore and so the last

missions

and particularly my mission were designed to be exploration

missions

and so we all know that on

Apollo

11 they collected maybe 40 pounds of moon rocks but I understand you kind of beat them how much did you like well we did set the record at 240 pounds but the total of six landings brought back 850 pounds of lunar rocks and those rocks are really the

Apollo

...
mission that continues because the lunar scientists and planetary scientists continue to work on those and almost certainly will indefinitely yeah and I understand that earlier this month you and an astronaut candidate what was her name Jessica Watkins I had a great time in the rock lab Johnson Space Center the old man spacecraft Center and we were narrating a great deal of activity there about the samples for NASA yeah let's take a look real quick so all of these these samples are very different and of course the we just talked about the sampling strategy from Neil Armstrong on Paul 11 but by 17 the sampling strategy was a little bit different can you talk about kind of what the what went into your sampling strategy and how you chose which samples to bring back well the whole background for

Apollo

17 was to since we knew it was going to be the final

Apollo

mission was to fill in as many of the gaps as we could both in the sample collection and in the kinds of features and that turned out pretty well yes so there are all sorts of stories that come out of these rocks about the evolution of particular materials particular rocks just so they have what I consider one of the one other they're not the most important sample Armstrong collected when he thought the rock voxel in theory and so he just filled it up with this material is the numbers 1008 for all of us nerds what gave us was our first real definitive look at what the resources at the surface of the Moon might be...
for either owner basis or their settlements bars exploration that's going to need resources radiation protection these water and you can heat this material up and make water anywhere on the moon you don't have to call the polos make water from ice you can make it you have heated up to about six 700 degrees 50 years ago sample came still giving it is they all are it's as if the

Apollo

program never ended right because there are hundreds have been thousands now people who have worked on the samples and still work on the samples the advance of analytical technology means that you can go back to an old sample and get the right dr. Schmidt I love that the samples that we took fifty years ago are still benefiting us today and in our

future

endeavors thank you so much for all that you've done for NASA and for the world and thanks for joining us here today well it's been my privilege and thank you for the opportunity to talk to you absolutely we're gonna send it back inside we're gonna hear more about what we still have to learn from the moon all right thanks to both of you it's so incredible to hear about these moon rocks they brought back you know fifty years ago and they're still teaching us things today the astronaut from

Apollo

teaching the up-and-coming geologist I mean it's what a great story that yes it's really awesome and unlocking those scientific mysteries is one of the main reasons we explore whether it's at the moon or our...
home planet or even the farthest reaches of our solar system yeah Kelsey Young a scientist from our Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland has more on what we already know and what we hope to learn about our closest celestial neighbor the six

Apollo

lunar surface

missions

were able to collect an incredible amount of samples that are continuing to yield exciting scientific discoveries even today through analyzing these samples and through

missions

like the lunar reconnaissance orbiter and the L cross mission we're actually able to discover that there's water on the moon but we haven't been able to determine just how much water is there we know it's there in quantities great enough that we can actually start thinking about what to do with it through Institute resource utilization we'll be able to turn this water into usable products like drinking water or fuel which will enable us to establish a long-term sustainable presence on the lunar surface it's absolutely critical that

future

human and robotic

missions

to the moon will help quantify just how much water is there as well as to just continue answering they're really exciting and important science questions we have left about the moon education has always been a part of the NASA mission stay with us on NASA TV at 3:00 Eastern for our next show called stem

forward

to the moon we visited students across the country taking the science behind a mission to the moon and breaking it down into activities...
you can do at home stay with us for that coming up at 3 and next up we want to go to Danielle Rousseau she's been mingling with out here in Danielle have you meeting some interesting folks thanks marine 11 it's personal to a lot of people whether that be actually watching the launch reading about it or just being an overall space enthusiasts but for me it's about family my grandfather was the command module pilot on

Apollo

14 and his capsule is actually here at Kennedy Space Center to be in the same place capsule is truly inspiring and I'm beyond grateful to be here but today I have a very special guest Keenen why don't you come in here he's 10 years old he's visiting Kennedy Space Center so what is the longest car ride you've been on honey about six hours six hours Wow okay imagine being in a capsule with two other people squished together for nine days how does that sound aah and squished over heated and squished and there's probably not any white button okay and what is your favorite planet what is the main tip nuts like cheese the moon because it looks like cheese great and are you enjoying your day here at Kennedy Space Center yes all right great well that's all I have right now and we'll be circling back soon all right thanks Daniel it's great to see those young kids being so excited about seeing how we went to the moon and you know they're dreaming about being the next generation to go up there and there's so many...
of them here inside the Saturn five seven you can hear them in the background yeah just fill in this place up which is great well now the

Apollo

11 command module is on tour and right now it's out in Seattle that's the one that was a piloted by the

Apollo

11 astronauts and it's out with Natalie's with Natalie Joseph of NASA out in Seattle Natalie hi we're at the Museum of Flight in Seattle the largest independently owned nonprofit air museum in the world it's also the temporary home to

Apollo

11 command module Columbia the only part of the spacecraft to return back to earth and more than 55,000 people have already been here to see it in Seattle and the festivities continue as more visitors roll in to celebrate the

Apollo

50th anniversary one thing that visitors can't easily see though is an interesting piece of graffiti inside Columbia after splashdown command module pilot Mike Collins scribbled a quick tribute inside the lower equipment Bay praising Columbia as the best ship to come down the line now nASA has a new ship coming down the line Orion a new capsule that will send humans farther than ever before astronaut Randy Bresnik compares Orion to

Apollo

Oh Ryan is the vehicle that's gonna take and put the next man and the first woman on the moon by 2024 it's the vehicle that has to take us out of Earth's atmosphere safely across the expanse of 250,000 miles to the moon put us in a lunar orbit the Gateway Space Station and then sit...
there and wait while the astronauts go down to the lunar surface for the first time since 1972 then the mass rocks going to come back up the Gateway get on a ride come back home reenter verse atmosphere aligns to be the ones to go get us back safely on the ground now the laws of physics still apply the same as they did back in the 1960s we had to come back from lunar return velocities among 32 and dissipate all that energy so that's shape of the capsule you see behind us is pretty much the same we got a heat shield underneath that allows us to get a readout of the atmosphere the big thing is when you get inside it's 30% larger Orion can carry four crew for 21 days where

Apollo

was three crew for 14 days now it's also taking a lot of advantage of technology developments where now we've got the last cockpit we've got digital displays to control all the systems and able to give that to us in a digital format pull up our electronic procedures and emergency function it also has a lot of better computing power and comparison to

Apollo

4,000 times faster than the

Apollo

computer is because

Apollo

computers less computing power than we have in our watches these days a lot more safety redundancies it also has composite materials were able to make it lighter or also be able to use 3d printing to make things that we couldn't make before so it's really really going to be the next generation vehicle that says allow us to have that returned to the moon in 2024...
and then keep going back every year after that and make that sustained presence on that south pole it allows it do all the things we need to to be able to be ready to go from the moon to Mars shortly thereafter I'm joined by NASA astronaut and physician dr. Michael Barrett hey Mike how does it feel to be back in your home state well it's great to be back in the great state of Washington and here at the Museum of Flight and one special thing for me is I launched on the Soyuz which is across the street right over here the last time I had seen it was smoking for re-entry in the desert of Kazakhstan and now it's here so it's great that is awesome so you mentioned you've launched on a Soyuz but you've also launched on a shuttle and so how would you feel about taking a ride in Orion well I think the Soyuz in the shuttle have been fabulous spacecraft and they have done their job and getting people to low Earth orbit for years and they've done that magnificently but the Orion is a very different beast it is designed to take us away from low Earth orbit and out into

missions

of exploration of the moon and beyond all of us would love that and there's something more in that we've all had a hand in the astronaut office in designing and building the Orion we have a berth connection if you will that we really haven't seen between crew members and their spaceships for a couple of decades so how would I fly it I'd fly it like I'm going...
somewhere awesome and I'd fly it like it belongs to all of us that's awesome and so one of orion's jobs is also to sustain the crew so what are some human factors issues that humans in space may face during long-duration flights and as we get closer to sending humans to Mars that's a great question we're pretty good at flying for six months in weightlessness and the human has shown just an incredible capacity to adapt to that but when you break orbit and you head to Mars and you may be gone for three years the earth gets smaller and you can't evacuate to earth if something medical happens so you have to be totally autonomous and self Cabell and we're

looking

at the cumulative effects of months and years of weightlessness or the fractional gravity on Mars and there's a little bit more radiation there's nutritional aspects of it all now we have shown tremendous capacity to adapt and we will see that we just have to approach this I would say methodically and thoughtfully and document as we go but there's no question that we'll meet these challenges that will be great explorers well thank you Mike and happy

Apollo

50th thanks and now we're joined by some visitors of the museum come on come join me what is your name what are your names and where are you from my name is Jeremiah Jones and I am from Tacoma Washington I'm Dan Miller I'm from Federal Way Washington awesome so you guys saw Columbia right it's amazing to see it...
on the ground but to remember seeing it when it landed and when it launched it's just an amazing thing to see and how was it for you Jeremiah it was great I really loved it it was um the first time I actually like I really got to experience something like this and I really loved it I really would recommend for anyone to come and see it alright well thank you so much and thank you for joining us here in Seattle back to the Saturn 5 Center thank you very much Natalie all the way from Seattle Washington to here in Florida 3,000 miles away you're

looking

live at pad 39b here in Florida the

future

of Orion where it will launch back into space aboard an SLS rocket once complete the most powerful rocket in the world well we've been

looking

at

Apollo

11 then

Apollo

11 now we celebrate

Apollo

11 forever just hours ago in this gallery the US Postal Service issued a 50th anniversary commemorative stamp to forever stamps in fact one stamp featuring Armstrong's iconic photograph of Aldrin in his spacesuit on the surface of the Moon the other stamp that you see there on the right a photograph of the moon showing the landing site of the lunar module eagle in the Sea of Tranquility a nice moment right here in the Saturn fives Center now it was in that spot that 50 years ago today Neil Armstrong took the first steps by any human onto another world and those moments held people transfixed in front of the television sets around the world we could see it as it was happening we...
could watch on live television and the fact that 600 million people around the world were either watching or listening on radio and TV as it happened is a measure of the impact that this thing had on the world's consciousness the surface as as we said what was fine grain with lots of rocks and if it took the footprints very well and the footprints stayed in place the the lamb was in in good shape and exhibited no damage from the landing or the descent picture of the ladder with the flight of

Apollo

11 Neil Armstrong Buzz Aldrin I had an around-the-world tour and every place we went I thought they in some places have the attitude of oh well you Americans finally did this not at all an attitude every country regardless of their internal politics they all said we did it we humans everything before July 20th 1969 humans only had experience on one planetary body from that moment on we were at least in some measure a multiplanetary species when Neil and Buzz walked on the moon they did it of course without weapons the only thing they brought was cameras so it was a very it was a peaceful enterprise and one that was applauded worldwide of course before we explore the lunar surface we have to get to the surface and for decades nASA has shown how robotic and human exploration can work together to understand this distant world and our

future

plans are no different as we look back on crude robotic observers open our eyes to new frontiers cameras and instruments prepare the way for...

future

human explorers robotic satellites test

missions

and landing craft paved the way to human piloted

missions

today NASA and our international partners watch our lunar neighbor from above as we prepare commercial Landers for new science

missions

to the moon it's been said choosing to go to the moon as part and we've done that now we're going back sustainably and on to Mars early Landers laid the groundwork for putting us on the moon now the director of NASA's human lunar exploration programs explains what's next for Landers of the

artemis

generation i'm standing in front of the power lunar module although this one never flew it's exactly the same size and scale as the one Neil and Buzz used to fly to the surface of the Moon 50 years ago the

Apollo

lunar module is actually two vehicles together as one the crew boarded the vehicle in orbit and they landed on the surface of the moon once they landed and completed their mission the top part of the vehicle would then leave and go back to orbit where they would board the command module to return home to earth the

Artemis

human landing system will work very similar to the

Apollo

will have a asset and decent stage that will land on the surface of the moon however it's going to be updated to 21st century technology we're going to have advanced flight computers we will have lighter components and systems and most importantly will be able to carry up to four astronauts and it will allow us to...
land the first woman in the next man on the surface the gateways the place where the landing system and the Orion crew that's delivered by the Orion will come together and the crew will actually board the human the Artemus human landing system will go to the surface of the Moon when the mission is complete then we'll return to the gateway the Gateway actually allows us to go anywhere on the surface of the Moon and we really want to go to the South Pole because we believe there's water there and we can use water to learn how to live and operate on other planets the systems we're developing to take us to the interaction the systems we're going to use to go to Mars and beyond taking humans further and farther than we've ever been before and rejoining us now is an astronaut who's done two spacewalks at the International Space Station Stanley welcome back thank you so you flew in a glider the shuttle when it landed you've ever thought about what if you like to be in a spacecraft landing on the moon or possibly even Mars yep so it would be a different kind of landing of course you know the shuttle landed like an airplane but of course it landed as a glider you got exactly one chance to put it on the concrete rather than in the swamp with the alligators so it's important to get things right and that will go for landing on rockets on the planet as well the Moon and Mars don't have an atmosphere you can't use wings for land on the thrust of...
a rocket engine this brings up an interesting difference between landing on the moon and when we landed on the moon during

Apollo

and when we go again we're probably gonna have a two-part spacecraft part with the crew in it and a part with engines and legs for landing and you'll be burning that little engine on your way down and however the part that you're in as the crew has its own propulsion to take you back up away from the moon and into orbit which means that if something bad happens on the way down that engine quits or you land and a leg collapses and you're about to tip over you can just pop off and go back up to orbit and sort out what you're going to do next but you are in your own asset module already the whole way down on Mars however Mars is a planet it's hard to get off planets that's why a gigantic rockets to get us off of Earth Mars a lot bigger than the moon not as big as here bigger than the moon so that a sent vehicle is too big for a decent module to carry so you are in your descent module and you'll probably land and walk over to your asset module and launching that when it's time to go home but that means you don't have that backup spacecraft with you when you're doing your landing so you absolutely have to get it right on the first time you can't hit a boulder the engine can't quit the landing leg can't collapse so that's another reason why the moon is a great place to practice before we're...
ready to go on good moving ground indeed yep thank you so much stamina I know there's a lot of young people

looking

up to you today so thank you so much for being with us Thanks all right as we continue our coverage we want to take you to a video from Lancaster Pennsylvania showing a corn maze there if you look closely on the left side of your screen you can see the outline of an astronaut Stan is that you over there yeah and there right there is the world's largest moon pie that made an appearance at the visitors center over at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama and some of our employees not those here at Kennedy but over a Marshall got to sample it looks like they enjoyed it over there and now we want to send it back over to Danielle Russa she's at the

Apollo

Saturn Saturn v Center just upstairs Danielle how are some folks out here celebrating the 50th anniversary while I'm back here at Kennedy Space Center and I am reading some of the social media comments that you guys have sent to us using hashtag

Apollo

50th one of which is Twitter user Adi observes that 50 years ago NASA's

Apollo

11 mission changed our world and ideas of what is possible by successfully landing humans on the moon's surface and bringing them home safely for the first time in history if you truly think about how many things had to have gone right for us to successfully land on the moon it is truly mind-blowing three Vox on Twitter writes the

Apollo

11 mission was an...
immense feat of engineering and completely changed our understanding of the solar system couldn't be more true look at the

Apollo

8 earth rise image the way that we saw the earth totally transformed in that one photo all right well thanks so much we look

forward

to hearing more of your social media comments send them over hashtag up hollow 50th all right sounds good thanks Danielle now let's go back over to Washington DC for a look at spacesuits man I am so obsessed with spacesuits I love seeing all those pictures of spacesuits over the years of course inside the National Air and Space Museum right now the og original spacesuit that Neil Armstrong wore on as when the Eagle landed back in 1969 has been restored and went on display this week restoration was funded by the public through a Kickstarter campaign and museum goers can now see it for the first time in 13 years I am here with NASA spacesuit engineered Lindsey Aitchison and astronaut Randy Bresnik Lindsey what are the key differences between the legacy suits that you guys are currently using the so called aces the EMU and the new generation of suits one of our biggest changes for the EBA suits is we're trying to make them an evolvable architecture so you have one single at core architecture that means every destination from low-earth orbit and ISS all the way to the surface of Mars oh really so not separate suits for each stage exactly so if you think about our life support system it's kind of like the...
motherboard on your computer is you had new technologies you can just pluck out the old bit and plug in a new piece so that's really a great way to keep going so we do a new suit for every mission and Randy you are actually testing these new generations of suits for

Artemis

is that correct it's great we've gone testing on how would it actually have the suit fit where do we need the mobility are we able to use things like suit ports and be able to leave the suit outside and be able to come inside through a little hatch way in the back of the suit it's my favorite new thing how are you testing that in

giant

vacuum chambers in fact we are we have

giant

vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center a couple years ago we took one of the prototype suits called z1 and we actually had it inside the vacuum chamber and so this is the chambers a vacuum inside I'm in getting ready to hop in it you know with like 10.2 psi and so the suits all stiff like it's out in the spacewalk and you got to crawl inside the back of the suit get your arms and legs into it they close up the back of the suit and then we close the hatch and then actually detach the suit and vacuum and did a bunch of mobility translations around the area what can we reach like we touch but then the key point of the sea port testing was actually backing up getting back in because obviously you need to get hooked back up to go get inside the doorway and working on the different ways to be able to see or...
be able to feel or or make little look guides so to guide you back in to be able okay back up and crawl back out I know to here has a question from a fan out on the mall to hero what what have we got hi it's to here again from the National Mall right now I just got done checking out some of these amazing exhibits that are here celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of

Apollo

but also showcasing some of our

future

plans for our

Artemis

missions

to return to the moon and eventually go farther beyond to Mars joining us right now are Carly and some of her friends from Maryland and they have a question for Randy and Lindsey so what does it mean for the u.s. space program to be able to go back to the moon Randy the question is what does it mean for the u.s. space program to go back to the moon well we look is it going

forward

to the moon I mean the moon is a stepping stone you know the way the lights the path to Mars but it's the important part because we need to test out all the Rovers all these suits all the habitats all the hatches and make sure that everything can work because when we go to Mars we're not three days away from Earth and just can come on back if we need to we are literally over a year away I mean it's the transit time and the fact we have to wait till Mars gets closer to Earth to be able to come back and so we have to make sure everything and all the risk is bought down on the hardware the moon is where we test that out and that's just one of...
the many reasons that we go back to the moon there's a scientific aspect there's the energy aspect I mean the moons it's just a great treasure trove of scientific and energy types of opportunities for us to go explore and learn more because the last time we were there fifty years ago it was just for a few days at a time we're going there to stay now thank you guys so much Karen Fox is inside the National Air and Space Museum right now with another special guest I am here with General Tom Stafford he was commander of

Apollo

10 that mission was a dress rehearsal for

Apollo

11 the crew orbited the moon it descended close to the surface but without actually landing general Stafford tell us a little bit about the legacy of the

Apollo

program for today well the legacy of

Apollo

was we started with nearly the impossible that we did it in such an impossible short period of time and slow successfully the the lessons learned if we think we could do something new innovative or I don't think you could probably get much better as far as management how we did that program you know President Kennedy on May the 25th 1961 so we'll go to the moon and the safely return which is great and but the question is how do we go through it was until 12 months later that it was decided how we'll go to the moon which is a lunar orbit rendezvous and if we had two major decisions and all the maidens leaders and NASA had different ideas that was floating around like you have...
different ideas today what you can do but he came out to a senior engineer at Langley John Huebel and his team said you proved to dr. Stevens a great deputy administrator former dean of Aero and Astro at MIT that the lunar orbit rendezvous to do it in a way that to be a smaller vehicle to be you do it faster far less cost and it would be safer and so that was so Steven stuck and not the other people's head CEO so this is the way we're going to go and then I was fortunate I came on board the program with the second group of astronauts two months later thank you so much you were also the commander of the

apollo

-soyuz test project in 1975 when American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts met in space for the first time we are going to have an example of a real time international space partnership tomorrow on the 50th anniversary of

Apollo

11s landing NASA astronaut drew Morgan and European Space Agency astronaut Luca parmitano will launch alongside Russian cosmonaut Alexander Skvortsov on a Soyuz rocket to the International Space Station I think that it's a huge honor for both my crew my Soyuz crew as well as the entire crew of expedition 60 that will be joining the

Apollo

program proved that if humans put their ingenuity to to a scope then really anything is possible we want to explore we want to improve our technology and improve our science and this is gonna enable us to go further into the solar system and the moon is a stepping point along the way as we go deeper...
and we head to Mars and we love to see a program that takes us to the moon for science for more technological advance my mission up to the ISS is a stepping stone in that direction and I'm very very excited and honored to be serving this way and our current station crew members Nick Hague and Christina cook also shared their thoughts about

Apollo

's legacy you know growing up in a generation such as we did post

Apollo

we never knew a world where people had not walked on the moon when we looked at the moon at night it didn't seem as distant as it may have seemed to the generation prior to the

Apollo

mission these spacesuits take their heritage from the

Apollo

program and the equipment the technology that was proven out then we continue to refine as we get ready to embark on our journey back to the moon so going back to the moon in so many ways is going to inspire this next generation one of the reasons it's so important on a generational level is to demonstrate that as humans as a country or as an international partnership when we come together to achieve something great we can be successful it's going to take international partners it's going to take commercial partners it's going to bring us together the goal of landing the first woman on the moon means so very much to me it's wonderful to be participating in the space program especially as an astronaut but as any person participating at a time when we are harnessing all of the talents skills...
ideas and innovation from everyone who wants to participate not just to select few the

Apollo

astronauts they're the ones that set everything in motion to get us back to today and it may seem like we've come to the moon a second time or we've returned to the moon but really our space program has been moving

forward

from day one and and the the next crew that steps on the moon is just another step in that long line of the program moving things

forward

we're the stone age' but I think I'm just so much we don't know so much but you've got to keep exploring I'm you I have to advocate the greatest thing a human mind can do is explore whether it's reading creating painting or you know and these guys are pioneers and they're exploring for the benefit or our knowledge and with the thirst for knowledge is the most important thing in the world welcome back to Kennedy Space Center's launch complex 39 joining us now is Regina Spellman pad B's senior project manager who's overseeing all the modernization of pad B as we prepare to return to the moon so Regina it's both of these pads were built for

Apollo

50 years ago how are they holding up they're doing a great these these pads were built with some of the best engineering back in the 60s and they have withstood now to do whole programs of spaceflight and they're ready for the third the pad pad Bane has got a complete makeover we have modernized her and refurbished her and...
she is ready for Space Flight what are some of the things that you've been doing out there they're modernized pad B so for SLS and Orion we're going to a clean pad architecture so one of the first things that we did was to get rid of some of the old shuttle infrastructure and go to a clean pad so we have minimal permanent infrastructure out the pad we have over the last 10 years gone in and modernized every system out there I can't think of a single system out there that we haven't touched in some way or another everything has been updated and modernized taking out old

Apollo

era some Shuttle era and putting in new technologies taking what was old and was useful and really good and building upon it and I love it I love that we're taking these pads this pad that was built to go to the moon and we're now gonna go to the moon again I saw I love it's coming full circle to be really exciting thanks so much for being us Regina I think we're gonna head it back to Danielle guys were right behind the Saturn 5 here we have two very exciting KSC guests we have dev and Akash so what inspired this trip well when I was six I remember watching the moon landing on TV and it would it was such an or inspiring event I wanted to bring the family here amazing so is this your first time yes it is well what exhibit are you

looking

forward

to saying or have already seen well I'm really

looking

forward

to seeing the take off tomorrow to celebrate the 50th...
anniversary that would be yeah I take off so do you want to go to space all right now so you got your next astronaut right here all right back to you guys thank you so much Danielle well it's been great being with you for the Saturn 5 center here where we hosted our NASA show a look ahead and look behind it

Apollo

11 now just ahead our stem she'll

forward

to the moon is coming up and we'll have a fun reveal about the

Artemis

program so make sure you stay tuned for that yes that's right but first the final word today on

Apollo

11 is from the commander Neil Armstrong at this time I like to introduce to all 11th through astronauts Neil Armstrong Michael Collins Edmund old it was the ultimate peaceful competition USA versus USSR I'll not assert that it was a diversion which prevented a war nonetheless it was a diversion it was intense and it did allowed to both sides to take the high road with the objectives of science of learning and exploration eventually provided a mechanism for engendering cooperation between former adversaries in that sense among others it was an exceptional national investment for both sides welcome back to DC I am here with NASA Administrator Jim bridenstine it has been so inspiring to be here with you all Jim tell us about the next

giant

leap absolutely you've heard a lot today about the incredible accomplishments of

Apollo

there are now several generations of Americans who have dreamed about returning to the moon and going beyond...
it many were born well after the

Apollo

program ended now we're charged with sending humans to Mars and first we'll prepare for that journey at the moon we call this that we call this program

Artemis

and today I'm proud to share with you for the very first time the

Artemis

logo this is the image of exploration that will carry us as we once again sent humans beyond Earth orbit we invite all of you to join us and follow the story at

nasa

.gov slash

artemis

there is much work to be done and many great stories to tell along the way stories of perseverance exploration and discovery stories of humanity once again pressing outward into the unknown we are going and as we go I hope that women and men of all ages and all backgrounds will consider themselves part of this the

Artemis

generation fifty years ago we went to the moon we called it

Apollo

well many people don't know is that

Apollo

had a twin she was a woman named

Artemis

goddess of the moon we are returning to the men as a new generation of explorers this time to stay and to prepare to achieve humanity's next child of sending the first human

missions

to Mars we believe our course will redefine what is possible that we would discover life saving earth changing science and but the challenges ahead will inspire generations this is our manifest for all who wondered if we could return from dream discussing beyond this is your calling we go for all of America we go we go as the

Artemis

generation we go ...
we've been there before we're going again this time to stay visionaries and dreamers imagine the

future

engineers and scientists build it using math and science as forms of art creating technologies transforming societies now we take civilization to the Stars on a journey to explore and build a gateway an outpost good afternoon and welcome to our show stem forge the moon we're live from the

Apollo

Saturn 5 Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida where we just wrapped up a two hour celebration commemorating the 50th anniversary of the first ever walk on the surface of the Moon we turn now to the

future

of space exploration to you the students and educators thanks for joining us and welcome to our show I'm Stephanie Martin from NASA's office of communications and I'm here with my co-host and friend nila firangee from NASA's office of stem engagements we are part of the

Artemis

generation of explorers we're going back to the moon and this time to stay we just saw the new

Artemis

branding which is truly a nod to the

Apollo

missions

what many people don't know is

Apollo

had twin she was a woman named

Artemis

goddess of the moon as the

Artemis

generation we need to develop the skills to get us to the moon and beyond NASA's office of stem engagement works with educators schools and other organizations like museums to immerse students in NASA's work and enhance literacy in science technology engineering and math generally...
we're here to inspire the next generation to explore coming up we'll see an

Artemis

mission through the eyes of middle school students from museums across the country we'll also see those same student perform experiments that show how you can recreate them from your home using things that you can find around the house later in the show we'll also have a message from a special celebrity guest we want everyone to join the

forward

to the moon conversation using the hashtag NASA stem on Twitter my team is standing by to answer your questions on social media I hope you join our conversation online let's get started as Stephanie mentioned I caught up with middle school students across the country this summer who use their imagination to see what it would what it would be like if they took over an

artemis

moon mission they simulated a launch arrived at the lunar gateway took their first steps on the moon and even collected samples on the lunar surface first up we'll take you inside Mission Control from the Cosmosphere in Kansas welcome to the Space Launch

Artemis

three crew you will have been training many months for the greatest adventure of your whole life I know you're a little bit nervous but that is normal you'll be exploring our sources though beginning with the mood and eventually onto Mars when you hear the words go for launch all systems will be a go t-minus three minutes and Counting I think it's important for NASA to send people to the...
moon and to Mars because they can do experiments to help people back on earth what excites me about

Artemis

is that it's gonna have the first woman on the moon and there hasn't been one before and that's really cool all right Lister you are going to watch main engine start ten nine eight seven six five four three two one solid rocket booster and lids on argument is clear the towers welcome to the sword system

Artemis

3 you just passed the International Space Station and should see the gunner gateway and moon in this thing soon navigator fire rockets on lunar orbit insertion now Thank You Capcom we will check in as we near gateway and are getting ready to dock at Astra this is one step closer to a

future

where better things can happen so here at Kennedy Space Center we have launch complex 39 that is where pad 39a and 39b were used for the

Apollo

missions

and our key to the

future

exploration of human spaceflight pad 39a is where SpaceX will launch our astronauts in the

future

to the International Space Station and you can see that on the left-hand side of your screen pad 39b is on the right and that is where our heavy lift rocket known as the Space Launch System will carry the Orion spacecraft for

Artemis

missions

to the moon and on to Mars we've been hearing a lot about

Artemis

today Stephanie can you tell us a little more to really simplify it our

Apollo

missions

were focused on getting astronauts safely to and from the moon for

Artemis

we're going to...
send our astronauts back to the moon and there they will explore and they will utilize that experience to prepare us to take the next

giant

leap to send our astronauts to Mars and

Artemis

will require a heavy lift vehicle the Space Launch System the students we met at the Cosmosphere also conducted an experiment using balloons as air powered rockets to launch the largest payload possible this science activity teaches students what it takes to launch a payload into orbit and even how slight variations in weight can affect performance let's take a look here with me we have Alyssa from the Cosmosphere at Hutchinson Kansas and she's going to talk to us about next Avenue these guys are doing it started doing the NASA activity heavy lifting it is a payload activity to test the amount of payload they can evenly distribute and how to distribute it onto their rocket ship each paper clip is equal to two grams of weight and there challengers to get as many paper clips onto the rocket as possible and be able to reach the ceilings you just need an elongated balloon some paper clips and a clothespin to stop the airflow and some masking tape all right so why don't we check out what we have going on on this side it looks like Drew and I'm over here have some of their activities started yes drew drew has a strategy where he's going to convince up his payload into a into a baggie and distributed onto the rocket and experiment with the best location to put his payload for...
the maximum height and Emma it has a different strategy where she is chaining the paper clips and will evenly distribute them onto and tape them on to her rocket to maximize her payload in and the height of her rocket right and then the idea is to test the different payloads to see what happens or which one launches exactly so they're gonna start with a very light payload and I increase their test each time by a few grams until they maximize their payload excellent so why don't we see what it looks like to launch this thing so it looks like Madelyn and David have finished their products yes and we have a couple different design ideas this one is to keep the payload up together and at the bottom and then the other design is to change the payload and distribute the weight all the way down the length of the rocket okay very nice so are you able to watch one of these get launched sure let's try it out okay so we're gonna launch ready is everyone counting three so why don't we try this with another payload all right so Madeline and our partner have put an additional paper clip on to this balloon I'm really excited to see what happens with this one are you guys excited let's count it out ready three so for those of you who would like to try this activity at home please feel free to visit the website at the bottom of the screen and you're more than welcome to partake in this really awesome exercise the heavy lift experiment and many others are in our...
stem forage of the Moon activity guide parents educators and students can go to the website and download the book there is a ton of really fun kitchen science in there I had a lot of fun with them myself in fact the water filtration activity you will see coming up was my favorite and Stephanie all of these activities can be done at home using the activity guide from launching to living on the moon there's a lot to learn museums across the country are hosting watch parties just like the one that is in national in the National Mall in Washington DC it was coordinated by NASA and the Smithsonian's Air and Space Museum here you can see the monument in the background with all of the exhibits along both sides many of them have big events that are being hosted even tomorrow to commemorate the big

Apollo

11 mission and each night this week an image of a Saturn 5 rocket was being projected onto the side of the Washington Monument and starting tonight in tomorrow a 17 minute animated show will tell the story of the launch in landing of

Apollo

11 that's happening at the National Mall in Washington DC if you're in the nation's capitol this week it sounds like something really worth seeing it really does as you can see with that that rocket on the pad as its displayed on the monument it's just amazing I wish I was in DC if I wasn't actually able to be here with all of you today exactly and despite the heat index it would have been a great adventure it sure...
would have so a few moments ago we saw a mission simulation the Cosmosphere where we had students actually in a mission simulator I'm amazed how interactive these museums are right and it's so great to have these experiences available to the students NASA partnerships are crucial in engaging students in NASA's mission not only do they provide learning opportunities for students they also enhance the capabilities of educational institutions and support educators to better engage the students at the Columbia Memorial Space Center in California for example students can return to the moon or voyage to Mars and their interactive space mission simulator there are a challenger Learning Center where students can experience the journey of exploration and teamwork exactly and students there took their imagination to new heights as they thought through what it might be like to be aboard the lunar gateway the station that will orbit the moon and become a rest stop as we travel further to Mars someday I was there with our camera crew as these middle schoolers prepared to land on the moon they had a lot of fun let's watch Gateway tracking your orbit how do you read for landing Mission Control orbit established for landing on the moon South Pole I think it's important to send people to the moon and on to Mars because discovery is a big thing and the more you explore the more you know initiating system checks on lunar lander power systems power systems go communications...
comms go I've always wanted to go to the moon I wanted to be one of the first women on the moon I wanted to be first so that could be like big dream come true that we're going back during my time environmental controls environment controls go I think the most important experiment to do on the moon would most likely be seeing if we could find some way to make people able to live on their it's gonna be the first woman to go on and it's showing just how much things have changed since the first line element flight systems flight systems go Lander system is responding with green across the board confirm Houston confirmed gateway lander systems green proceed with descent operations Roger Mission Control proceeding with the sent operations what excites me the most about going

forward

to the moon is like creating a whole new life and being able to discover more than we thought lunar expedition suits a secured expedition team moving to lander what excites me the most about going

forward

to the moon so learning opportunity I think it's amazing that during my lifetime and during like especially me at this age I'll be able to experience something like this expedition tooms has entered the Lander hatch is secured across the track on lander pressure good holding nominal in the shading release seals released plan they're backing away two meters four meters six meters you are clear expedition Lander Godspeed Chloe and Lenora safe travels expedition and don't...
forget our souvenirs the lunar gateway that these young women just shared with us it is such a different approach from what we had during

Apollo

that's right Stephanie it's a huge innovation gateway gives us the opportunity to land anywhere on the surface of the Moon it will also be a rest stop and staging area as we continue to go on to Mars now a journey to the moon takes about three days each way and a great way to pass the time is with music Stephanie music has actually been part of trot space travel from the beginning right it really has there were pre-launch songs shuttle crew wake-up songs and some astronauts he's even played instruments on the International Space Station to bring a part of home to this space station with them with NASA returning to the moon by 2024 we asked people what they thought should be on the playlist for the journey and created moon tunes you can listen on 3rd rock radio or use the hashtag NASA moon tunes to learn more one of the tunes that made the playlist is the song moon in the water by DAWs but for our astronauts when they travel to the moon one important aspect is going to be making sure they have clean water on the moon no effort you've recently worked with students on a water filtration experiment that's right I did this activity gets students thinking about some of the necessities of survival when it comes to living and working in space in this case we looked at some of the science behind cleaning water and and...
creating a water filtration system let's go back to the Columbia Memorial Space Center and see how it went we're with Breanna at the Columbia Memorial Space Center and today we're going to be doing a cleaning activity yeah so cleaning water is so important right so I thought you know we can make a water filter activity and just really get the importance of water and why we need exactly and as the astronauts say on the International Space Station tomorrow's coffee was yesterday's coffee got to recycle everything we can exactly and so right here I have some necessary materials that we do for the filter great I have some beans two different kind of beans some aquarium gravel because it's very colorful I have some peas and also rice and our favorite cotton balls excellent also just to organize some things I have you know a filter to filter it through some goggles safety first exactly and also I got some pH papers so we can actually see if our water is filtered awesome so we have Jackie and navei continuing the activity yeah so it looks like they've already started their filters a powerful beans Greenpeace aquarium travel and it looks like they're gonna add their final step which is cotton balls looks like Oh excellent yeah it's really easy and for our dirty water that we made we actually used Italian dressing so I think is really fun that's really awesome so you know what you did was you mixed water with the Italian dressing it's that...
easy Wow okay all three times I like to just go outside and grab some dirt that's even more fun I love it I love playing with dirt and it gives a real feel it's real dirty water and then I get to test it out and see if it's gonna be clean and when astronauts are on the lunar gateway they're going to neat systems like this to be even more efficient heavy-duty systems it looks like we have a completed activity here yeah so looks like everything is ready to go great and the goggles are on so safety first I'm glad what they're ready for that so now all they need to do is just add the dirty water excellent and that water doesn't look too dirty to me I think we need to give it a stir yeah oh there we go look at that dirty water he's mixing the Italian dressing and water so now I would probably say it's good to try out so we're gonna try this out now yeah let's do it I'm hoping it works I hope so - fingers crossed oh wow starting to go through it's going through all the layers that's faster than I would expect totally and I'm actually really surprised it looks very clean it looks very clean for those of you interested in participating in this activity and many others feel free to visit the website at the bottom of our screen and take part in this important initiative Nayla for the water looks a little cleaner when it comes out of the filtration system on the International Space Station that is true Stephanie our system...
includes a couple of technologies that you don't normally have at home which is why we suggest students don't drink the water you filter absolutely not now we want stem discoveries and experiments to be exciting for everyone we do and even celebrities are getting excited about NASA stem activities actress and singer keke palmer recently had the opportunity to learn more about our initiatives and she shared this message about stem and NASA's

Artemis

missions

hey Kiki Palmer here and when I'm not on set or in the recording studio one of my favorite things to do is to learn more about organizations like NASA and what they're doing to push the boundaries of how we understand the world around us in addition tons of new inventors are on the horizon including

Artemis

NASA's mission tool and the first woman and next man on the moon there's never been a better time to get involved in science technology engineering or math visit

nasa

.gov slash stem to learn more about how to help NASA get to the moon Mars and beyond the landing of

Apollo

11 is what we are commemorating today and for the first time when we land our first sorry when we land the first Artemus mission everyone around the world is going to be celebrating and it's really gonna be something we can all look

forward

to now nila fir you've recently had a trip to the st. Louis Science Center I did we went to the st. Louis Science Center and talked to several students there we asked them what...
they thought it would be like to land on the moon and showed us what they imagined the big event would be it would be like they were really excited they got really into it and I could see our

future

astronaut class in treating

Artemis

this is Houston Mission Control here you have 30 seconds to feel remaining we are close drifting

forward

a little shutdown okay stop we copy you down

Artemis

engine is off South pull here

Artemis

has landed Roger we copy you on the ground welcome to the moon

Artemis

you're

looking

good I would get my classmates excited about

Artemis

by telling them how we're gonna go to the moon and I just think that's really cool it's very important for NASA to send people to the Moon and Mars so that we can learn more about our planets in our solar system and we can have new people go and experience that we see you opening up the hatch getting ready to take your first steps the most important experiment to do on the moon in my opinion would definitely be look at ice on the moon and see if there are any signs of anything ever living there Artemus welcome to the moon as we establish a permanent presence we are closer to sending the next generation of explorers to Mars this is Houston out the Museum of Flight in Seattle is celebrating the landing of

Apollo

11 mission with a lunar block party for all museum guests this weekend the Museum of Flight also hosts the

Apollo

11 command module known as Columbia which is on display for the guests you see...
gathered when living in space shelter is vital for survival conducting experiments and to have a place to rest when surrounded by harsh conditions of space and death the seat Lewis Science Center students explores what it would take to build a habitat that could be sustainable for astronauts to stay in but also practical enough to live in let's take a look we're here today at the state Lewis sine Center and I'm here with Aaron who's going to be showing us a little bit about a habitat activity Aaron that's right our astronauts have just gotten back from the moon and they are already designing their next lunar habitats they are busy at work drawing a what they think would be helpful and a habitat to live if they were on the moon I can't wait to see what a habitat looks like so we've got Evan and Nikki here and they are working on actually building a 3d version of their habitat it looks like deep scrounger on the house and found everything and the recycling good they have everything here has been recycled or reused anybody could do this at home or school anywhere habitats are so important because we need astronauts to have clean drinking water and clean air to breathe yes there's all kinds of different issues in space what you said gravity is an issue and Nikki over here in the laboratory how amazing is this mad scientist Space Lab so he came up with a lot of ways to bring those experiments safely back all right I want to see you completed habitat...
Aaron let's do it ice Amaya can you tell us a little bit about what you felt for us today yes I built the bedroom and so in the bedroom when you come in there's a button on and off button so if you want the gravity on you press the green button and if you want to off you press the red button and then there's a bed like a rollout bed with a dresser Wow gonna be my car non-italian well I built the kitchen of the habitat and there is a table right here with chairs that you can push under the tables so that way it saves more space and then it's just the basic stuff like the sink but then there's a hot water tank inside of the refrigerator to keep more water inside the habitat and there's a pantry on the side of everything Katie what are you about going on hi I built the living room and the gym I thought when you come home from outer space you would want to relax so we have a TV and couch and a little bookcase with some chairs you can sit in and you have a treadmill you also have some oxygen and nitrogen and a computer and what's in the middle of your living room because I really like this it's a gravity button that you can push on and off if you want gravity you can push it if you don't you can push it again this I think we've given people at home a really great idea yeah it's your imagination and what you find in your own house is the limit I can't wait to do this at home myself yeah so for those of you interested in participating...
in this activity and many others feel free to visit the website at the bottom of the screen so we've covered launch gateway and landing the next mission on the moon but there's another important step to what you've asked students to imagine that's right as important as all of those other aspects of the mission are we are going to explore so we asked students at the Arizona Science Center to envision a lunar sample mission at the moon South Pole this is what their imagination delivered Houston Mission Control here you're at the optimal lunar South Pole location to begin drilling free core sample of water ice irate straights time of collection and analysis Houston this is

Artemis

3 we're go for water ice sample collection the core drill is in position and rover analytic lab is ready proceed with collection and analysis drilling has started and is proceeding smoothly I'm really excited for the first woman to be on the moon because it's a really good achievement for America and the whole world I like to think of it as basically a gas station on the way to Mars because from the earth to Mars it's pretty far away so if we're able to go to the moon and split the like hydrogen atoms inside the ice that's hopefully there and create rocket fuel out of that I feel like that would be pretty cool I think it's important to have activities that really help students understand just how important this step is impossible' solar system...
colonization stop drilling we are at the twenty inch mark block drill to begin collecting sample collection complete anchor the drill for core extraction the drill is anchored begin extraction simple ready for analysis open rover sample container the container is open and ready begin analysis I think it's important because it really is the first step in understanding space travel in general and along with that especially for Mars just be able to see whether or not there's possible biological life in the ice of Mars is just amazing they could really signal that perhaps there is a greater chance of life in our universe I feel like there's not any experiment that's more important than any other because any experiments any experiment they're all equally important analysis complete Houston great news we have 72 percent water ice and 28 percent regolith re was three that is great news those numbers suggest that this is an excellent location for a long-duration lunar habitat this is an important step in helping to ensure this generation will be taking the free steps on the surface of Mars great work Houston out I feel like we can learn a lot about how the moon was formed and when we learned more about that we can learn more about how the earth was formed and learn more on from there I think just feels to say you're their first really making the mark for the 21st century is just absolutely amazing man I tell you these kids are great I love hearing how how...
excited they are for our lunar

missions

and to see them as they walk through these simulations and put this themselves in the role of flight controller and astronaut it's just inspirational and I can see how interactive these simulations are it starts really great conversations in the classroom and at home that's exactly what we aim to do with the activity guide encourage families to do these activities at home and talk about them that's really what science is all about asking the questions getting an answer and then asking the next question from what you learned and it was so much fun working with the kids at the different locations I want to send a big thank you to the Cosmosphere the Columbia Memorial Space Center the st. Louis Science Center and the Arizona Science Center for all their help in making this show possible it's great to work with such great organizations who have the same goals as NASA exactly there are great museums schools and other informal education organizations around the country doing amazing work to teach teach and encourage kids about stem we are going

forward

to the moon and to get us there and on to Mars we need you the

Artemis

generation to be the next scientists technologists engineers and mathematicians to take us further than we have ever gone before to learn more you can go to our website at WWF and you can join our online conversation using the hashtag NASA stem on Facebook and Twitter we will leave you now with a song from...
NASA's collection of moon tunes thanks for watching and have a great weekend