Michael Souza - Psychology of GamblingMay 30, 2021
I'm very excited about today's lecture more than usual because we get to talk about something that merges what we've learned in this class in a way that's very ecologically sound and today we're going to talk about the
gambling, so So there's a lot involved in this and getting it right in 50 minutes is hard, but we'll certainly skim the surface today and uncover some really important social, cognitive and biological mechanisms underlying impulsive risk-taking behavior and, in this context,
gamblingand I think what you will see is that they are applied in such a way that other forms of addiction are also looked at sex addiction drug addiction alcohol addiction what you will find is that many of the mechanics that are true in the game are also true in other forms of addiction, so what I want to do is start by talking a little bit about why we're talking about gambling and then we'll proceed to the various me canisms on a couple of different levels and so I first want to start with the idea that gambling for much of its history has been compartmentalized and what I mean by that is that there have been a certain set of places where gambling Gambling is acceptable, other places often don't allow it even looking at Las Vegas Las Vegas has a history of sin and it has been less than a hundred years where gambling has been acceptable and certainly the culture has changed significantly.
You may have heard of Monaco in France. Really fancy casinos, the Monte Carlo Bay Casino is one of them. very posh upper class caliber actually everything is five star you have probably heard of Atlantic City Atlantic City right next to New York it is sort of the Vegas of the East it has a lot of the same luxuries including gambling that you would find in Las Vegas and at the time it was the way for the east coast of the United States to keep people on that side of the country from flying to Vegas why go to Vegas when you can go to Atlantic City ? you certainly have the Las Vegas strip how many people have been to Las Vegas show fans Wow Wow good 60 70% I can see out of 200 people Las Vegas very fun I think one of the things you will notice about Las Vegas is that there is no no place like it in the world and that means many different things this place is open 24 hours a day it has some of the most amazing architecture you have ever seen look at that just a little bit you can gamble 24 hours a day and you can not just gamble , but you can also gamble your life savings.
A story you may have heard a couple of years ago is that a man in England got a little fed up with his life and sold everything he had. he owned he took all the possessions he had about $70,000 on a one-way flight to Las Vegas and he bet it all on roulette he bet it all on one color he bet it on red and you think this is a great decision to do well if you win Great you double your value if you lose well let's not think about it he won and I didn't change his life Las Vegas can change his life who started Macao Johanns has less hands but still a significant number about 50% of the class Macao is a Republic of State approved China in Macau also has a strip that rivals the Las Vegas Strip certainly rivals it in terms of revenue because after this year Macau makes more money than Las Vegas this is the new gambling mecca , Las Vegas of Asia, quite interesting, makes more money and is undergoing massive development. some of the same casino owners here are taking advantage of this amazing opportunity it's a booming industry there's an incredible amount of money to be made right it's certainly also portrayed in movies and you've seen it in a number of different contexts I've probably seen it in James Bond.
We are betting big money and poker is very sexy and risky. He's betting millions of dollars like nothing, most of us would argue that. It's more than anything but to him it's a game and he fights terrorism with it at least in the context of Casino Royale maybe you've seen the movie Casino and Casino it's a very interesting movie he talks about some of the sides casinos and gambling but the way they view people who gamble is what I want to take note of Robert DeNiro in this case he is the manager of the casino he talks about how stupid people are for gambling that they spend all this money to travel to Las Vegas. all their money and they go broke its almost like gambling is a really stupid thing for people which with that being said a lot of people still do it is its fair to say bachelor party las vegas often in places like las vegas or reno or places like that are seen as places you can go and party and have fun and do whatever you want and somehow when you leave that place, everything you did, however bad it is, somehow you're absolved and you can leave. back and read your normal life you have a vacation in las vegas i showed a short clip before class started this is really interesting because chevy chase here in the context of the movie he has a little gambling problem he loses $26,000, includes a cash on his flights for the way home his clearly distraught family, but somehow it all comes together and he takes a winning Hino ticket from a man who pretends to die and gets all the money back and all of a sudden the game is viewed in a very positive way. what you might like that change your luck you may be unlucky things may not be working out but a good bet changes everything well you see it in the context of the movie 21 many of you probably watched this movie where a group of MIT students did this it happened in real life they practice strategies in blackjack that are known to reduce the house edge and they won millions of dollars they eventually got caught and got in trouble but it was seen as a way to beat the tem system and you could win exorbitant amounts of money in this case you've made enough to go to Harvard Medical School for four years $300,000 in real life you made a lot more pretty interesting easy money well you're hungover of course the top right is very interesting huh?
You know? the premise of that movie they need $80,000 to get their friend, so they simulate what happened in the movie Rain Man, where Rain Man was a sage, our little friend pretended to be Rain Man, he took his abilities and suddenly he made $ 80,000 in an hour and then it's good to go with easy money and then you get the realistic side Las Vegas is an unbelievably beautiful thing to a lot of people it's also a very dark, sad and scary thing documentaries like this Las Vegas American Experience looks at how amazing it is Las Vegas and how it makes you feel and what it does to people's psyches, but it also talks about the dark side, how it has ruined people's lives and therefore gives a more balanced view of gambling. and maybe my favorite quote I know all of you have heard this even if you haven't been to Vegas you have seen this commercial you heard it from a friend what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas you can go to Vegas and be another first person the moral boundaries are stretched and one of the ways that can be applied is with gambling certainly other things are possible in Nevada now the idea with this is that gambling was more compartmentalized first but the idea has changed and gambling is more and more available even driving here from San Francisco when I moved here for my job what I noticed is that the density of casinos increased considerably especially going into Washington where you could throw a stone and hit a casino go to that casino throw another stone and hit another they seem to be everywhere and certainly that's true in british columbia too there are a number of casinos i'm sure you've seen river rock maybe you've been there there is air conditioning Usually a skytrain stop at River Rock in case you don't have a car so you can still get there beautiful you have the Edgewater casino in downtown Vancouv er so between the games you know you're watching the Canucks game you can go down a few hundred bucks come back have a good time also it's true in Washington a few miles south of the border when they cross into Washington they have a Silver Reef casino a as they continue to go down there are many elegant opportunities to make decisions as they please now i have a personal connection to gambling, gambling is the reason i couldn't go to college at 18 years old.
My father is and was a pathological gambler and my college fund was gambled away and I got into UC Dave and there was no money. for me going and gambling in that sense was also what got me to college because I worked in a casino for a year and worked about 60 hours a week and made enough money to go to college for three years of working in a casino for you ar as a blackjack dealer and then as a blackjack supervisor extremely interesting unique life experience I would love to talk about this in more detail but suffice to say I think there are social reasons to consider gambling but certainly there are also reasons personal which have certainly differ for different people when you look at the effect in Canada it's amazing in terms of gambling revenue it's gone up multiple times so if you look at 1992 to 2008 gambling revenue in thousands of million is up a little over 14 billion and this is looking at Canada as a whole over this time period and if you break it down by province, Columbia British does its fair share well if you look at the gambling profits in 2008, $1.1 billion a year and the government, because gambling is regulated, the government gets a piece of that, so it's a highly profitable business in Canada and other places in the world, here's the thing, not only is there a casino down the street, but there's also one on your computer, right?
And you see this commercial. How many people have seen this commercial since the game? Now, don't worry, if you watch TV, you see it. You can't help but see it, especially at night. look at these sexy people with all this money and you can sign up and get $100 and you could win you know 50 million dollars and blah blah blah blah it's really amazing there are amazing opportunities here you don't even have to leave your home to gamble more and play any game you want location and travel is no longer a constraint on this behavior and because so many more people are gambling it doesn't have to be a bad thing but in some cases it can be quite destructive and the goal of today is to talk about some of the mechanisms by which people start to gamble, but also, more importantly, the mechanisms by which they continue to gamble despite heavy losses, both personal and financial, what are some of these mechanisms? uite a few, so in any given casino, I MGM Grand for example, they have a Players Club, it's called M life.
If you join this exclusive club, you get benefits. tickets, hotel rooms, etc., and so do light credit cards when they give you back a certain amount for the purchase. the more you play and the more money you play, the more you will earn, like when you have a credit card, the more you use it, the more rewards you can get depending on what you are using. This is interesting because it's one of those things. What people think about when they lose, well I may have lost $1000 but I got to watch that show with Celine Dion with my wife and I and we had an amazing dinner the worth of that can be a few hundred dollars the loss of cash true certainly more but this is something people often look at when they lose money well it could have been worse at least I got it out you feel like you are winning something even if you lose money and if you win money you still win things and so it's even better some mechanism to win even though you may not win at the tables look at this focus motivation this is an Aria casino how many people have been to Aria it shows fans just a handful, this is part of the new center. called downtown in Las Vegas the outside of the casino looks like this it's absolutely modern absolutely beautiful and this is a view of the inside of the casino and it will draw your attention to a couple of things one is that you see that the casino it has curves this is the main floor and you walk this way the casino curves for a reason it curves because they don't want you to go into the hotel and you've seen everything they want you to go in to explore because the more time you spend in a casino the more high the CH So they can make money off of you buying shows from the food scene.
Surely bets, right? We know that many casino games are stacked in favor of the house, some more than others. to create an environment that makes you feel welcome that makes you feel powerful that makes you want to be there because if you don't want to be here you can't make money the lighting is a certain way you often see the tables are structured around bars or where the Young people congregate well, it's an informational influence, well, other people are gambling, having a good time, boy, does that sound like fun. I should too. a little bit of money maybe you got a taste of that power right where you know the most about the game so it looks like where you got a lot of moneywhere you have more power it feels good casinos create a culture to cultivate that.
It's not an accident at all, certainly when you walk in and see people playing the way you do here, you see many people playing different games, you see machines running, you know we are social creatures we look at other people for clues on how to behave and if a guy has a lot of money or a girl in front of her they are playing and having fun a lot of people think and rightly so boy it looks fun you should do that too maybe you could get 20 bucks or a hundred bucks or whatever whatever you can do well to be in a crowd if other people are doing it having fun why shouldn't you? we're going to create a culture that reflects on this idea and casinos are extremely effective in this right you know in casinos in the past they used to channel sounds to make it seem like more coins were landing because it would make it seem like more people are winning everything at the same time you think you know jack and joey making money i might be too and this is the interesting thought by not betting i actually lose because i could be making money right a really powerful form of logic shift let's talk about some of the co cognitive characteristics I think this is the most striking thing that money doesn't mean exactly the same thing in a casino and you might think well of course you do you're playing for money casinos are pretty smart this is an incredibly smart structure so if you go to a table game like blackjack and you want to play let's say you have $100 they won't let you put the hundred dollars on the table for bet but you change the hundred dollars worth of chips maybe it's these colored Flamingo chips that are five dollars each and you get 20 of those okay that's okay and good slot machines do the same thing i put my hundred dollar bill in the machine if it's a five dollar machine I have 20 credits I have chips or I have credits it's not money anymore you might think well you know people are very smart they still know that's money I agree people still know that chips are money but the value of the chips seems to have changed and i love this quote during the game money loses its economic value doesn't go away but it certainly changes in other words i know $20 in chips is more than $10 in chips i know $20 cash can buy a t-shirt but $20 in chips and the relationship to t-shirt gets skewed now in college I don't know if you use a metric like this in college I used to rank l Things in terms of burritos I used to it's a true story I love Chipotle and back in the day you could get a delicious burrito for five bucks so $20 would buy four burritos so I'm thinking I could buy that desk for $100 but it's 20 burritos that's how I would calculate things a little weird but for me it worked in math terms my calculation could be said if this logic follows $100 here doesn't equal that many burritos in the same way maybe this explains why when someone has a pot of chips they are more likely to just push them in, maybe they are much less likely to do that to take a bunch of money a bunch of wads of cash and to push it around i In the circle , but the tiles are smaller, much easier to do, it's a $100 tile.
I've seen $25,000 tiles at Bellagio. I have seen the $100,000 token and it is a very nice token. Don't get me wrong, but suddenly. that huge exorbitant amount of stacks of cash is now a chip that distorts our view of what that really means maybe you've seen Casino Royale, the James Bond movie, where they have half a million dollar chips, the true amount of money in your chips again it's the same idea money is transformed into a different object and that different objects somehow mean it's worth less than it actually is interesting one of the most prominent things seen in gambling it's an illusion of control and more specifically this is what people believe can control events that they can't respond to on the day this was a problem for some unfortunate blackjack dealers so the term dumping comes from the dealers and basically It says this when I'm dealing and I'm losing all the time and I'm paying out all t The players I'm dumping I'm dumping all my money into l The players and of course that's a wonderful thing if you're a less exciting player, maybe if you're a casino and in the past dealers would fold or lose. many were fired and this makes absolutely no sense because the dealer can't control what cards come out of that little shoe, but the bosses still took the blame and lost their jobs.
A real world example. It's really interesting how many people play. Yahtzee anybody anybody plays craps or anything with dice I just a handful well my mom plays Yahtzee I love my mom to death and what she does when she needs sixes she shakes them like this and blows them on them maybe she rubs them against the cat and then she throws them away like doing any of those things is going to influence the outcome, but that's the funny thing, right, because one of my moms does this stupid thing and rubs it against the cat and she rolls and rolls a six, she thinks . if it works it's correct you're making that link even though there's no causation there that silly behaviors don't necessarily affect the outcome you can believe they do and thus this affects people in the real world when they play if they are if they have a special role if they feel lucky they are more likely to bet rather if someone else has folded a couple of times and the person seems less likely to bet less and so based on these things they don't they have absolutely no relationship. to the result people change their betting behavior correctly one of the cool things here is even in a coin toss game when people flip a coin and they guess if it's heads or tails if you hit the first ones even if you're not a player. you're much more likely to chalk this up to skill, i.e. you're good at guessing which coin on which side of the coin will appear in the real world.
This goes for slots if you win a couple of times at first. you're more likely to think so I chose the right machine. I'm good at this. Slots are my thing, although that has nothing to do with outcome and this is especially true of pathological gamblers, which is when good events happen, they are more likely to say wow! it's because i'm a skilled player i have experience i've been down this road before when something bad happens they're very likely to say it's just bad luck my fault and so they really focus on the positives they really rule out the negatives and so the negative learning doesn't affect nothing to the extent that it should be correct, we talked about the gamblers fallacy in roulette, it's actually quite common, so black has come out eight times and chances are good someone thinks wow I should bet. red because if black and red are 5050 reds must be going up and we commit that fallacy and many times we lose we misuse probability but I think it's even more remarkable superstitious behavior that used to work in morning shift times at night and often sat at a table with no customers and like many people I watched others and watched people do the dumbest things on slot machines and these are all true stories from one person before she pulled the reel it would go like this like a waterfall and then it would shoot and the funniest story so far true young lady she must have been 19 or 20 she had a cowgirl hat on and what she would do before she turned is go like this and then hit the button button and i really enjoyed watching this and I was thinking to myself why was I 18 years old why would she think that lasso behavior really affects the outcome and I was still at the table there was no n no one there and she walks by and she had a big smile on her face and I said excuse me I said I was just curious about his superstitious behavior I did something in the past to help him with it and she said yes actually I think they may have been put on a bit i didn't mean to insult her she said last time i was here i did that and won $1500 and i said pretty fair and i said ok ok i said you really think lasso behavior led you to win and she said no maybe Maybe not but it doesn't hurt and I was thinking to myself yes but it doesn't help either and it seems kind of silly right that being said it's true I didn't tell her that she was having a great time. day Who am I to ruin it but it was very real to her and I'm sure the next time she went to Jackson Rancheria she did the same thing very good it strongly reinforced the behavior $1500 is a lot to win so if you think you can do anything to help make that happen again, why wouldn't you?
Silly coincidental conditioning is what we call it back in behaviorism though, you are reinforced at a random time and she was simply reinforced when she was doing this loop for luck. that's what i called it and she kept doing it in the future she saw an association in it maybe she wasn't there what about biased assessments? We've come to this a little bit in the past and so this is often the process of discounting losses, making your small amount of losses possible, really focusing on the winds and for example a great example. about this with poker poker is a big problem when i was in italy the only station that was in english was poker and it was on 24 hours a day so i watched a lot of poker it was interesting and this cattigan 2008 i think he won 10 million dollars for winning the World Series of Poker Sinky wow, that's an incredible amount of money.
I would love to win ten million dollars, right? I was thinking wow when you look at what a person is and you think how many people lost thousands of people lost but somehow we give more importance to the good event and less to the end of the not so good event. Other people lost. gambling you see this exact pattern when they win they chalk it up to it being a good move i made lad that was just a sharp thought when they lose they're likely to say it was just bad luck that was impossible no big deal it's much easier to dismiss bad luck what a bad move interesting the downside of optimism I was reading this article and it's actually very interesting optimists are more likely to continue betting longer than they should because they often have the belief that eventually it's going to work out the problem with that money is how deep do you have to go well it's no coincidence that when you walk into a casino there are ATMs you can cash your paycheck at the teller station you can walk up and get money from your credit card with a cash advance maybe you've seen those machines before with a little phone where you call your credit card company you say yes I really want to get this money and they give it to you n interesting how deep p you have to go pathological players will go thousands deep many thousands deep they could lose their home and so on they have seen it happen optimism i'm not saying be optimistic let me clarify i'm just saying it can be a dangerous thing when applied to certain topics , sometimes you have to know when to quit, okay, the near miss is my favorite maybe you've experienced this before maybe you have a big bet in blackjack and you have a thirteen and you say hit me and you get a nine and you barely lose you're too close to 21 or maybe you're on a slot machine you're on the wheel of fortune slot machine this happened to my wife she was playing it was amazing so you get seven to seven and then blank oh you're so close because you had two sevens is really interesting we call these near misses where you are very close to winning but maybe one little thing is wrong this is that the casinos and manufacturers before slot machines know that these are really reinforcing things and so they designed slots that have a disproportionately high number of near misses and the reason for this is that a near miss reinforces their behavior just as much as actually winning what is the key difference?
They are winning, not really winning. any money when there's one near miss right and so having a lot of near misses induces a really powerful thing we call cognitive regret and you think you know my wife had the 7/7 Blanc and you can't help but think what if it was a third seven what if i won $2,000 wouldn't that be amazing? Do you feel bad because you were so close to reason? the only way to feel better after something like that is to keep playing and chase it well and in fact that's what we do and even more powerfully after a near miss people bet more on blackjack and slots will bet more because maybe they think that you hear this all the time with slots slots are heating up right? or a few spins because maybe you heard that's the kind of thinking and so you raise your bets the problem with that the more you bet the more you can lose certainly the more you can win butalso more you can lose is worth really really interesting so what about the brain?
So we have a well-documented pleasure center in the brain. This pleasure center is in the midbrain. We will call it the midbrain and this part of the brain lights up or activates when you are. feeling something pleasant when something good is happening here's what research and rats can do Early research showed that if you stimulate this part of the brain in a rat, the rat feels amazing, plus you can place an electrode in the rats brain and connect it to this lever and when you press the lever you will activate this part of the brain. Rats will press this lever and often press this lever at the expense of food and other vital necessities. they die because they refuse to eat or do other things to save their livesbehaviors it's interesting how it looks like a slot machine it will surprise you you know this observation is really funny it comes from BF Skinner behaviourist i said as you listen you know people are gambling because they have been strengthened in the past have won in the past feels good and so they play in the future for similar results nothing surprising really interesting though how the rat how the slot machine behavior looks pretty much the same and this is what i want to argue that perhaps understanding this area of the brain and other related areas of the brain is the key to not only understanding gambling behavior, but even an addiction more broadly, as I mentioned at the beginning, substance dependency, alcohol, drugs, addiction to sex, etc.
In Canada alone, 1 to 2 percent of Canadians have a gambling addiction; the APA would consider them pathological gamblers. This is about 600,000 people in the United States. The estimates are even higher depending on n the estimates looking up five percent, if not higher, and then you're looking at fifteen million people and this is something that affects a lot of people, you go to Nevada and you go to the gas stations, they have slot machines, you go to grocery stores they have slot machines they are everywhere you go to the airport and there are slot machines you open the slot machine and there is another slot machine they are everywhere available availability is not the problem and this creates a unique challenge, right? you think about people who seek rewards we all seek rewards things that feel good if gambling winning money is something you particularly enjoy it is very hard to resist in an environment where it is everywhere without which you can't fill a tank of gas watch a slot machine and the sounds that make it do the new thing you know it sounds like that and the falling coins are everywhere so what happens in the brain is really interesting so we have video games you know? maybe they come on the Nintendo Wii, maybe they come in another form, a portable game and you can play blackjack or poker or whatever game you like and you can play four points and the object of the game is to win as many points as you can. it's also real and casinos where you can play those same games electronically, video poker, video blackjack, whatever, but you're actually playing for real money and so what happens when you imagine the brains of people who are pathological gamblers and you compare it when earning points again versus winning real money what you find is when they are winning real money this rewards center is on fire very very active much much more active than a non-pathological gambler the brain's response to these monetary opportunities is vigorous and maybe that's associated with cravings, they're kind of cravings to gamble obsessive thoughts, I can't help it, but what if I could go out and make money, that strong brain response could explain a lot of things, really interesting here. negative correlation between the degree to which you are a pathological gambler and the activation of your brain here what do I mean by that let's take a look at the task very very simple task you have two stacks of cards you choose from one of stacks and it's red or black and your job is to guess if it's red or black it's like flipping a coin and guessing if it's heads or tails heads or tails well you can do this on the computer and you can create a program that makes the people write from time to time and incorrectly from time to time and so you can compare the tests when they are correct and when they are incorrect, which you see in the control subjects, the people who are not pathological gamblers, so you see a real activation strong in the reward center that we just mentioned, but also these frontal areas, these orbital frontal areas, now we talked about this a little bit earlier in the course that the orbital frontal cortex helps encode value and so if I have a delicious cupcake in front of me or a dr. pepper I can look at the activity in these frontal and frontal lobes and it will predict with relative certainty which one I will choose before I even move so maybe this participation is thinking about outcome value a bit thinking that I could win this really focuses heavily on that people who are pathological gamblers have much less activation, and the less activation you have in these reward centers, the more likely you are to be a serious pathological gambler, and so what does that mean?
Maybe pathological gamblers need more stimulation to get the proper activation of this reward circuit right and bet five or 10 bucks oh that's nice and you can win five or ten bucks but what if you bet 50? What happens if you bet a hundred? What happens if you bet 6,000? you guys the other day in class i remember seeing a guy come up to me when he was playing roulette he put six thousand dollars in red because the last six shows were black oh he lost and walked out. I walked away like it was no big deal I didn't lose that money and I had a strong emotional reaction I wanted to throw up I couldn't believe it I couldn't believe someone cared so little about money but for him he walks straight to another table takes another piece and gets it back or it's not really very interesting maybe they need some extra encouragement maybe that explains why they bet so much and play so often it's amazing when you work in a casino you can I keep noticing human behavior one of the things I noticed and it horrified me completely is that some people used diapers depending on where they didn't have to get up from their machine or they were at the lucky table and you might think that's absolutely crazy people get it right and it's one of those things that just has to happen once, right, maybe this happened to you, you're playing on one machine for an hour, you lose your money and move on to the next one. the guy waltzes puts $1.00 in there and wins $1,000 and you're thinking, oh, I can't believe it, I got if I played a little longer and avoided having to get up, but you know, those annoying things like eating and wearing bathroom. diapers and playing for 36 hours, wasn't it all in common?
At the casino where I worked, I saw the same people every weekend. They came in and stayed for 72 hours. They were there when I arrived. they would be there when i left they would be there the next day they would not stay in the hotel playing all the time playing all the time they could taking all the money they could to play the busiest time for a casino in the month is when starting in the middle or at the end it's the beginning of the month it's when people get paid it's when the welfare checks come out good it's really worrying here's the thing guys i want to focus on in the game it doesn't have to be a terrible thing just like the handouts that casinos often offer you have to know your limits you bring fifty bucks, if you lose fifty bucks, cut it, put your head down and go home, the problem is people don't stop at that point, they move on, do they? and yes? and yes? that feeling of power that feeling of being in the crowd that what if I win, think about these machines, these Willa Fortune machines where the jackpots are two hundred thousand three hundred thousand, if not more, that's a very sexy thing to think about, and if I win, that would change my life.
Las Vegas was built on this principle. the hypothetical principle, true, not likely, but what if it did happen, it happens to people and that's why casinos often have their wall of winners that Jackie here from Tennessee won 700,000, they personalized it, his name could be next, why not give it a try? and that's the idea behind creating this course that I'd like to do next year there's a lot of different things we can look at and really today we just scratch the surface you can see the social influence starting but all to perpetuate the game it can look at the cognitive mechanisms that distort this realistic perception, this bias to enjoy the gains and savor and enjoy them, but also to discount the losses and be in that phase as little as possible to look at the reward and the addiction and it's pretty safe if you look at the literature, many of these different addictions share the same neural architecture, how many people would say they are addicted to their smartphone freehand, right?
I know it was. I'll take one for the team. I had an iPhone in Berkeley. I love iPhones. Is incredible. I get probably 50-100 emails a day, and if you have your iPhone set up to receive emails, I can be the kind of thing that's so convenient that it might as well be the thing that drives you completely crazy. and i found i was checking it every ten seconds because i usually get an email every 10 seconds but more often i need to react i want to answer emails i want to be good about it often put ourselves in situations where addiction is possible if not likely for me.
I don't even have a cell phone anymore. I may sound like a caveman, but for me it was great for my mental health. I could trade the situation for what it's worth and watch. in casino strategy again this is getting into neuroeconomics neuromarketing how can you create situations that make people feel good that make people feel powerful that make people want to spend money amazing field a lot of people are going in this direction, whether you go into gambling or another industry i think the same principles apply and many high powered companies like Hershey etc hire people like this to study what others will find most attractive look and see in the brain you can look at the level of behavior and to explore past, present and future treatment options for this addiction and other addictions again this is something that affects a couple per cent of Canadians you can imagine that number will increase the that we can get it right and hopefully this will become a two out of seven psyche either next year or the year after.
People should have enough interest. Oh questions. Yeah there are a number of things you can do and it depends on your therapeutic approach give people drugs to reduce impulsive it and that's kind of a feeling like oh I want to go gambling right now maybe something could suppress that feeling a bit, also cognitive therapy, right? You can change the way people think about the situation by taking a step back and realizing that the way you think about winning and losing and whether or not you have skill in these situations doesn't exactly align with reality and so you can reframe. the way they think behavioral therapy you can punish play behavior and reward more positive behavior and so depending on the therapeutic approach it can go one way or the other yeah ok so y'all heard that Wow, so this is a man who knew he had a patol Logical problem with gambling that asked the casino to put him on a list of prohibited bets.
He came to gamble anyway and is suing the casino for letting him gamble. I'll leave it to those other questions, okay, thanks guys.
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