Joe Rogan Experience #1347 - Neil deGrasse TysonFeb 27, 2020
Hi Joe what's going on man yeah nice to see you thank you thank you I'm feeling a little too dressed up sorry it looks good you know ah look at that a little bit of starry night in there yeah yeah You really like them, uh, oh, yeah yes oh did you remember yes yes yes yes he's on the phone starry night i like starry night it's not what van gogh saw that night it's what he felt how do you know what he felt because this is not a representation of reality and whatever thing that deviates from reality is reality that has filtered through your senses and i think art at its best is exactly that if it were an accurate representation of reality it would be a photograph and i dont need the artist hmm ok like that that even the photographs that take you to a slightly different kind of dimension as you look at them is more of what was really going on at the time and that's art brought to the craft of photography and that's why you like it that's one of the reasons i also think it was the same fir first painting where his title is the background think about this could have been called you know in the full painting obviously this is a fragment yeah yeah , so there's a town there's a cypress tree there's a church steeple it could have been called the cypress tree it could have been called sleepy town it could have been called rolling hills but no it's called starry night and everything in front everything in front is alone in the way and how often do you paint something where the title is the background that that's my point and in this particular case the background is the universe and the soap so for me this was a turning point in art and it's 1889 , which is recent given the history of the paintings and you know it goes all the way back, so yeah, there it is. that your favorite painting I always have to say yes yes a vest and a fire if not what you're doing for five ties that have this painting on them in different ways yes so I'm with everything I'm with everything there is of interest the thing is that the city is what you've seen starry night in bacon someone searched for it dug it up on the screen today someone did it in bacon it's crazy weird yeah yeah weird go back to the original please what's interesting about the original is that the city is realistically depicted the trees are recognizable as trees if you ever saw a sky that looked like this the end would be here, yes exactly.
Also the eddy isn't wind or clouds because if it was, if it were clouds I can't see the stars well what started it is how it felt that's all I can tell you by the way it's a real night so sorry it's not even early morning crescent moon when it's that orientation means this is pre-dawn and that white object lower on the horizon that kind of glow that's most likely Venus and that allows us to track what happened over what set of weeks This painting was actually painted, so it's kind of like forensic astronomy. Has anyone done an analysis of l? like where he must have been yeah yeah that's well known yeah he was in a real place and so he wouldn't get this out of his ass right?
I mean he painted what he saw folded into what he felt yes this is how art should be I think yes otherwise what do artists need to make great things something they felt and it came from them , yes, and do they feel things that artists feel the natural world in different ways than the rest of us? and that's why they're artists, they express it or express it with oh sorry yeah not just yeah we can all feel it but be able to express it that's another talent you know what I often think about? Because? Why do we all know who Paul Revere is?
Okay, all of us, it's a household name, but is there any other war in world history where the full name is the name of the person who told other people that the enemy? would come we can mention his name but we can't list the generals they all fought in that war why is it because a poem was written about him and he had this mundane job let me tell people the enemy is coming and so the artist in this case the poet it elevated the mundane to something that forces you to take it into account your understanding of this world what joyce joyce kilmer is the most famous poem it is about a tree dogs pee on trees you drive next to trees you don't even know they are there yet a poem about a tree i will never see anything as beautiful as a tree oh my god this makes art make you pause and just reflect on the things you took for granted, the things that became ordinary in your life and they were elevated to - - they are beatified for the talents of the artists, that's a word or beatify you never know, we defy, yes, I'm using it freely, it's the middle step between being a common person and being a saint, the beatification of someone in the Catholic Church. could have similar r No being sad would be nice it could come from that but being beatified are the first steps on the road to sainthood yes that is if I remember the word saying correctly oh you have to hold the definition for make supremely happy that christianity claims to have reached heaven's beatitude and authorized blessed title and limited public religious honor was beatified six years after her yes so i think you can't become a saint unless you have previously been beatified i think that's the rule but i'm looking at the number one definition there to make supremely happy so that's interesting yeah that yeah that preempted a definition of beatify yeah so that's to be out of contention where the verb was up there, you had on the screen Roman Catholic Church, he beatified one diego an indian believes he has a vision of a virgin mary synonyms canonize sanctify as a consecrate so c I think if you take something ordinary and subject it to an artist's interpretation it can be beatified and elevated to a level where it becomes a familiar recognition of its importance in this world mmm so my brother is an artist my brother is an artist so I'm kind of fine art but he also paints and he teaches art history so I've had this kind of baptism all my life being exposed to it.
I'm the brother scientist, but they have an artist in the family. Yo, everyone should have an artist in the family. I have an uncle and of course the whole steam science, technology, engineering and math movement, the artist came in, they say, wait, I'm kind of a stem, the stem movement, they want to include the a to get art as part of that movement, science, technology, engineering, art and math change. from stem to steam its esteem so you can go full speed ahead steam is a better word in that sense both are good words for what they need but that sounds like a lot of awesome stuff like it does and yeah im not throwing comedy and it's like the lbgtq a really squirrel when you start adding more letters yes you can add letters but if it doesn't spell anything then memorization has to kick in but you don't have to memorize it's already there for you so it's cleverly conceived.
I think it is the abbreviation. it was his tacit acknowledgment that these are elements in society that advanced civilization and grew the economy, so in fact there's hardly a growth economy in the world that isn't growing because it's been worried untouched for science or technology all just think about it so if you're running you don't have them on your show but if you run saying I don't like science science is bad science is bad ok then you will die in poverty if you elect officials who believe. that also who thinks science is bad in 2019 and how they express this they express it through signs ok so you know i'm saying they're saying it online i have a book coming out in a month called letters fr i'm an astrophysicist, okay, yeah, it's not, it's not out yet.
I got it, it's not how you got a copy, but I don't even have my copy yet. angry people who don't like anything including science and one of them is a riff he just said i hate it and sign it and science brings some of the worst things to ever happen to humanity and pollution and this he goes on and on and on and on and so I answer his letters from a national physicist and I and I respond as calmly and rationally as possible when they attack you like that, but what I'm saying is that not everyone embraces everything that do the science and some will elect you you have the science deniers for global warming the science deniers with vaccines you have science and IRAs with GMOs you know there is all kinds of science denial in modern society and knows that we in a free society, what are you going to do well? that people can think what they want, but if thinking what they want influences politics that then affects everyone, then your denial of science has consequences for the economic health of the nation and, by the way, it's not just economics, it's your financial health, it's your physical health because medicine flows through advances in science as well as our security well there are people who deny some aspects of science while conveniently using others that's where it gets weird , TRUE?
You are driving a car that relies on GPS. You are using a phone to complain. the global warming hoax you know you're right one of my most popular tweets remember when we had the black hole photo of a galaxy far away and it was a headline maybe less than a year ago banner headlines and the first photo of a black hole and it was an amazing engineering feat to get multiple telescopes around the world to pool the data t I did it well and it was one of the biggest collaborative efforts we've ever undertaken in my field of astrophysics ok and everyone loved the results, so all I tweeted was the scientific report of the first photo of a black hole.
Scientists report that humans are heating the earth oh you didn't mention it ok scientists we produced the first image of a supermassive black hole 55 million light years away the scientific response we have concluded that humans are catastrophically heating the earth response that goes into conflict with what I want to be true so it must be false, well that's the selective selection of science, it's selective allocations, but the issue of global warming is very much related to a certain type of ideology, a certain type of person thinks about the matter for me, a nonsense person. what i'm saying yes it does matter what i am what i'm trying to say is that it's a demographic that has handpicked science to deny man-made global warming there are other democrat demographics said from other handpicked science to deny other things and not everything is located on a political spectrum i mean a political branch so you tend to find liberal people complaining that the conservatives they have embraced know that the gluten free global warming platform is denying the science and they need science on their side and many of those same people are rubbing crystals to be healed by crystal energy or denying vaccinations thinking they are somehow bad for you and all of this requires a full or total rejection of the mainstream . science and we're living in that world now and I don't know I don't think it stops the progress of civilization but it can certainly slow it down and occasionally stop it that's certainly a problem but how big of a problem is how many people actually deny science in 2019 and it has to be for me in a free country that's not what matters what matters is in a free country where you elect officials who are not officials yes, you elect people with scientific knowledge, yes they don't have to be scientists , me or and if you don't have scientific knowledge, you should be aware of that and then listen to people who are right, right?
However, I think what they are doing is doing what their constituents would like them to do. That's why I never hit politicians on the head. I do not do that. Republic we are democracy whatever you believe if you believe the earth is 6000 years old and you were elected is it because the people elected you because they believe the earth is 6000 years old or because they are willing to let go of that because they believe in Oh possibly that is a good point because you have a portfolio of thoughts and beliefs or because he is such a deep christian i mean he is so deeply christian he has a lot of Legends that are connected to science that don't include the pope by the way you know he can get more Christian than the pope to Okay, he believes in science.
Now, this new Pope is quite interesting if you read his encyclical from a couple of years ago. It is a scientifically literate document. he rose from the dead and there were still miracles and everything else in the New Testament, so he's not denying that, but since he's saying, oh my gosh, here's something the religious community and scientists can partner on and that if we want to save life on Earth and therefore we have to be better shepherds of what is happening on this earth and one of them is that we do not want to flood the low countries of the South Pacific where themean sea level is 10 feet above sea level or whatever you're going to lose these countries if you keep melting our-our-our ice sheets because that would include a north and there's no land to the north so the ice of the glacier is land ice, because any ice that is in the water floating can melt and it will not change the water level, that's why you can do this experiment, it's great, fill your glass put a few ice cubes in a glass of water fill the glass as full as you can without spilling it and ice bobbing above that level is fine because ice has about 10% buoyancy at that about 10 percent of an ice cube will rise above this is this is the equation of the iceberg ok ok that's the tip of the iceberg ok you see the top 10% and 90% is not visible to you this is by the way i don't want to get there there are too many off ramps here but that's one of the things that did good in you tanic okay if you look at the first Titanic movie which was in black and white they see this huge iceberg on the horizon and then they can't I can't get away from it because oh my gosh it doesn't have to no no the iceberg that cuts through the bottom of your boat is sticking out of the water a bit because 90% of it is underwater and that's where the damage happens and in James Cameron's Titanic you see the iceberg that they hit above the water. a small piece of ice no that couldn't hurt anything all the damage was in the making anyway so back to this so do this experiment and then let the glass sit there and let the ice melt and the water level will stay the same because when ice melts it takes on a lower volume than when it turned to ice mmm and that's why pipes break i thought pipes break only because water expands yeah i just did describe that in the opposite direction oh i didn't know it gets bigger that's what expands means what kind of with your vocabulary here right now but i'm saying your ice cube is sitting at 10% of your ice cube it's sitting 10% above the water level and it melts and becomes water, the water occupies 90% of the volume of the ice just so it just melts back into the water and doesn't overflow despite that we're stuck above the water line cu ande you had the glass so now let's do the opposite ok there's water in the pipes well can i tell you something that could blow your mind no how many times do you mind at least once a day yeah at least we need it to blow your mind ok that's how it works so let's put water in the pipes ok and then the temperature drops the pipes have some force right?
Copper pipes you know they're rigid and I grew up around Bray and the pipes are fine so there's no Massachusetts so the waters there and now the temperature starts to drop ok the water wants to turn to ice but it can't because the pipe contains it so it just sits fine 32 degrees like water even though the outside temp is dropping below 32 degrees fine and it still sits there I guess the 30 degrees 29 pipe is squeezing try this water from turning to ice and the act of squeezing it prevents the temper the temperature from dropping well and you as the temperature drops depending on how strong the pipe is and the temperature gradient along it as the temperature exterior continues, now it reaches 25 degrees, the pipe still holds the liquid water and it is still 32 degrees. in there and it gets old and this keeps happening it still has a point where the pipe can no longer hold the water and the water spontaneously freezes it just goes down to that temperature and the pipe is defenseless against this is so the point is that the stronger the pipe, the lower the outside temperature needs to be for frozen water to break through, so in theory if you had a pipe made of a material stronger than copper it can go even lower than even lower How low can temperatures be?
Because when things freeze they have to expand so it's not just when water freezes water expands when it is, it's a remarkable fact about water that it's shared by very fe w other ingredients most things when they get cold they shrink as all men know so most materials because things get cold the vibrating molecules slow down and take up less space water is the opposite of that as it goes through what i am going to describe to you a extraordinary fact about water and why we are alive today. Okay, check this out, let's take a lake that has fish in it.
The temperature drops outside and the lake slowly begins to cool because there is a time lag between the tank and the air. the temperature and the waters that's why the first freeze the lake is still there it has to be cold longer ok so what happens the water cools on the surface it's ok and it starts to be ok the water cools on a surface and it starts to shrink then the water falls this shrinking getting denser it falls to the fine bottom it does so down to about four degrees celsius as it goes from 43 degrees celsius to zero degrees celsius the freezing point starts to expand and becomes less dense e than the water so now that the water really wants to freeze it stays on top when it freezes you freeze the top surface of the lake well how about the water below is insulated from the drop in air temperature and the fish do not die? imagine if ice was denser than water what would happen, it would freeze the top layer, it would sink, the bottom would freeze, it would freeze the next layer, it would sink and the fish would be systematically forced to swim in shallower and shallower water until they were all frozen. the upper surface of the lake and all the fish would be dead every winter.
I think it's every thing from the lake, fish. all deer would you say all deer because it's usually one if you had several types of deer yes so if you had yes but it's rare that they're all in the same place you usually have a normal type of life but if the ocean has many types of fish in the same place oh yeah that's interesting so would you say fish fish it's like it's a double deck it's different types of fish plural yes I'm surprised twice how many fish in the oh yes yes yes lo sorry she is in the sea yes so multiple plurals of different have to understand we are ocean water freeze salty salt water do you have the word fish up there some weird anomaly that happened where there was two or little oxygen in the water and somehow the fish frozen was pushed out on an ice wall in South Dakota so there's very little oxygen I don't know I can't explain that there if you look if you look at the green in the water it's most likely algae that it happens with certain lakes getting contaminated with certain types of a can kill the lake but by doing it right you get it in the ocean to get these zones but I don't see how you get frozen fish though that's awesome but stop coming back up yeah , scroll down so we can read. frozen fish a wall of ice and South Da The Lake of the Andes Kota National Wildlife Refuge is amazing, that's a video.
Jaime, yeah I don't know how they froze because they can swim to where it's not frozen so I would have to. to see what caused that Wow, so my point is that because of this property of water, ice floats, it insulates the lower layers of the lake, and fish can survive through the winter. Yeah, I mean, if you put a barrier between you and the changing elements outside, that's basically an insulating layer. you know ice fishing is particularly weird because you have to continuously scoop out the ice and maybe even drill back in to make it work because frozen water is less dense than unfrozen water and is one of the rare ingredients for which tha Ah , and it is likely that there would be no life on earth or anywhere else on earth if that were the case if the opposite were the case, then water is a very special ingredient for life on earth. it's sacred to these it's on the list of special ingredients that make the earth habitable for life that's a really weird thing though if you can contain it somehow amazingly strong tube yeah it won't freeze yeah it will not freeze what is. bad temper there's a number well that's why pipes don't freeze when it gets 30 degrees outside that's not when you hear it it freezes when it goes way down when you break it yeah and then it'll break copper as it is paper and rip it like it's like it's nothing now on the other hand try this at home take an ice cube that's 30 degrees ok how would you measure that?
Take out an ice cube and just because it will be near zero Fahrenheit if you have a good free zer just scoop it out and set it down on the counter place it on a wooden cutting board ok let it sit there for about 10 minutes and its temp will rise, there will be a point where it hasn't melted yet but you can take it and squeeze the ice cube and you can force it to melt by squeezing it because you are forcing it to a smaller volume than it currently holds and the only way you can achieve that is if ice turns to water then it will occupy a smaller volume so the act of squeezing the ice can melt it so if you had some kind of pipe that could physically contract like something that had threads you could coil to a smaller size you could put a cylinder of ice in it and you could spin it slowly oh yeah yeah yeah it would melt yeah you can melt it if you have some machine that would squeeze ice yeah and the more s colder the ice the harder this the more you the harder it would be for you to squeeze to achieve that so its a fun thing with ice i Actually you know what else you can do this is a harder experiment to do if you take us a mesh as a screen mesh which needs to be sort of openings wider than a screen gate so what would this look like as a fence like a chain link? link the fence and hold it horizontally and get a big block of ice and just place it on top a block of ice is heavy what will happen is the ice the weight of the ice will melt the ice at the chain contact points because you feel that pressure to squeeze it into a smaller volume, but by the time it melts, the ice has already passed through the grate and will re-freeze on the other side, so you can actually squeeze a block of ice through a fence of wire mesh vertically just by pushing that yes it's nice it's great it's a slow experiment but it's bad I feel it depends on the temperature the ice and how and how and how much it weighs because the pressure is what it is that's why that's why you can skate on ice because you can skate on ice because the edge of the blade is see and high pressure on the ice and it is melting a drop of order you are actually sliding on the water when you are skating you are not skating s On slippery ice really yeah I thought you were just cutting the ice with the blade so the blade have you ever seen a sharp blade?
It's not just flat it's actually a concave cross section so each edge, the left edge and the right edge, are basically on the edge of a knife mm-hmm okay it's not as sharp as a knife but It's you can feel how it's sharp so when you lean on that edge, whether it's the inside edge or the outside edge, your entire body weight is supported on this in a very narrow surface area of the blade, so that the pressure is extreme, it is as if you knew a thousand. pounds per square inch, you're not a thousand pounds, but you're not slipping in a square inch, so you do the math and what you can have is that you're going to skid and you're actually what makes it so slippery. on ice skates it's because you're moving in a drop of water that freezes right behind you when you pass it mate yeah so it's possible that the ice is so cold you can't really skate on it because even that pressure doesn't it's enough to melt it how cool would that have to be last time i did a calculation it was really cold like tens of degrees below zero how does dry ice work?
Oh it's just frozen carbon dioxide that's all so here's the difference here's the difference you've got a frozen water block and a frozen co2 block so there they are. air pressure on earth is high enough at sea level is high enough to allow ice to melt and maintain a liquid state ok co2 under air pressure normal air pressure wants to melt but doesn't it can hold a liquid and it goes right into gas if we had much higher air pressure you could have melt co2 and have liquid co2 so now watch what happens so ok it will blow your mind again this is really good ok like physical chemistry so here you go so see what happens what happens if i reduce the air pressure Ok the transition from ice to water remains the same it's not affected but the boiling point is affected as you know cooking times have to be adjusted on mountain tops because when you boil thewater is not 212 degrees depending on the height of the mountain there is less air pressing down which prevents it from boiling ok boiling point is not an absolute fact about water it has to do with the pressure of the air it is in on top of that if you have water with extremely high air pressure it has to go to a much higher temperature before it boils, so the boiling point of water that is reported in all the textbooks is at sea level at a pressure atmospheric this is how you get 212 degrees if you start to reduce the atmospheric pressure it's 210 degrees 205 degrees 200 degrees 190 degrees 180 degrees 180 oh yeah and that's not as hot as 212 degrees so you have to cook the food longer everyone cooking times are increased for this reason so we don't look at I'm Done With You.
Oh, let's keep reducing the air pressure, okay, theoretically, as it is possible on earth. I'm saying you can do this experiment in a lab, okay, you keep reducing the air pressure. The boiling port keeps going down. holy passing shed ice melts and turns into water water evaporates and turns into steam and all that happens at 32 degrees there is an atmospheric pressure by which water ice and steam coexist and it is called the triple point of water and all the ingredients have a triple point Wow Mars Mars is very close to the triple point of water so you can have you can have a simultaneous bath in certain regions of Mars a simultaneous bath because the air pr It is sure that it is so low that it is about one hundredth of the air pressure on Earth.
It's very, very low. So you know a place where a pot of water, ice cubes, and steam all come out at once. It is at the triple point. So here's the lesson here. we live life in our world at atmospheric pressure at atmospheric pressure at room temperature and we define what is normal based on that life
experiencebased on how our senses interact with that environment, but the real universe is much stranger than what we what our senses are exposed our five senses are exposed on earth what did you think of Elon Musk's idea of bombing the poles of Mars to warm it up? what he's trying to say is you want to introduce heat you want to block ozone you want to block ultraviolet it's so you can protect organic life so we have an ozone layer it's three oxygen atoms oh three and oxytocin likes the ultraviolet light so ultraviolet light comes from the Sun and it's eaten by ozone it eats it up and when you do that the ultraviolet light doesn't reach the surface of the Earth so even though they sell where you use sunscreen and you have sunscreen 45 yes that's because of the 1% of ultraviolet rays that pass through the atmosphere, if you're above the atmosphere you're fried because ultraviolet rays are highly hostile to organic molecules and what we're made for life, so you want to protect you want to give life a chance, so you want to not only heat up Mars, but you want to find a way to block the ultraviolet light that comes from the Sun, so you need to There's some mechanism, if it's not ozone or it just lives underground, for example, that's fine, and I do that.
I don't think we should think of the idea as literal, but it's a general principle of what you want to achieve on Mars by doing it, so you want to warm it up, you want to protect what could be the future of biochemistry and then you see it and your and then you wait you don't know you wait too long you want to speed it up if you could and then you terraform Mars SpaceX I've visited it a few times it has a mug you can buy there and then it has Mars in it ok and then you put hot liquid in it and Mars it turns into a teal farmable marble so yeah it's pretty cool and it doesn't tell you that when you have a cup of mars you know it and show it. it went off and oh my gosh what happened?
It's an Earth mug, but it doesn't look like Earth. There are many people who continue. it's just sitting underneath in a permafrost so it wouldn't have to bring water to mars by the way in the very distant future you can redirect a comet and get all the water you need but how far away are comets everywhere parts, friend? I'm in a shooting gallery, yeah, that's not what I asked, oh, do you think it's before we could read our weight reference? time yes ok sorry we know how to do it but there is no real incentive so there is no engineering funded engineering plan to do it but we know how to do it on paper it all happens with or without us because we are on the path of countless thousands of asteroids and comets so what you would do is find one that comes close to us anyway on the 7th orbit down or the 100th orbit down the line and then you deflect it slightly in such a way that it would then collide with Mars or even with the earth if you wanted the earth needed more fresh water yes I heard there is a possibility but it's not the problem if something really big that would fill lakes that would be worth it if it hit the earth it would be bad for life on earth because it's a spontaneous deposit of energy that can change the weather and do so you want to do that on a planet that you're trying to terraform isn't that the speculation of how did the water get here in the first place so if the jury is still out on that there are labels in the oceans on the water molecule that tell you the water must have come from more than one source that's what confuses things, we want it.
To be a simple thing, it all came from comets or it all came from inside the earth through volcanoes, volcanoes emit lakes and historically lakes and oceans worth of water from out there calderas so we the problem is what we say in science. too determined there's a bunch of comets that have delivered all the water there's a bunch of water that could have come out of volcanoes to give us all the way but in the oceans it's clearly a mix so the final word is still out of that, what do you think of what is happening?
Why now with the protests over the construction of this newer and larger telescope? The history of astronomy is one in which larger telescopes become larger buckets to collect light. Those are the only telescopes today. They are the same as telescopes when they were invented. all you are trying to do is get as much light as possible and the more light you get the dimmer the object you can detect and the farther away the object you can see and so on for every generation of new large telescopes that have been built is that it has increased and deepened our understanding of our place in the universe so that's the background the proposal is for a hundred meter telescope bigger than ever on the Big Island of Hawaii on Mauna Kea where there are other telescopes there , well that's where the Keck is you're right yes I think if that's where the Keck is I think they saw it somewhere hidden behind most lines of sight but that's not so much the important thing here It's that the native Hawaiians, from what I've read, see the mountain as a sacred place and therefore to put a telescope, another telescope becomes a kind of invasion of sacred land and so, yes, it's that there is a confrontation Last time I looked I mean people are protesting in the streets and there are some native Hawaiians who accept this because it means jobs high quality jobs engineering jobs you have to build it you have to maintain it there is a whole supporting infrastructure for that that means jobs and it's done in collaboration with the University of Hawaii and all the other telescopes are associated with the University of Hawaii where people are educated there so at the end of the day you have to ask yourself how are you going to make decisions in the future if you do democratically and then you take them. a vote or do you want the natives to be the ones who decide their own destiny and it's democratic well then in the natives vote well or are the few people who are protesting to do th win the day I mean it's complicated and it's very, it's very, there are a lot of nuanced issues out there, there is a strand of thought that the United States government and normal municipal leaders have no authority over that, there are some that I affirm that this is Native Hawaiian property not owned by any municipal entity of the US government, so even state representatives don't have a say, so there's a lot going on, okay, but if I had to have a say, this is how I would do it. okay first I would say I think what should happen is I don't know if they have the infrastructure system set up but if they could set it up this way if the natives consider the mountain sacred the natives should have say everything they it happens to the mountain ok that's how i think it should be so now what you want to make sure is that whatever decision the natives make and vote on is fully informed that you don't want to vote be misinformed or underinformed in any election let alone if you are voting for a telescope on your holy mountain ok otherwise you are voting out of thin air yes you know you are influencing your future based on biased information and decisions based on biased or bad information decisions no matter what is ok so i would say vote with the natives and make sure everyone is fully informed and here is a bit of information i just want or add to the information, okay, you know what we do as astrophysicists, we study the universe rather passively, we sit there at the end of a telescope and wait for the light to reach us.
It's not a petri dish where we shake it, heat it, freeze it or break it up or just commune with the cosmos. my doctoral thesis relied significantly on the data I obtained from the tops of the mountains in the telescopes. I got my data from the mountains in Chile settar to Lola and used all the natives of the natives the local people that is a other telescope that are all these telescopes that have specific access points to the universe, not all of them are asking the same questions, so it's the gathering of all the data that gives us a complete understanding of what we think is a complete understanding of the universe so what we do is try to understand our place in the universe and all I'm going to say is that if you have power over what happens on that mountain and it's sacred to you because whatever it is is important to you and their sense of their understanding of their place in this world, that would be spiritual significance.
I can tell you that what we learn as astrophysicists from those mountaintops gives us a deeper understanding of who and what we are in this universe, so I would say whatever your concept of God is, whether it is the creator of the universe, the spiritual energy that pervades all space and time, whatever your concept, the discoveries of astrophysicists bring you closer to it. your perspective let me be the opposite point of view feel good i'm not trying to i don't know this is information i'm posting this is information and i walk out the room and then y'all all vote ok i believe in democracy here and majority rule that's something Well, it worked well, but if it's not the majority rules, I don't know how they're going to make the decision, but let's say invent a future where the natives vote.
If you vote, I wanted to make sure you listen to what I just said and now take control of your own destiny. I just don't think they care. I think they decided that this is a sacred space and they don't want anyone to do it. anything then that's their call they think it's ok I know no I'm not judging Peeples but if you wanted to make a convincing appeal to them you know what I just told you that's it that's all I would say. and when you vote, I want you to understand that fact. I could go one step further and sa and mountain tops because of the access they give to astrophysicists and they represent all of us in the universe our sacred places to scientists ok now its not sacred in a religious sense but it is sacred in terms of a way to know and understand who and what. we're in this universe we place a high value on that but it's not our earth that's with you you specifically know these things have The Europeans didn't come to Hawaii and found excellent legions of scientists they are conducting experiments ok they found a t'v people govern themselves so much so that's the consequence if it gets rejected and that's permanent and there's no way to stop that telescope from still being built it just won't be built in hawaii well where is it will build there? you have to be built on tops of mountains yes so mountain tops are a problem yes you want to be on top you know something you see clouds and mist and you want a dry environment so there is less rain.
I went to see what clouds you have. I heard yes very good the Keck over ten years ago the first time and I was very lucky it was a night the moon had not risen yes the moon is not astronomers favorite thing yes you want darkest sky you can get we were worried as we drove there it was very cloudy but we drove through the clouds and got to thetop and we got to the observatory and it was the most amazing thing without telescopes just that there were telescopes there but without telescopes it was the most amazing view of the sky I had ever seen and it changed my perspective of our place in the universe it felt like you were in a spaceship like we're flying through the universe because of the diffuse lighting on the big island because everything's set up above so it doesn't mess up what they're trying to achieve at the CAC reflections in the wrong place not just that if there was a moon and you ascended through from the clouds the moonlight lights up the clouds and you're an island in the middle of white cotton yeah and you're not even connected to the earth it's what you imagined mount olympus would have been I've been there for them when that happens with the gods up there up and it's like that's its place it's there so yeah and so my brothers my fellow astrophysicists who have also observed from the tops of the mountains by the way it's becoming It's a lost art because it's not lost but it's becoming something that we don't do anymore something called an observing service, you'll put your observing program and it's Hana to a technician at the telescope pointing the telescope gets the data and sends it to you back so the next generation doesn't have the
experiencemy generation had because there was a pilgrimage to the top of the mountain and you turned your life path we turned your life schedule into night time and in doing so you know this is the journey it was long enough because you're in the middle of nowhere now you have to go nocturnal and by the time you're ready for this you'll be communicating with the cosmos it's you the detector the telescope and the universe and it's also eerie quiet up there cause you don't listen nothing the hum of maybe the motor or telescope falling off but that's about it so all I'm saying is if they decide not to have it tell us we'll go somewhere else one of they are the Canary Islands these are also volcanic hilltops not as high as Mount Aquel which is at 14,000 feet by the way I should have checked what temperature water boils at in the maximum amount of K we could have rounded that story off but I think it's actually about a hundred and eighty degrees.
I think I actually calculated it once, but anyway, so you'd find a mountain top and we'll put it somewhere else and the data won't be as good, but that's going to be a consequence of that and none of it. I'm going to Hawaii how do you think that's going to be resolved if you had to guess I don't know um uh I just don't know a lot of people are against it including Jason Momoa Aquaman is against oh huh who's protesting ? it aggravates the cause of others even if they are a minority yeah so i like it i said i think natives should let everyone know who all natives are is there a list so everyone can vote for this one? thing you wouldn't want non-native people to vote on if you're voting on whether it's so sacred you don't want to put a telescope there you would want people who have an indigenous concern for what's going on there and indigenous in reference to relative hawaii every word message indigenous is relative yes especially with hawaii because the only indigenous people are black people in africa because human life started in africa everyone else traveled to where they were so native are you a time frame to d clarify what is native and what is it's not yes and a native and it's in its simplest form is if you were born there then i'm a native new yorker i was born there but i wasn't the original settler there would my species didn't they formed on manhattan island so they all traveled to where they are, they got there before the Europeans, and that has become the definition of indigenous, okay, you were there when the Europeans landed, so you are indigenous, but to other life forms on it on that rock on that hawaii it's a volcano it's a volcanic archipelago you know how that happens the way you've got all these multiple volcanoes there sir and a string did you ever wonder why how that happens so you wondered what did you do you know why oh because there's a hot spot under the earth's crust it's just sitting there okay and when you're under the earth's crust things don't move like they do in the earth's crust. place goes dormant but the rig cradle is still drifting you still got continental drift so it drifts then the hot spot says its time to gurgle again girls now you got another volcano then it turns inactive, that volcano becomes inactive. one every time you see a jet from the islands you guarantee they're made by volcanoes long enough for continental drift to have shifted the plates over the Earth's mantle hotspot, so do you think they're worried about the eventual spoilage of this? beautiful natural resource that slowly but surely people are building houses there and developments and all these different things and then scientists say we need this sacred land because we are going to put up a volcano and they like look this is already this It's already a I mean, let's put up a telescope.
There's already a telescope up here. Do you think that is what they are trying to stop the progress of civilization? Or I mean, maybe progress is a dirty word. expansion of civilization, yeah, I mean, let's go back to what Teddy Roosevelt did: he said we have to preserve these lands, yeah, because they're beautiful, and by the way, he said that after he shot all those elephants and tigers, lions , tigers and bears, yes, I mean, I come from a museum, the American Museum of Natural History, where he is the patron saint of that museum, what happened was that he realizes how important this land is and he beautiful that he is, and he's the patron saint of the National Park System, so so that's the secular version of the sacred right, we don't say it's sacred, but we've all decided as a community that we care about these lands and you don't want to drill into them, you don't want to put housing, do you?
Lyndon Johnson's wife, Lady Bird Johnson, who said our highways that were so carefully built after World War II, the Eisenhower Highway project, okay, you know the interstate system is this is our country, we want keep it beautiful so certain wretches there aren't billboards billboards would you know it would change your relationship with nature? so certain sections of the interstate or secularly sacred if I may say that so I remember visiting Australia and there is the famous rock in the outback the police help me get there I got my pronunciation of this uluru correct and it said it is I was told it is a coherent geological rock it's not just a bunch of rocks so I don't know enough about the geology but I know aboriginal australians uluru and okay iconic red rock look at that cool thing okay it's kind of geological thing and climbers want to climb it but that's hot it's miles in circumference ok so we visit it i rented a bike with my wife and kids and we ride around ok so that's sacred to indigenous people locals so they don't want you to get on it, well I'm a rock climber you know what do you care?
I'm not going to screw it up I'm not going to do it they don't want you to get on it and I'm trying to think to myself if there's a counterpart to this that would wake up a westerner to say I get it right now suppose some Alaska Native people or from some tribes in africa or some aborigines came from these remote parts of the world they walked to the vatican and said we want to climb the walls of this vatican just for sport what would we say we want to climb the walls of st. Paul's Cathedral in central London, what would you say?
No, yes, but are they comparable? Maybe we want to tear down the tower of Big Ben. equivalent to all of us who build those you know the natives didn't build the rock exactly right depends on how important that detail is to you all i say is on the level of weeks say this is sacred you say it's sacred and now you're going to have different rules for who's climbing which i think will force him to pause so here's a whole argument to support what you're saying look what's going on with the himalayas i mean it's the human being that they had left behind their welcome I'm so haunting yeah the climbers yeah it's horrible it's really horrible I mean there's tons of it tons of human waste okay so what you do there is if you still haven't it's a problem that people are escalating. it's that they're letting you waste don't stop the climbers you tax them on some level so now you've got clean up crews chasing them down well so they're your own taksim you make it worth it understand it like they leave the bodies there, you know? that they can't that's what i heard that's what i heard right why do you think they can bring in tons when they can't even bring in bodies this is what i say when they invented cars and cars were killing people in the street because people have known how to cross the street they don't know where to cross the street people don't know how to stop cars they say cars are actually quite a useful thing do we ban cars don't we make traffic lights? we're going to make crosswalks oh we're going to put lanes so cars don't crash into each other and we're going to make airbags so you don't fly through the windshield alright so there are ways to avoid trouble if you value what it is what you want to do it if people even shit in there have them bring me Don't come back or develop a system that allows things to come back no matter what and if you can't do that you don't want it to go bankrupt then cancel the whole operation.
We do not cancel cars. kids difference between cars and humans what's left on the mountainside I think the real problem is also if you value climbing mountains and you want to keep doing it then you've solved the problem this is what engineers do that's all they do do it good because what is your problem solve it by being able to recover those bodies because the physical limitations of the human body you barely have enough energy to climb it is so thin the air is so thin it is so dangerous and the energy you consume is so long leave those bodies there it was that the human ship you're talking about or Zell isn't there you're talking about the fact that the humans were there that we weren't very clean about our presence that's what you're talking about well they were just being human we need to go and you have to go you have to go when we have to go there you just open the hatch and let it tear down the side of a mountain and the resu ltado, you know, in the space station they recycle your urine and you then your shit congratulations to them yes because that put the engineers in trouble I mean my cycle they extract all the water from it and then what is left is very dry and he joined on a paper yeah yeah water is water its water molecule that's what's up by the way every graph you see these people's urine is on it that's right yeah so you got a bottle of water here hey , vampire, okay, this has Napoleon's penis, yes, yes, there are more water molecules in this bottle than there are. water bottles this order volume in all the oceans of the world, in other words if you drank this and peed well you have enough molecules in european your sweat and then in the moisture you exhale all of that goes back to the environmental dispersion ng in all the sources of the world's water and there are enough of those molecules to occupy every pint of water that covers the surface of this earth, so given enough time, you get a cup of water out of there.
I don't even care if you filter it, the water is still there, it's water that has passed through the kidneys of Abraham Lincoln Genghis Khan mm-hmm Joan of Arc hey Socrates Plato no Jesus can I get a bottle of Caramba? I'm trying to get my Bill and Ted Excellent Adventure on the list by going here ok you just screwed it up but yeah Jesus would be included in that as would Socrates yeah that's the scent by the way the same is true with the breath of air there are more air molecules in each breath you take then there are puffs of air throughout the earth's atmosphere so when you exhale there are enough of those molecules to disperse and the air currents will do this to disperse in every breath of air that is inhaled so when you take a breath of air you have air molecules t that passed through the lungs of jesus we are all connected and there is no way around it and the water we have is the water we have, we drink it, we pee it, yes, because the atmosphere descends as rain, yes, and rain is The important difference is that most of the water on Earth is salty water that is undrinkable.
There is a limited amount of fresh water. By the way, all glaciers are freshwater because it is frozen rain. something no one talks about when the glaciers melt where does the water go where does it go just tell me you know the answer only in the ocean ok but now its not salty water going into the ocean so you are mixing fresh water with brackish water and they occupy different places in the vertical profile of the ocean and because salt water is heavier than fresh water then fresh water occupies the upper right which is not sosalty like water in the coup and there are circulations in the ocean n Not just up and down you know north latitude south latitude like the Gulf Stream there is also top down circulation and combinations of all of these circulations create the stability of the ocean if you interrupt that, my God, there are animals, fish that cannot live. they no longer know where they should be because the salt level is different and therefore some animals could become extinct.
Some weather patterns will change because the ocean affects the climate these are why climate modeling is so critical but so complicated it's because so many variables that show up why we can't get the salt out of the water you can just take energy what can you do but what why hasn't it been like that? being Donna you can't you have to wonder who is paying for the energy where do you get the energy from it's an energy thing but I think it would be very valuable I mean think of how many people it's still not valuable enough that's the good point it's it's just money mate it's just money you can ask how much it costs to ship a bah and half pint of water from Fiji ok whatever it's the square bottle you buy in a fiji water is it Fiji yes, Fiji water?
How much does it cost to bottle that in Fiji? Submit it here regarding ocean desalination. It's cheaper to ship to Fiji. the value of water will go up and by the way the value of water in space is ten thousand dollars a pound so if last time you sue a comet you said that's a lot of fresh water yes you could i guess you can bring it back to earth but that's expensive you'd be better off selling it to NASA for nine thousand dollars a pound because it costs them ten thousand dollars a pound to put water into orbit so you better keep it there and one way or another yeah , and so if -- if you harness water in space, it's better to trade it in space and then bring it back to a planetary surface at a time when the economy favors it than what the desalination process is. distillery ok so here is a bag of water with this high salt content and you just heat it up the water evaporates leaving behind the sodium chloride and in the end you get this deposit of salt at the bottom of your plate at the bottom of your vessel oh wait a minute what happened? s to the lakes that used to be there than the salty lakes that used to be there that aren't there is a salt deposit that is the source of our modern day salt that is why he tweeted the other day that all table salt is all salt table is sea salt it just came from long buried prehistoric evaporated seas so salt mines and some geologists told me III had a narrow and narrow use of the word mine i think if a mine i think of a hole in the ground but Mining operations also include surface operations, so there are surface lakes that have evaporated and you get salt out of that, as well as the mines that you would dig deep down for that hole to be a mining operation.
My tweet only refers to the buried. but it's all but it all comes from evaporated water it all comes from evaporated it's all sea salt that's the point now nuclear power plants rely on steam isn't that part just to finish the point so you evaporate the water and salt that's left such maybe you might want you look make some sea salt out of your table salt and the evaporated water condenses here and that's distilled water now you might want to mineralize it so it tastes good because distilled water doesn't taste good and also it doesn't it is very healthy to drink. as you probably know you drink distilled water it comes into balance with your minerals by absorbing minerals from you so it has the same minerality your body has and then you pee and you will be systematically drained of important electrolytes yes generally water you would say it tastes good and that you enjoy it has some mineral fragments, some kind of mineral, minerals in it, now nuclear power plants, isn't it?
The process is using that nuclear power to create steam to run turbines and yes, basically everything. our electricity which essentially comes from most electricity comes from turbines that convert steam to electricity so sorry so you heat the water the water makes the steam turn s the turbine and the generating turbine generates the electricity , so you it's a question of where you get the energy to boil the water, that's what goes down, it's called, it's oil, it's nuclear, it's wind, it's hydroelectric. all this if you get a hydro plant by the way then a hydro plant they don't have to produce steam because they have the water the water pressure at the base of the dam moves through the turbines which spin the turbines and make electricity , so you don't have to heat anything because they have the water pressure to do it anyway, that's also solar energy, by the way, because the Sun evaporated the ocean water, the water rises up and becomes a cloud, the cloud moves over the earth, over the earth. a cloud rains on the lake that is over the dam so the energy that brought the water there in the first place is all solar so you have to think of hydro as solar and wind because wind is the uneven heating of the air. the surface of the earth and that creates air currents which are also solar energy there's also this work isn't it conceivable that you could come up with a combination of desalination and power plant where you're using the heat to combine, you know, make the turbines move and then you vaporize it? off and that's where you get your water from that would be nice that's an interesting idea and i don't know how much thought has gone into it what you're saying is i'm steaming anyway, yeah so why not? stinks with salt water yeah yeah and makes it a good two for a three for one kind of thing you get salt and salt on the other side yeah salt gets all your fresh water get fresh water and you spawn electricity yes so patent it no its free for anyone who wants it. and it works both ways when the water comes in and no this is battery technology that's the reason why the doesn't completely rely on solar because it seems like this is the place to do it like it never rains I want say, if it rains here 50 days, yeah, it's crazy or any desert, right? we're next to the mojave desert so one of the problems is by the way deserts are generally located at certain latitudes on earth it's due to general circulation on earth so air pockets in Earth many things are happening. earth's air moves in many ways but there is a predominant circulation of air that causes air to rise at the equator imagine a cylindrical movement of air that gerdes the earth is fine so just above the equator you have a cylinder spinning where you have air going up and just below the equator you have a cylinder spinning the opposite wave so the air keeps going up at the equator it's ok so it goes up at the equator it's unstable it makes clouds the equators one is the cloudiest p it fits on earth pretty much one of the cloudiest places, well how about the other side of those cylinders where the air is going down, okay, when you have sinking air you don't make clouds? the rainiest places on earth are at the equator, that's where the amazon jungle is on the lake and the driest places on earth or at 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south because these cylindrical movements of air have descending air there, so the Mojave desert the Sahara desert the Gobi desert are around 30 degrees north latitude so we live on the surface of the earth where forces are operating that are so much bigger than us that we wouldn't even think about it.
Why would an India be a desert because it's right in that area we're not for seasonal monsoons it doesn't rain much in India except when it's monsoon season so monsoon is kind of an exception which otherwise it would happen there e and that's why everyone loves the monsoon and hates it but loves it cools the if they get water sources there it is so they ask you the question again. Los Angeles is all solar it should be not that part of it costs the la is as heavy as a car ok and also you know there's a Lamborghini passing me at 20 mph in the 405 which is It's the land of wasted horsepower, so anywhere that gets a lot of sunlight should be thriving on solar panels and you're not.
I looked around very few that very few houses have solar panels and I don't fully understand that you could if you did that then you would run your own exhaust of your own power can you do this yes you can do the hard equation by the way so yes I want say the price might have to go down a little more you don't really see the full price of oil it's subsidized in ways that aren't obvious to us you know we build the ro ads with our taxes so car companies can sell you a car that you drove on the road that they built for them if they have to build all of their own roads the price of gas to go in the car would have been much higher than the price of your car would have been that all of that would have been much more high if the car companies did it what i say is i make a product and i want them to use it but there are no roads oh i convinced them to build the road like this that you can buy my car and drive down that road that's a weird way of looking at it but somehow it's total cost accounting is total cost accounting what is the cost of coal is how many people died of new monkey lung disease ultra-microscopic silica volcano County OSIS okay that's the longest word in the Random House dictionary yeah that's basically black yeah basically a black line you can break it down to the new mono ultramicroscopic silikov Oh with the silicates in can Akane OSIS so it's all medical bits except stapled together er to make that word so what's the cost to your health your death air quality asthma the total cost of oil is not what you pay in the gas tank it's other things that we shell out that aren't realized in the actual cost of that power source if you were to factor in the total cost of what all of this actually costs then the solar option would look a lot better than in relation to her, that's all I'm saying, but when you talk about cars and car manufacturers having to pay for the roads, didn't they say once?
Isn't it like restaurants have to pay for toilet paper? places where everyone has cars you don't have valet parking me my restaurant won't take up all the land I just bought it's going to be something it's going to be 1/4 of that land and all the rest are going to be parking spaces that I've absorbed the cost of your parking your car on me in my acquisition of that real estate, for example, to make it convenient for people to use your facilities, correct, but I assumed that cost as a restorer, or maybe I'm renting, for course but that's that it's not related to someone the car manufacturer is forced to pay for the roads or they should be it would have been interesting if they had because then it would have changed the price of everything but why would they ?
Are you going to make a car to which no one has a road? driving it is your responsibility so you don't have a business but you don't want a car yes we all agree cars are good they move fast they get you where you want to go how do we as a society? making it easier for people to get where they want to go we all collaborate and create roads is not quite: before there were cars, a car no one sneaks away you know i want to go to chicago tomorrow and i'll be back on thursday no one has that thought before from th It was emails, no one is thinking and of course these are not thoughts so I'm just talking about all the forces that had to align to make it really work well so now what's holding electric cars back?
Well, you may not be able to charge it. a little too long to charge compared to my other vehicle, are there enough chargers on the road? Well, these were questions that were asked when people had cars five cars and you need to guess if there is a gas station. Oh, Standard Oil says we'll put a gasoline. station there because you're buying cars and it's a whole family of businesses coming together and you're paying for a big part of it it's not just the car you paid for on the roads that's all I'm saying I'm not complaining about it I'm just describing it as a reality I get it I just didn't get the comparison to car manufacturers paying by the days if I build a car and I want you to buy my car I need a road so I'm going to build the road oh wait a minute I convinced you to build a road which is and even better oh my god i made it a national priority oh it's a security issue we need a we need a military designed interstate system that's what interstates are military that's why goes through mountains instead of over them, that's why there are long stretches of straightaway sodid it and I'm just saying BMW if someone did it BMW didn't do it themselves ok someone must have done it I mean you can do it it's a real thing vantablack ok so one of the tenets of stealth is that if you send him a signal, he never comes back. you so you don't have any kind of radar you measure your existence correctly but there are two ways you can do it one is you can't reflect it ok but by absorbing it ok ok the jet matte black it will absorb it and not reflect it but if enough energy comes through it will get hot because you can't get something for free here it will heat up the skin and could be bad for the occupants that's what they said about art not art blanket but if you put that in the desert forget itwell they said even in los angeles where it's exactly that hot so another way to do it is this signal hits me and i reflect it in a direction that's not towards you so the b-2 bomber It's not just non-reflective. for you, it takes the signal, reflects it, and bounces it twice so all of its energy is sent in other directions and not back at you, so you don't conserve the energy that was sent to you, so that's another way of do it. another, there's another sigil that appeared in one of the recent, not recent, James Bond movies from four years ago, where the light coming towards him, the light behind him, coherently surrounds him and continues to come towards you so that you believe that you're seeing what's behind it and it's not there you're seeing what's behind it but the path of that light went around the ship and continues on its way to you so you think you're just seeing the grass in the tree but there's a car standing right there you don't know about this technology no yes right now it exists just to look for stealth from stealthy light rays so the material needs to be able to tell what's behind it you say small objects alone so no not just with him only working in line of sight whereas if he needs functional stealth everyone looking at him should every path every line of sight to him should be able to see what's behind him in the other side of that so the way it reflects things, yes, yes, it takes the beam of light around it and sends it to the other side. can you find yes yes what you have is that it looks like a solid block and a person is looking at it and you see their eye out the other side it's really weird it's a stealth future what are your thoughts on digital privacy what what to do you mean ok like phones yeah like phones ever talk to someone about something and then you see it in your google feed? once they gave us one of these I Do you know what you call those things?
Who did you speak with? oh yeah whatever google is alexa not alexis it's amazon so it's google home and she said don't turn that on I said why not because he will be listening and I didn't believe him at first and then I started hearing stories so I don't have one but it's not because I know he's listening or it's not well substantiated. real human contractors listening in on conversations of people who have had sex mm-hmm having arguments like it's real yeah that sounds like it should be a problem so what's your question to me what am I willing to do?
Oh, what's your question? no, but the question is one of the things that you're taking away from their ability to scan things is that they're tailoring things to your liking like you know a phone tells you 22 minutes to go home. How do you know where I live exactly? I didn't tell you where I live. I'm here already it's and I'm old fashioned with this okay I'm getting off my lawn with this yeah I'm the old man in the rocking chair on the porch saying go Sonny get off my lawn but you. I'm also a scientist, okay, but I don't want to agree.
I wear various hats. I am also a father. I am also a husband. I have all these hats for all those things. In this particular case, I am an old man and my old man. sensitivity is if you keep track of what i buy in a store what i would buy in a store and then you send me coupons based on what you think i'm going to buy next based on what i've bought before which is more or less the same as you I am describing that you have denied me the possibility of stumbling on something that I never thought of buying and that takes away my freedoms and I don't want that.
However, you were denied the chance to stumble upon something different. It's not devilish, it's just in the casual flow of life. I will give an example. I go into a wine shop. Hey, can I help you? and I say if you help me find what I'm looking for. or is it a guarantee that I'll never find what I'm not looking for and end up spending less money at your wine shop that's a weird way of looking at it's the art of browsing my friend you're old enough to remember when I got it to look up this word on a dictionary and you get another six words, wow, I never knew that weird, let me read that you learn other words on the way to the word you're looking for.
I understand, okay, listen, this is how I feel and this is how. I think about my interaction with this world. I would like randomness to enrich my life and if you're going to advertise me because you think you know who I am, maybe you do, but ultimately I'll end up spending less. money because it's the diversity of how I think and what I buy and what I plan to buy and how I buy it and how much money I spend that's the richness of the life I lead your truck you're trying to channel me into some product so something that meets what I I call when they have the studio where then you are going to buy something or there is no no the table of people do you like this product or not focus group yes yes I am just a focus group for you if I am you don't know me and I want to experience this world stepping where I've never stepped before and buying something I've never thought of buying and if you know my past habits you're assuming I'll stay that way for the rest of my life and maybe most people do and maybe I could do that , but if I do it's because I chose not to because you decided that this is how it should be like this, don't you think the current is jumping?
I'm sorry, I'm sorry, don't you think they're just doing that because they think it would be effective to advertise that way, so if you Google new Nikes and then while you Google something and an ad pops up and it's for new Nikes They said, Hi Neal, I know you were looking at the resource. we saw maybe we just need a little push i mean it's not i don't think that's so devilish i'm the old m and on the porch i'm saying the next generation might feel completely different they could say i love it they know exactly what i want them to Hear about the case they were on I read this I don't believe it Rivera but it's completely plausible there was a teenager who was googling pregnancy tests because maybe she got pregnant okay and the fact that she had searched for a pregnancy test pregnancy received coupons in the mail for baby products and a parent said what is blood?
What is this? a little weird yes but it's the kind of thing that can happen that seems intrusive certainly because pregnancy is nice in every way no don't tell me it's not intrusive because you want physical things to look at you it's not just something that shows up in your google feed that you can cook a peek at what's the difference we can send a mail to your mailbox and fill your ad space in front of your face with the product which one other people can see? I walked past his computer. I can see that it is not seen.
I guess I'm discussing in principle rather than in detail. Okay, let me take the counterpoint on the positive side of what they're doing in terms of Google in particular. of their right to drive and in terms of their use of Google Maps and documenting the history of all these people who drive and especially with things like Waze that they bought because they've built a much more efficient product than Apple, which is what Apple does with Apple Maps. destroy everything you do yeah they do they do all the places you've been and where you're going that's right but apple maps sucks so you have to because they don't have enough data they don't have nearly as much of data.
Google has Billy. What is Google giving you? Apple Maps no. They are telling you that you are 22 minutes from home. It's time for you to drive home. I better ask him how long it's going to take me to go somewhere instead of knowing what my fall looks like what my daytime schedule looks like and then walk in like you said how do you know you know I had the same reaction as you and said i wonder why what is causing this is kinda creepy and again i am old man syndrome a 10 year old who only knew this and becomes 15 and 20 thats life to them why even maybe aren't they going to complain about that? the old man on the porch, but still I say because of my loss, some kind of intrusion or at least this connection that you have with these devices and that they have with your patrons and your information seems inevitable, that doesn't mean I have to receive it. with open arms, but I agree that it is inevitable.
I agree. Also, we have security cameras everywhere. Everybody knows where you are. If the KGB had access to people the way we did during the Cold War, the modern way in the United States. you have access to us we would say oh my gosh you have taken away the liberties of your country where the free leaders of the free world and you have imprisoned your entire population oh my gosh the KGB would give their right arm to have the monitoring devices that are actively in place here in the United States today hmm we know where you are we know how long you stayed there we have records we know what street you were walking on we don't necessarily monitor it but we can dig it up if need be and with facial recognition I can track you wherever you are you use facial recognition i use it now it doesn't matter if i'm wearing if i'm wearing a hat or sunglasses it still knows who the hell i am yes it depends on so many points yes so many points of the cheekbones and the nose i separate them and all i think the Number ratios are very powerful evidence of structure in the form of things just so you know the Fibonacci sequence that might be there. if you have a Fibonacci head I think that's a bit of an exaggeration Fibonaccia bit of an exaggeration, especially once you get a nose job, you can find it in nature and say, oh, it's not that beautiful, but you've missed all the places where you don't it appears in nature so many times that it does not appear in more places than it seems correct, but in many living things you are living since before cones, yes, pineapples, there are many sunflower seeds, it is very or sunflower flowers, yes Yes, very strange, isn't it?
I mean, it's just this random non-random thing, but hey, if the next thing you do depends on the two previous things you did, you got the Fibonacci series, I mean, that's usually the case with, let's say, you know, think of things in your life what do you do where the third thing you do depends on you doing the previous two things exactly the same way that's not all in your life but surely you can find some things that do that hmm I think it was in Camden , New Jersey where they had such a random crime no it's not yes Camden New Jersey They had such a funding crisis that I think there was a brief period of time at least I don't know if it has changed where they literally didn't have for us and one of their solutions was to put surveillance cameras everywhere and the idea was to try to capture everything that was going on here it's the surveillance city of Camden New Jersey okay here is a crime of sorts and the intrusive tools that are they're using hoping to stop it, yeah this was, I mean no I don't remember this is after this happens.
Let me take away your freedoms for your own safety. Hmm yeah. This is very well known. You know Benjamin Franklin wrote about it. is to get nothing or something yes, yes, so this is not so, yes, those who can give up Essential Freedom to obtain a little temporary security deserve neither freedom nor security, those who sacrifice Freedom for security for the security don't deserve nor he who would trade Liberty for a temporary security doesn't deserve nor Liberty that has all the combinations all the permutations in that this is so I mean I don't want to leave any room for misquoting he understood that then your security you give up some security for privacy I think so and I don't know it's a very well known place to draw and you can actually have a whole generation born in a state where they think that's normal now we all think it's normal You have to show ID to walk in. in an office building, oh my gosh, what would that be like during the Cold War?
You have to show yourself in the United States. You have to show your papers just to enter a building. i don't want to travel with a passport you're going to have to have a new 40 and then a federal driver's license federal backed driver's license i just went through that last week yeah right so when did you come into play? when is that? ah um it's for everyone like next year or so it's too soon if you want to travel a particular way if you don't drive then it doesn't matter fly ok we want to fly right right and i carry my passport everywhere i go so it's not really a problemwalked any question goes around the earth the earth goes into the sun jupiter's moons revolve around jupiter he described it accurately with his equations of gravity okay he said one day i think we're going to find some way that connect to each other but I don't know what that is now but I know my equations work he called it creepy it was creepy for him. that's his spooky word action at a distance very good fast forward three hundred years three hundred no fast forward two hundred fifty two hundred and thirty years getting to Albert Einstein gravity is the curvature of space and time and you are moving in the curvature of that fabric that is gravity oh my gosh is it even a force then is it even so there's no need to think of it as an action at a distance and in a sentence uttered for the first time I think it was John Archibald Wheeler or a student of Einstein and he learned relativity by john archibald wheeler done that's where i met my wife in relativity class at school its space so matter tells space how to curve space tells matter how to move moves in the curvature of space doesn't you need a ranged action there is no action you can't do anything other than that it's like you have a funnel and you take a ball and roll it in the funnel the ball can only do what the funnel tells it to do and it will do Cirque if you give it a sideways motion it will start to spin there is no magic hand coming in there it is following the curvature of your space -continuous time this construct you provided for that now I can describe what it is doing gravity.
I even have a mechanism for that. Are you still going to ask me why gravity is that answer that doesn't satisfy you enough, even in Department Y? I can keep doing that, ok, but is there a point where you're actually satisfied with the answer? Oh that answers my why can I say well why did this pint of water go over the edge here? Well, it's not the forces anymore. unbalanced and it's a no, but why did it go down well? There is nothing to hold it. Do you know why? There's a point where it's not especially productive to keep thinking about the world that way because what I'm claiming is answers to the how when you understand how much it's like having answered the why question, that's it, that's what they I'm saying in terms of your ability to accurately measure and use it so we can say it's okay, but isn't it?
You have a ball, yes. we can say ok because d if you went bald ok ok hair follicles at a time when you start in your late 20's and go bald early when you start to lose your hair probably in your late twenties early thirties , yes, yes, that is common if you have your hair when you are thirty. You'll probably have it for the rest of your life, that's how it goes, you start to lose it until you're in your thirties, so you can say okay, the hair follicle starts, it doesn't produce keratin or whatever, we get the explanation, so you say okay .
Why does the hair follicle stop doing that? So you say, well because DNA has a precoded code about hair type, well why does DNA have hair right because while we know a lot more about how and why people go bald than we do about what gravity really is right. I tell you that gravity really is the curvature of space and time that gives us the Big Bang and everything we've ever known and it's based on time, but it's also based on mass, right? It's based on the amount of whatever concentrates on matter and energy and energy will bend the fabric of space and time and the greater the movement of matter in that fabric of space and time we call gravity and I'm fine with that ok but you seem a bit strangely defensive about something that's scientific no i have to say i'm good with this but you are because you're defending it no you can tell ok yes And it matters you need to know why uh -huh why are they saying no, I'm saying why does matter and energy bend the fabric of space and time you can ask that's ok why and I don't have an answer if I can say ok that's all I'm asking ok no what about what i'm telling you it's ok you no You don't need to watch yourself to the point ok we had to walk to that point where you are why didn't they answer you.
What I'm telling you is that I can answer your why question most of the time, but then you'll come back to a point where there's a point where the Y doesn't have the answer, so you say why, if it falls , you say there is a force of gravity operating on it, why did it fall that way due to the curvature of space and time? matter a curve of energy space time ok that's a frontier we're still working on it but that's all I'm asking that's good that's one you're a man of science so you're a person who should probably embrace wisely accept the many people who ask why they really want no purpose im not asking why ok so that sets you apart from a lot of other people asking why oh ok why did you hit the table i was mad there is a purpose behind that it's ok so yeah if your And it's just a curiosity of what's going on that's one thing if you're asking about purpose then it's ok theologically because when a theological, religions give purpose to a lot it just i'm not doing it right but i think it's amazing that something that's such a huge part of life on this planet that we get stuck to the ground due to gravity can you open my instagram account that i only post you have an instagram account now i had a fake one for a while yeah i took over mine? actually i know the guy i took over gave it to you oh man the guy who had it yeah no no no actually sorry yeah instagram said me but people think this is a real account and it is not. if it's an account that's an imposter and the followers don't know about it, it's illegal, right?
So there's one that says Neil Tyson fan yeah and that's another one okay I only post copyright photos okay I've taken most of which. I've taken it so just scroll down and look for Muscle Beach there it is click that ok so here's my cat go to my caption go full screen on that remember my cab it's well for most of our life on earth we resisted or succumbed to the pull of gravity in muscle beach gravity loses every time the room was proud of the legend you know you call me by that legend that's right bullshit gravity never loses gravity doesn't even have small losses there's a war going on for those who only listen to this so i was in i was in venice california and the sun was sitting behind some guy doing he was doing presses manuals suspended on this pull up bar to the right and it was really cool it was trimmed there is a palm tree there is the beach he is there gravity is going to win that let me tell you eventually but as long as he is there he is conquering Tackling gravity, you're getting too old, you haven't gotten to gravity lately, no, I work out all the time, I don't believe it, yes, specifically, she's pulling range now, so I work out and you. no because i see your middle aged man belly ok what i have discussed with other astrophysicists and scientists in what way leave me still are these conversations supposed to have a theme or purpose or is it just that you feel in whatever? comes your head you send me whe it's you and me, yes clearly this episode is about you can't say i never do. different people of course of course it's impossible to call fighters scientists scholars and kooks a lot of different people that come around here man I can't have any agenda okay I mean that's probably the only why this is successful. it's yes but that's weird to people that this thing that's so powerful what what is it Oh gravity is weird to people yeah I mean it seems like you're frustrated by all the various questions no how don't you seem a bit a little defensive because I still thought you were taking your why to ultimately mean purpose if that's only why I claim that many answers to how are also answers to why mm-hmm that's the point I'm making and I don't like sp Lighting definitions will finally understand gravity.
I think we do. That's why we can land things on Mars. I think we do. That's why your cell phone gets the time from the GPS satellites which is pre-corrected for Einstein's general theory of relativity because they are in a different gravitational. field that you in orbit that you are on the surface of the Earth we have this we have Stein is succeeding we are running out of time here so I put you something I wanted to ask you what is that I did I did it is about a black hole that landed in a mysterious place in our understanding yeah yeah yeah lemme lemme give you I'll give the kind of Reader's Digest version of this ok there are black holes out there black holes that form in the aftermath of the death of stars , okay, okay, and we think we understand star formation well enough to say that the star is born with this amount of mass and will lose a certain amount of mass over its lifetime.
All stars lose mass because there is So much pressure and so much energy coming out it takes particles with it so they lose mass the Sun is losing mass as we speak it's called the solar wind so they all lose mass the question is to what speed you are losing mass. it's a lot compared to your total mass it's small so very high mass stars are not especially stable objects, they remain stars for a hundred thousand at most a million years and they will explode and go supernova if you are more massive that that won't explode because gravity is so strong that it can't explode against the force of gravity and collapses into a black hole, so we expect black holes to have slightly less mass than the most massive stars we know of how do you do that if you have a hundred times the mass of the sun's star it will lose half its mass during its lifetime and you have a black hole that is 30 times the mass of the sun or 50 times the mass is not right put a pin on that At the centers of Ga Laxies, there are supermassive black holes hundreds of billions of times the mass of the Sun and we call them supermassive and their black holes we call supermassive black holes because that's how we roll like astrophysicists, okay, could they have black holes somewhere in the middle? from these two extremes we don't know of a phenomenon that will give birth to a black hole that is in rhythm that will give birth to a black hole that is between these two these two categories can make a black hole that makes its way there okay but we don't I don't know how to make one and we think the colleagues who have done this think they have discovered a black hole that is in this kind of underworld where there is no evidence that it ate to become so massive and we don't know how to explain it by star formation and death and it's nowhere near the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy, so it's the frontier of research right now, so it's just a newly discovered type of black hole. its on a MASH regime this is physically impossible you know the headlines are eating the headline now the black hole the shock show me the where it disappears the espresso is british i think they are british anyway its a news roundup for science so black.
Hole shock theories revolve around the discovery of a physically impossible black hole so scientists don't use the word impossible unless it violates a known law of physics so I bet it was a title and I don't have a product, I don't care. a little bit of sensationalism there you can say it's a black hole coming from and if it's coming from an object it's an object we don't know anything about and have yet to find out well we're not going to say it's impossible on jeff mm-hmm every time we point a telescope at the universe we find something we never predicted or understood and it adds to the knowledge base we already have every time they discover things and then that becomes what we know and understand as the supermassive black holes at the center of each galaxy which was a fairly recent discovery in terms of size because we saw that the centers of the galaxies were behaving very strangely, the stars were moving faster than they should have given the amount of gravity pulling on them and we said dude something has to be there and it has to be very small because we're tracking the star it's very close to the middle well if it was made of ordinary matter how big would it have to be very very big so this has to be very very small for this to happen the only thing we know that could fill that small volume and have that much gravity is a black hole so it was long suspected it was confirmed that as somewhat common by the Hubble telescope and first imaged by this recent result in thegalaxy m87 Messier 87 is that is the name of the galaxy and you can tell how big the black hole is based on the size of the galaxy we can tell the mass of the black hole by how fast sta rs are moving at the distance to the that's from it, in other words, where the Earth orbits around the Sun and we have a certain speed, we forget how it does it, but 18 miles per second, I think that's the number 30 kilometers per second that's our speed around that's a speed around the Sun that is quite fast is fine if the Sun had more mass instantaneously that speed is not enough to maintain our orbit and we will start to spiral towards it if the Sun had less mass that speed is too high to be in this orbit it will take it up sorry its too fast to keep this horbet it will take us to a higher orbit it will slow us down and we will be in a higher orbit with a faster speed l come on, in other words. for any object at any distance there is only one speed it can maintain and have a stable orbit around it, so when we see stars orbiting something in the center of the galaxy it is a straight forward Astro 1:02 equation to calculate how much mass it's orbiting the thing and you get the mass and you can't see it it's a black hole and that ladies and gentlemen is the end of the podcast ha ha ha this block will be available when Sir comes out in October the first week of October I'm so proud of this book it's the most honest thing I've ever done well when it comes out I'll take a picture and post it on Instagram and Twitter yes and it also has letters from people in prison one person who just found out he had terminal cancer .
I mean, there are a lot of people who communicate by replying to letters. Yes, it is me answering and they are letters that I can. It doesn't fit all of his letters, some are very long toned, but most of his letters and then all my correspondence are there, so it's my most sincere contribution to this universe and Startalk is still going. We are still running. Startalk would pump in 50 episodes and a telev ision show yes so we can see if we're going to have a new season we don't know yet that will be announced but we're going to do it it's always a podcast and me we have a YouTube channel the startalk youtube channel and we're thinking about branching out into other types of educational products that are still funny and comedic and i love your support for this because you're a comedian yourself so you know the value and i love comedians having their part fundamental to how we deliver science to the public on startalk so thank you for that plugin my apps are my friend thank you always bye everyone
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