Ist Zeit nur eine Illusion? Die Magie des Kosmos (1/4) | Doku HD Reupload | ARTEJun 23, 2022
Beyond our everyday reality lies an awe-inspiring world A cosmos filled with mysteries Physicist and best-selling author Brian Greene takes us on a journey that will question our view of the world Why events never unfold in reverse order That would be very possible we explore the most interesting areas of the cosmos from black holes to the big bang and the essence of matter I want the same as him in this world it is an empty space characterized by the highest activity and perhaps our universe is just one of many and three-dimensional the world is nothing more than an
illusionwe can be so delusional about something seemingly so familiar that of course we worry that there is no law of nature that says theoretical physicists would be happy that this all-changing perspective opens up a completely new world for us with unimaginable possibilities in a place like a train station you can feel how the ze determines n our life but what is time maybe there is no difference between past, present and future time does not seem to be what you think but if it had a beginning it has an end and where is its origin our series things the cosmos is made of today is about With time this magical twist is at the beginning of every good story, but what kind of story does time have? we say time flies and time is money here we waste time we kill time and try to save time but how much do we really know about time exactly how this river of time seems to flow endlessly from one moment to the next and the stream of time always seems flow in the same direction into the future but that may not be true in the last century science has discovered that for many our idea of time may be nothing more than an
illusion, contrary to our everyday experiences may not flow with time at all, our past may not have happened at all and our future is already here, just as it turned out, time can speed up or slow down and events that seem to always go in only one direction can also go into the future. reverse takes place but how can that be how can we be so deluded in something so familiar but what is the time then it had a beginning it will have an end nal where is the clock electricity we like to see time as a thing but imagination eludes it due to its transience and can only be defined in terms that in turn have something to do with time time is something that everyone thinks they are familiar with until now they should describe more precisely the definition of time is the big question of physics for 6 there is actually no aspect of time that i really fully understand how it allows to solve such a big and elusive puzzle as time now a method is to measure today with the help of clocks of all sorts of sizes and textures we have been measuring time for thousands of years with ever increasing precision 1000 the first clock was one that fell only once a day so to speak the rotating globe from the recurring daily rotation of our planet around its own axis to its yearly orbit around the sun we have always used the regular motion of the earth and to measure time man has always sought repetitions and based on these regular cycles the clock for us time is nothing more than a process that is constantly repeated the movement of the earth only allows the sun to divide the day in hours the earth rotates once a day on its axis and as a result we are divided into horsemen with the help of a the hours were divided into minutes and seconds using the oscillating pendulum of the vibrations of a crystal we achieved an accuracy of a thousandth of a second Colorado Institute of Standards and Technology marks absolute time This is the official US time It doesn't get more precise here Time is measured with unique precision with the help of one of the smallest objects in the universe An atom Here with an atom of cesium, atoms have a natural frequency and everything vibrates, so a stable oscillation can only be used when the basket is marking the frequency with the clock j dcm is the official watch for the world when a csi around the atom is bombarded with energy it begins to swim as it does so it emits more than nine billion pulses of light per second counting the oscillations of the atom the 9 billion thick cesium atom 192 million 631 1770 times per second each time you have counted up to this number a second has passed and so on, second by second this is really amazing my wristwatches go a few seconds ahead or quite a bit behind after a few months, but these clocks only drift by one second after 100 million years.
This replacement of one clock with another more precise clock has been the subject of a constant reform process in physics for centuries, no matter how precise our clocks are, time remains a puzzle to this day, you can hear us say the time but not to say about the essence of time itself from what exactly we measure, we may not know what time is, but the experience that time passes is an essential part of our life we constantly think about time remembering the past we plan for the future and live according to the rhythm tick tock tick whoever watches the crowds in any season feels that time determines our lives less well known is that rail traffic itself plays an important role in knowledge about the essence of the time touched the ticket please we are well on time in the early days of rail traffic time was a particular problem back then each city ad had its own time it was noon every time the sun was at its zenith more or less what time it was in other cities hardly anyone was interested everything was further complicated by the fact that the schedule was based on the time of the city in the one that had st
arted the journey a train going from paris to geneva kept the whole trip on paris time while the opposite train from geneva to paris according to geneva time as more and more railway lines intersected and had As more and more different times were observed at the junctions, a nightmarish mess arose The need to synchronize clocks over great distances became more and more urgent, especially where cities were only connected by single-track lines, thus began the modern history of At the time, as the need to synchronize their own was growing, a young physicist named Albert Einstein got a job at the Swiss patent office at a railway function where he had access to all the great inventions of the time testified to patents to exciting new possibilities for synchronizing clocks via telegraphic signals or from a source.
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ist zeit nur eine illusion die magie des kosmos 1 4 doku hd reupload arte...
All of this made time synchronization and the question of what time is and how it is measured a very important relaxing subject. for Einstein. Einstein would soon change the world with a radical understanding of the nature of time mechanical devices were a source of inspiration for him einstein realized that these attempts to synchronize clocks were much more than just creative innovations he realized that they revealed a fundamental error in our perception of what we are today most people have a very simple direct view of today time always passes the same way for everyone and everywhere this everyday notion goes back to the father of modern science isaac newton for isaac newton time is an immutable property of the universe time always flows at the same speed time simply passes without our control realize that time can pass at different speeds curiously this may mean that I do not share my time with that of my classmates covers einstein's discovery made by june following notion of reality for einstein, time is not the same throughout the universe but is an individual experience einstein's theory is much more complex each one has its own time that flows at a very personal speed there is no time in the sense of a universal flow but different times a stone came to this shocking conclusion when it discovered a connection between space and time what einstein discovered was that there is a deep connection between the movement through space and the flow of time - in short, the more of one there is, the less it is From the other, let's make a small selection.
I'm driving north at almost 100 kilometers per hour, so all my movement is north, but now I'm looking at a different road and driving northwest. My speed is still 100 kilometers per hour. hour but i'm not going north as fast which just a minute ago is because some of my north movement is diverted or delivered to the west einstein recognized that there is a very similar connection between space and time to the one that exists here between north and west with this surprising intuition einstein refuted the widespread notion that time passes equally fast for everyone, let's take an example, the man over there would say that i'm not moving right now, but that Not true, I may not be moving across the room, but through the times, my clock is still ticking after all. and as long as I'm still, so don't stand up, don't move around the room, all my movement is limited to time, but what if I walk towards the man?
Of course we have an effect on the clock, but because I am moving now, a clock is running to your perception more slowly because, from your point of view, part of my previous movement is redirected by time in my movement through of space and that doesn't just apply to my watch, now we are improving the film effect again, it also perceives my movements and my voice as slower and if I stand still now, the flow of time in our ears is slowing down that was the einstein's most important idea e a movement through space influences the passage of time it's amazing that you and i perceive time differently why our perception of time should depend on how we move that for those who move time it goes slower that's amazing einstein was the first to be able to imagine something just like einstein's realization was unique but why don't we notice anything in old age? at the slow pace that we move here on earth. the influence of movement over time is too small that many do not notice, but the effect is real and measurable for this. we just need two atomic clocks and a jet plane.
This experiment was done in 1971 and when scientists flew around the world with one atomic clock and then compared it to a second atomic clock, it was as if a stone had predicted that the two clocks no longer matched. the deviation was only a few hundred billionths of a second, but for the influence of motion on the flow of time thus proven, Einstein's theory has been proven many times over and everything is connected of great importance through his discovery of This connection between space and time, a stone recognized that they could no longer be considered as two independent concepts, so space and time merged into the so-called space-time.
Einstein combined the idea of space and time into a 4-frame structure. dimensions called space-time and this union of space and time led a stone to perhaps its most amazing realization our stark division between past, present and future may just be an illusion in everyday life we perceive time as a continuous flow but it can also useful to see time as a series of snapshots or moments each event can be seen as a succession of many moments moment moment and if we can s imagine all the moments or snapshots in a row all the moments here on earth all the moments when the earth revolves around the sun and all the moments of the entire universe then we would see all the events that have ever happened or would have happened in all the places of the universe and at all times internally from the birth of our universe through the big bang about 14 billion years ago to the formation of the stars in our Milky Way to the formation of the earth four and a half billion years ago through the time of the dinosaurs to the events of today on earth as my office work with einstein's concept of space-time made our daily separation of the past, present and future not have a clue here we have to over the seemingly simple expression now I don't think on my personal list right now, the following events could be the ticking of the clock in my office, my cat, but also distant events, such as the hanging of a pigeon in Venice, a tenant hitting the moon, or the explosion of a star in a remote part of the universethese and all other events that happen to me at the same time but in different regions of our universe make my intuitive imagination as of now can imagine that they are in an identical disk of space-time, let's call them the disk now, we assume that all people agree on exactly what is happening or exists moment to moment, i.e. , we agree on what is in a certain period of time;
However, Einstein has shown that this notioncommon turns out to be strangely wrong as soon as motion comes into play to understand this idea of spacetime as a loaf of bread einstein realized that there are different ways to divide spacetime into individual slices just like a loaf of bread can be cut in different ways because the movement has affected the passage of time someone who moves has a different notion now therefore becomes a stranger in space-time now cutting his writing will have a different angle a person in motion will split your time at a different angle not parallel to my time to get an idea of this weird effect let's imagine an alien living in a galaxy lives and sits there ten billion light years away on earth the man of the gas station as long as you both sit very still and don't move relative to each other your clocks sync up and share the same perfectly straight lines now write ibe but what happens when the alien jumps on his bike and rides away from earth as movement slows the flow of time their clocks no longer send at the same speed and as soon as their clocks are out of sync their disks are now also misaligned, the alien's disk now intersects space-time at an angle to the past Since the alien pedals at a leisurely pace, its disk recedes only slightly into the past, but over such a great distance, from that tiny angle, a big difference in time becomes what the alien finds on its tilted disk and concludes as events seen now. on earth, so neither our friend in the sick place nor his childhood 40 years ago with a disk now from the alien has amazingly shifted over 200 years into earth's past and now contains events that from our perspective belong to the distant Past like the completion of Beethoven's fifth symphony, even at relatively low speed there can be large deviations from our current understanding if the spatial distance is great enough and, as if that weren't strange enough, the direction of movement also makes a difference. what happens when the alien turns around and rides his bike to earth the new album of the alien is now shifted into the future and includes events that won't take place on earth until 200 years later maybe our friend's great-great-granddaughter will go from paris to new york wins if a now understood stranger can include events i considered as past or future without this strange term now being less valid than opinion it follows that past and future are reality past present and future so they exist equally according with the laws of physics are the future and the past as real present again the past is not past and the future already exists past the future and the present exist equally as we accept all space as existing we should also see all time as existence everything that has happened or will happen exists From willy's last brushstroke on his mona lisa to the signing of the declaration of independence and our first d class to events that from our perspective lie in the future like the first manned mission to Mars with this bold thesis shook the foundations of our perception of time of the difference between the past, present and future, once said It's just an illusion, albeit a stubborn one, but if every moment in time already exists, how does that explain our very real feeling that time seems to flow ceaselessly forward like this river we now can be? fooling ourselves and time doesn't flow at all maybe the stream of time is more like a frozen river in which every moment is forever locked up the most vivid picture we have of the world has to do with this flow of time but the physics changes our everyday perception of present time a radical blow our whole concept of time is based on the present we can only understand this moment now the laws of physics make no distinction between different now things only change from our subjective perspective just like a full movie on a roll of film is violence all moments are already present the difference is that the individual frames in the cinema are illuminated by a projector but in the laws of physics there is no reference to something like a projector lamp that selects and it illuminates certain moments our brain likes to fool us but in reality it is all that what we perceive as the flow Time may be nothing more than an illusion, but if time, like this frozen river, is not fixed at all and all time already exists, it should not be possible to travel to the future or inland. the past and these possible time travel would then our actions not correspond catapult you through time to a world of the future time travel and if the time machine doesn't work again we really can get into any time travel it is an attempt at time travel outside of Hollywood a working time machine has not yet been developed surprisingly time travel might be a possibility time travel would be the use of a special property of gravity this force may have a big influence on time later yes much later but how could gravity be used to travel in time einstein's theories say gravity is similar to movement in time it's like you can pull time by slowing down its flow and the stronger the gravitational pull the slower time will be here on earth this effect is subtle to notice but it is real compared to someone feeling Live on the top floor of a skyscraper Time passes a little slower for a resident on the bottom floor because Earth's gravity is a little stronger on the ground, but if we could travel to a black hole, the effect of gravity in time would be tremendous.
Black holes are formed when large stars collapse and have extremely strong gravity millions or even billions of times stronger than earth's gravity if anyone could see us approach a black hole they would see our time slow down drastically from the perspective of a distant friend we would be close to the black hole move slower talk slower and also age slower what would be years to us would be minutes depending on how big a black hole is and how close you are to it for two hours in space every around 50 years would have passed i would be in the future traveled the earth thank you they act like a fountain of youth on my back so now i am in the future everyone else has aged 50 years but i am only a few hours away.
Traveling to the future is one thing, but what about time travel to the past that might be possible with something consisting of an equation of pebbles? gives what is called the wormhole if wormholes actually exist while they have something like shortcuts through the tunnels of space-time that connect not only two places but also two moments together a wormhole would connect a part of the space-time with another earlier part like a kind of train in a u line through time suppose i wanted to go back in time and find myself at the beginning of this movie could there be a wormhole between those two moments?
I just have to intervene here. Hey, nice to see you. strange, but the real problem with time travel to the past is that it gets lost pretty quickly. What if I change something in my past and, for example, prevent my parents from meeting? It would still be there if you travel back in time. You cannot change any event because it already happened. If you killed your grandfather in a time travel. could it have been another man you thought was your grandfather? Everything has to be somehow logical, no matter how much you spend, but if traveling to the past is possible, why aren't there masses of tourists from the future after all?
They usually come across intrepid time travelers, at least this doesn't happen to most of us, it can be concluded that time travel to the past is at least not yet possible, but since science hasn't ruled out time travel to the past to today while it is possible. It's still questionable whether it could ever become a reality, but such time travel doesn't seem like an implausible design at first, I suspect it's impossible, but it's notable that we haven't been able to prove this conclusively yet, so in the time, time travel is probably out of the question, but what about the generally accepted fact that time only goes in one direction because in the future we will refer to this as the time trial arrow is probably the most obvious from our universe that we still haven't fully understood why we live in a universe because time has a certain direction it's still a mystery to space it's not about you being able to drive from new york to chicago and then travel back from chicago to new york, on the other hand, time only has one direction, but we haven't been able to explain why time doesn't flow backwards and what does that mean when we say that time flows into the future, what do we know about her? coming from this time part why events always unfold in one direction and never in reverse order this has to do with the laws of physics just don't let that happen let the laws of physics correspond to the mathematical equations we use to describe everything from the behavior of atoms in the vortices of galaxies were built up over centuries of observation and experimentation, but surprisingly, the laws of physics say nothing about events having to unfold in the order in which they occur. we are familiar with so that humans can use these equations as well. put in reverse order most of the equations we use to describe the universe are not tied to a part of time they work both forward and backward in terms of the native part of time there is a contradiction between physics that essentially appears to be reversible and our life is irreversible although this is inconsistent with our everyday experiences the laws of physics say that strange things like these are possible but how can that be the answer is not as farfetched as one might think example we all know what will happen if i drop this cup of wine, the idea that this mess could undo itself and make a good glass of wine again seems absurd, but according to the laws of physics it is possible, I just have to reverse all the movements, each fragment, each drop of came every molecule and atom in liquid glass table and air all have to reverse their motion and go if it makes a difference to the laws of d e physics if the vessels rupture or heal again why do we never experience that in our daily lives it must be something to admit we didn't understand but what drives the fall of time Our search for clues to solve this mystery leads us to a cemetery in the Vienna Cemetery, where Beethoven, Brahms, Schubert and Strauss also rest, is the tomb of a 19th-century Austrian physicist, Ludwig Boltzmann, and an elegant equation is engraved here.
Match Kaluga's pace with him. acts the mathematical formulation of a fundamental concept of entropy entropy is the measure of something we are all familiar with disorder or randomness is an important concept because everything in the universe tends to move from order to disorder this is my book it has 569 pages and it's very ordered the first page is followed by the second the third and so on but now I start the pages and let entropy create as you can see the pages are now very disordered the reason for this is quite simple there is only one correct order but a large number of possibilities for a one orderly layout of the pages, therefore much more likely to end up in complete disorder and we experience this all the time in everyday life, things progress from order to disorder, in this case from a neatly bound book to randomly scattered pages everywhere we look we see examples of entropy or disorder breaking down over time into u n was by losing its ordered shape when melting clouds of ascending smoke scattered in space ordered states become disordered and that evidently in the direction of a time advantage we can observe that disorder in a specific time direction, so Boltzmann gradually recognized a bodenheim of time, maybe that's the solution, maybe time based because nature's tendency to assume more and more state of disorder which is definitely progress, but this explanation still harbors a little problem if the laws of physics did. having to make a distinction between the past and the future entropy would have to take not only into the future but also into the past and that doesn't make any sense that would mean that entropy would have to take in both directions no matter which way we look back in the past brother to the future That would mean the pages of my book would be disorganized in the past and then put together in one neat book, but when was the last time we saw something like this?
We can put our everyday experiences in such conflict with the laws of physics. one thing is missingpiece of the puzzle if we are sure that the past was more orderly and that disorder increases with time, since the entropy equations say that there must be another possible explanation besides the laws of physics, let's take a baseball, the laws of physics can help predict where it will land, although it is still empty when we rewind the film, it becomes clear that we also need to know the initial conditions, such as the force with which the ball was hit if the laws of physics cannot explain the fall in time. therefore we must look at the initial conditions of the universe and that takes us back to the big bang would be the history of the university.
In summary, a movie that we could rewind, we would see an increasing order the further back we go in time, our current universe, with its billions of unevenly sampled galaxies, it would be reduced to clouds of gas and dust because how far back in time these clouds of gas and dust move. approaching each other, their volume becomes smaller at a certain point, this development stops and if this is all the space that existed at all times, now it becomes clear that before this moment there was neither space nor time the ultimate , so the source of order or low entropy must have been the big bang the big bang is a highly ordered state it is probably the most orderly event of all that came after it was increasingly disordered the big bang explains why why the universe looks different in retrospect than it does in the future.
Look, in its early days it must not only have looked differently than it does today, but also in a highly ordered way. it has also expanded since the big bang and has become increasingly disordered our universe was born in an unusually ordered state and that is ultimately the reason why time has a direction we don't yet know why but the fact That our universe ended up in this highly ordered state meant that every glass break perpetuates an evolution set in motion billions of years ago, glass breaks but doesn't restart because it's the natural development of o Order from disorder follows At the Big Bang, we only move from the past to the future and every change around us, from star formation to our lives, is part of this wave of increasing disorder in the universe that is blurring the difference between the past. and charting the future the big bang could have set time for our universe and everything that has happened since would then be part of a development towards ever-increasing disorder that began with this event 13.7 billion years ago, but if time had a beginning and ever-increasing disorder time can also have an end so what would the universe be like in the distant future? recent discoveries shed new light on this question the explosive power of the big bang caused an accelerated expansion of space with the result that the universe has changed from now to the present day we recently assumed that this expansion would be slowly we imagine space with its galaxies driving like some kind of moving car as soon as the driver takes his foot off the accelerator the car gradually slows down we thought the universe would slow down in a similar way but astronomers have discovered that the expansion of the universe doesn't slow down but rather slows down it even accelerates as if the driver stepped on the accelerator and activated a turbo gear that keeps increasing speed and this is exactly how it continues to accelerate the expansion of the universe that the expansion will accelerate in the future absolutely contradicts the way we are used to thinking this will have effects very strange in the future because the expansion sion of our universe will accelerate in the distant future in about 100 billion years all other galaxies will be out of sight and ours the galaxy will lie alone in nothing for our descendants this will be a big one because the light from galaxies distant galaxies has to travel such long distances to reach earth, to look at them is at the same time to look back in time in the distant future when these distant galaxies will no longer be visible being unreachable until the end of time, one theory says that the cosmos will eventually be ruled by black holes, after all, these too will have evaporated, then there will also be particles left floating aimlessly through space in the distant future where everything will decay. and to be removed there will be no more change and without change we can no longer perceive the flow of time where there are no more events time is no longer even imaginable even the direction of time will no longer be recognizable time one day in a very real sense it has lost its meaning you sit in front of about 350 jahren wrote to isaac newton, who was one of the first scientists to think about time, that he did not need to define time because everyone knew what it was, but to reconcile our personal experience current with its true nature, we were forced to accept some of our deepest beliefs to question now we know that every event that goes from order to disorder is connected to the big bang that also precedes us against the clock the notion that the universe is governed for universal time has been replaced by a theory that each of us has our own individual time has perception and the flow of time. me that seems real to us may be nothing more than an illusion past, present and future are probably equally real brl our everyday experience in the present will always have meaning we will continue to imagine that time is universal that the past has passed and the future is yet to come, but thanks to our scientific discoveries, we can see beyond our daily experiences that we are part of a much more complex reality
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