IL-62 - an ideal optionJan 01, 2022
hello aviators sky here and after a long time of walking we finally arrived at the most famous rear engined quad layout airliner that can honestly be called one of the best civil aircraft of its time and one of the best if not the best civil soviet airliner in general, some people will be seriously surprised, the best that we are back in the central Air Force Museum and here, within a radius of a hundred meters, are at least the two 144 and 114, the real titans of your time and I'm singing the praises of Lucia let's find out what makes me think so let me introduce ution LLL 62 is a narrow body long haul airliner developed by the Aleut design bureau in the early 1960's, it is the first long-range Soviet airliner. and one of the trinity of aircraft in the world that implemented a scheme with four engines in the tail, making it the end of the 1950s.
Khrushchev and Eisenhower are playing the Cold War. The first satellites are launched into Earth orbit. the French upgrade their republic to the fifth version elvis presley sings and the hydrogen bombs explode you know a normal civilized life there were also a lot of aviation events the advent of gas turbine power plants significantly increased the power of the engines on planes that learned to fly faster and higher while getting bigger began to emerge a class of long-haul commercial jets capable of carrying many people over long distances different manufacturers were taking different paths Boeing and Douglas put a lot of time to make their flagships, but the 707 and dc-8 model that appeared in the late 1950s became a huge success.
The british were fighting for leadership and connecting the colonies so from the 1950s they began work on a new large jet plane which later became the vickers vc10. In the Soviet Union, the situation was in many ways. similar but also had differences the enormous size of the country made the need for long-distance flights obvious plus the num The number of allies around the world with whom it was necessary to establish contact was growing and contact was established through the creation of the first airplane long-range soviet to mention the size and weight records that were broken only with the arrival of the Queen, moreover, the affinity with the 295 bomber and the corresponding design gave the aircraft a special charisma, the Soviet aircraft was very different from its foreign counterparts, However, this charisma was expensive.
The Tu -114 was a response to an urgent need for a long-haul commercial aircraft and a demonstration of the capabilities of the Soviet aircraft industry, but due to separation, it was complicated and expensive, many of which its clever solutions were not particularly needed, the capacity of such a size was small, and the turboprop power plant, despite its record performance, was outdated, the aircraft was not fast enough and too noisy already in the initial stages of operation to By the end of the 1950s, it became clear that with all its advantages this aircraft would not become a mass transport for a long time, okay , maybe not the to 140, but long-range transportation is still needed. it was necessary to make a new aircraft, the obvious idea to give it to tupolev would not work at that time, they were burdened with military contracts, plus they were still working on a to 114, moreover, they were involved in various other civil projects, first of all, the new original jet, the future a 134 simply did not have the resources to deal with another large airliner the implementation of the project in 1960 was entrusted to the aleut design bureau and this was an excellent solution wishful thinking approach to civil aircraft design unlike most of his very ambitious colleagues he was very pragmatic, he was creating exactly what was needed without pursuing any special wow effect, the realization of this approach was then a reliable kit or other commodity A simple and elegant aircraft for its time, that delighted both the passengers and the operators.
Hundreds of vehicles delivered were clear proof of this. The choice of a power plant was not a particular problem. It had to be the jet engines. The turboprop was good in many functions, but it could not pull long-range civilian transport, moreover, the engine building industry was very successful in roaring barrels that became quite effective, the next problem was the design and here generally speculation begins about the similarity of the sick 62 and the vc10 in one On the other hand, the idea of copying seems obvious. British aircraft had been in development for several years, and there was enough noise around their projects to be heard in the offices of Soviet engineers.
On the other hand, the similarity is rather the result of the similarity of the technical tasks of both aircraft. They were created to carry a decent number of passengers over long distances, and being large machines, they had to be able to work with poor quality. ty airfields at the same time, both planes had to have four engines, so there were not many
options, as a result, scientists from Sagi and the Royal Elevation Institute came up with the same design meanwhile, given the similarity in concepts, we have a great opportunity to compare. how british and soviet aviators tackled almost identical tasks with all the external similarities the lll 62 and the vc10 in fact don't have much in common the history of evil 62 will be clearer if the broadcast is made directly from it to do this as we always visit the central museum of the air force in the morning near Moscow, where we meet one of the representatives of our leading family, the USSR 866 700, a veteran of the first series aircraft and air flights and now also a star of cinema, we begin our acquaintance with the rich in his world from this miracle the aircraft fuselage has a width of 3.75 meters 12.3 feet and the lengths of 49 meters 160 feet according to these indicators it is a fairly classic narrow b ody plane long-distance commercial of his time is not particularly different from Pierce, let's take a look at what's inside, usually people get on board through the front doors, where they have immediate access to the closet, the cabin, the first cabin and two laboratories.
The interior design is also classic three plus three with an aisle everything is done as practically as possible without complicated layouts and layouts compared to the super aesthetic tu-114 but by modern standards quite usual fabric seats with tables and nets for small items individual comfort tools above luggage being perhaps the Sheer curtains on the windows are a bit unusual here. I will immediately note that our plane is special. The dash eight six six seven O assembled in 1967 is one of the first production aircraft of this model so it has features that are absent from its later siblings you can even tell by the cabin capacity here there are fewer seats than in the heirs its forward cabins accommodated up to 66 people and later even more the cabin by the way thanks to the efforts of the museum and volunteers is kept in excellent condition cozy soviet authenticity was appreciated by filmmakers this plane sometimes becomes a stage Behind the first booth is another set of ancillary areas.
The buffet vanity and the second set of doors. This arrangement allows passengers to be quickly moved to both cabins, since in the story there was no room for another door. The work area for the cabin crew on board is classic, but some solutions are quite elegant. Also, among the tools. we can find interesting manuals for the crew members and, of course, in addition to the lamps, a couple of small roof windows fill the galley with light. It looks nice. the second cabin in basic configuration is designed for 102 passengers. and the greater capacity is achieved by the greater length visually the cabins are differentiated by the colors of the seats and the curtains unusual customization t The first cabin is filled with blue light, while the second is Forex, there are laboratories and a cabinet located in the rear of the fuselage, there's actually a lot of room here, but they didn't stretch out the cockpit since the engines are located here most of the time. noise and vibration are in this place, plus part of the space is occupied by the power plant and control equipment, in addition to four engines, we also have a tail over our heads, there is another interesting unit here, but we will return to it a little later in the basic configuration that l62 accommodated 168 passengers in two cabins and 138 in three and this fact curiously is one of the main differences between illusion and Vickers the fact is that initially the British aircraft was not supposed to accommodate many people its maximum capacity reached 151 people in a dense layout this way BOAC divided vc10 and boeing 707 in its fleet the soviet plane was originally being manufactured as a large capacity passenger plane so here is more and suitable for compare it to Boeing and Douglas not Vickers the advantage of this solution was not only the initially decent capacity but also the potential during modernization increased It entered 186 and then one hundred and ninety-six passengers without lengthening the fuselage which greatly simplified the job now we can run up the nose and into the brain of any aircraft that the cabin of the lll 62 is a combination of the latest technology of its time and the healthy conservatism that the engineers had to give the plane all the necessary capabilities and at the same time do not make it too complex, as practice shows that this is not so simple.
The flight operation is carried out by a crew of five people, two pilots and an engineer, a navigator and a radio operator. That team was a conservative solution. The Aleutians did not complicate the electronics in order to reduce the crew, however, the control system of the aircraft was very modern, an important part of the system, mainly the automation, were completely new or modernized while the critical elements were reserved. the idea of making the plane efficient and at the same time as simple as possible further extended one of the problems of many big planes with the great physical load on the pilots it was easy to drive the small Cessna without any kind of hydraulic support and propellers, but when your plane is already the size of a house, it doesn't work, on the other hand, simplifying piloting with technology also comes at a price, the plane has to be packed with an enormous amount of equipment that requires maintenance and makes that the plane is heavier the vc10 in this case was an extreme design it was easy to control but it turned out to be terribly complicated the Yuson was the other way around engineers tried to put the plane together in such a way as to minimize the amount of extras it was also a walk over the edge the bad 62 is the largest civil aircraft in the world with minimal controls almost no propellers however they did not go over the edge the plane still made its pilots, in addition, many of the advantages of Aleutian airliners remained in place, the cabin is quite spacious, ergonomics are good for its time, and the view is also good.
The plane, of course, receives the traditional. four aleut glazing you can tell right away who made this masterpiece right it's time to look at this beauty from the outside the sick 62 is a large single aisle airliner has a low swept wing and is equipped with four engines in section tail right next to the t-shaped plumage the overall length of the aircraft is slightly over 53 meters 174 feet the location of the engines in the tail allows for the development of a clean and aerodynamically effective wing it is large enough to support flights at high altitudes low speeds and then the nuances Start the rear part of the wing has a fairly simple machining two large sections of retractable flaps seduce on some wings also a pair on each side I particularly highlight t The simplicity of this scheme compared to what was built on the vc10 the lll 62 is very minimalist and this is on the trailing edge let's go ahead and look at the leading edge if you look closely rca, you may notice that there are no slats. the decision to abandon the heavy mechanism on the wing, alas, in order to decently simplify the design, reduce its weight and increase the internal volume of the fuel tanks, not only Ellucian like this design, attentive viewers of the channel were able to notice that none Most Gulfstream aircraft, even their latest models, have slots. for the same reasons, but unlike small, electronically packaged business jets, the huge Hill 62 couldn't function without help, and as a result of the engineers' work, a very elegant solution emerged at the leading edge, there's a small protrusion resembling a tooth that has almost no effect on aerodynamics during level cruise flight but with an increase in angle of attackcreates a vortex that stabilizes the airflow around the wing this solution So that the aircraft is not afraid of turbulence and high angles of attack and reduces the minimum flight speed on takeoffs and landings, do not forget about weak runways and short, the combination of this element with a special wing design became a serious challenge for engineers and required a lot of work both in the wind tunnels and in production.
The slightest deviation from the required parameters and this tooth could become useless. However, the successful implementation of this idea gave the aircraft good flight performance without the use of complex schemes. The materialization of the idea. of simplicity of design and indeed the great success of the Aleutians Bureau the landing gear is a fairly classic two wheel trike with front legs and main support four wheel bogies the legs are short which brings the plane closer to the ground but reduces lateral overloads during takeoffs and landings and the wheels are quite large with reduced pressure smoothing out bumps on the runway, of course, all equipment is equipped with powerful brakes, the operation demonstrated the efficiency of the landing gear and its reliability. the Cobra maneuver after landing they raised the nose of the plane and used the whole plane as an aerodynamic brake the main gear constantly endured this mockery and the danger was mainly in the risk of hitting a runway with the tail, there is another non-obvious but successful solution, the fact is the landing gear is not really a trike the newer of tail engined aircraft is its tendency to tilt back the tail structure with heavy engines it simply weighs more than the nose this phenomenon was combated in different ways and in the face of illusion they made the simplest decision to put another small leg that would support the weight of success many critics of the dismissal of the plane called this support a vicarious crutch, for example, it works without making the most obvious decision of to compensate for the mass in the tail the aircraft received a forward elongated fuselage and the center of mass was exactly over the wing and the landing gear looked like this r well the problem with this arrangement was that all the control surfaces ended up at the rear close to each other such a scheme cut off the tail force lever which required an increase in th plumage size and the installation of a huge reinforced stabilizer bracket Ellucian went the other way they moved the wings slightly forward increasing stick and simplifying control which allowed to abandon complex mechanization and large reinforced stabilizers but the solution also came at a price the center of mass was behind the main landing gear out of fuel and cargo ahead the plane was going down on its tail and here comes the crutch this rather simple leg slides out of the fuselage and holds the plane to the ground and after retracting the wheels it stayed partially out as a tail strike insurance the leg is controlled remotely from the cabin or, if necessary, yes in the technical compartment and the tails there is a direct access to the transmission and the leg could be controlled manually quite a simple design which, however, gave better controllability and at the same time allowed to abandon a bunch of additional elements, so with this metal stick the In the end the engineers accepted design simplification and decent weight reduction not a bad deal if you ask me finally time to get to grips with the engine the base 62 was lifted by the nk8 turbofans creating thrust of up to one hundred and two kilonewtons initially they were created specifically for the L 62 but later they were installed on the tu-154 engines in pairs on individual missiles this design made it possible to create a clean wing the high location ensured against foreign debris and the location and individual missiles reduced the level of Vibration and noise plus four engines gave a reserve of thrust, and the proximity of the engines to the center shaft increased safety.
In case of failure, the aircraft did not start to turn and could maintain stable flight. In addition, the I62 was the first in the country to receive thrust reversal mechanisms. Such mechanisms make it possible to redirect thrust forward after landing and decelerate more efficiently on landing. runway h However, the crews also found other functions for this system, probably quite obvious, the inverters located in the tail allow the aircraft to move backwards independently, as well as the somewhat extreme ones, such as applying the inverters before touchdown the ground, the mechanisms are installed on the two exteriors. engines, as practice has shown, this was enough for the braking speed, so the work reached the finish line in 1963.
The first prototype was ready, but the engines could not get there on time, since most of the flight tests consisted of verifying the capabilities of the airframe and on board. systems to speed up the work it was decided to put the al7 it is not a bad engine used in various military aircraft for a colossus like the ill 62 of course it was quite weak but for the initial test stage it should have been enough finally the prototype made its maiden flight in January 1963 the tests were carried out at an active pace and soon two more aircraft joined the first board already with the MK 8 i engines.
The installed aircraft showed themselves quite well, they flew at cruising speeds of 850 km/h or 530 miles per hour at altitudes up to 12,000 meters or 39,000 feet, not record numbers, of course, but enough for civilian use. The design also showed itself well. Many risky solutions were successful and the aircraft did not require major changes. Unfortunately, the tests did not go as smoothly as planned. In February 1965, during another test, the first prototype failed to lift on takeoff and nearly fell out of the sky. The problem turned out to be at the airfield. the engines the al7 could not pull the plane in the maximum modes due to this disaster the tests were suspended but since the other prototypes had other models of engines after the investigation and the adjustment of the work plan the tests were resumed the tests were resumed They were completed in 1967 and the aircraft began passenger flights.
Aeroflot finally got its main long-range business jet, however it turned out to be insufficient in range, the basic MK 8 - 2. the engines could not give enough thrust with a normal passenger load, it had to fly with a reduced fuel reserve, which reduced the flight range. Soon the aircraft received the reinforced MK 8 - 4 engines and the performance improved, but it was not possible to completely solve the problem. the plane was too heavy the fuel consumption was too high on long distance routes it still had to land to refuel which complicated the operation also the l62 was planned by Aeroflot as a replacement for the to 114 but the range for this was still not enough the complete solution was the creation of the LLL 62 m the main difference from the basic aircraft was the replacement of the nk8 engines with the new D 30 K these engines reached almost 108 kilonewtons of thrust which allowed to increase the cruising speed to reduce the distance Takeoff and Landing In addition to improving flight capabilities in hot conditions and high-altitude airports, the reverse clamshell system gave way to the bucket-type, more efficient doors. efficient and in flight the lettuce increased air resistance the aircraft itself became heavier its capacity increased to 186 passengers and an additional fuel tank appeared inside the vertical stabilizer the increase in fuel reserve along with better engine efficiency as well as a series of improvements to the airframe and onboard systems paid off the aircraft was able to fly almost 11,000 kilometers or 5900 miles this was enough to cover all air travel needs the aleut office was working on the model and long and heart for what it took almost five years from the start of work to commissioning the aircraft began to fly in the air since 1974 the ill 62m had become a truly successful aircraft the pride of designers and a workhorse On long-range routes, the decisions made about the creation of this aircraft were successful, the rejection of many if Complex onboard systems made the aircraft simple and cheap to operate, and design optimization minimized the scourge of aircr.
Behind this design, increased weight. The weight retained excellent takeoff and landing performance. The 62 turned out to be relatively light. American planes, but with their design, the Boeing 707 and Douglas dc-8 were more demanding on airfields and did not meet operational conditions. All these indicators made the aircraft extremely popular. It was produced for a long time until 1995. During this time, 289 units were manufactured. delivered for a model of this size in the USSR this was an impressive figure with the appearance of the M l62 version completely replaced the 114 and remained the flagship long-haul aircraft until the appearance of the bad 96 also all this time it was the the main governing board which was again replaced only by the new 96, moreover, dozens of planes have been exported to various Eastern European countries to Cuba China No For some time, planes from Korea and Africa were even shared by the fleets airlines Air France and KLM, which were then separate from each other, as well as joint Japanese flights were carried out mainly to Moscow.
In total, in various incidents and disasters, 23 passenger planes were lost with the death of about 1,000 people, these figures are quite unpleasant, but it is worth considering the huge volume of traffic that has a fairly large number of aircraft of this model. which took over, so the 62, of course, is not the ultimate dream in terms of flight safety but for its time it was at the level of its classmates and was considered quite reliable the bad 62 laughed at all the people related to it becoming a mass delivered airliner allowed millions of people to travel comfortably across distances making our world a little bit more Accessible minimalism and lack of pretense in its creation became one of its main advantages and the main difference from the Vickers aircraft, as well as from many So Vietnamese counterparts, well, the vc10 was considered the cutting edge of the d e aviation, like the planes developed, for example, by tupolev, the l62 was exactly what was needed, no more and no less, as a result, it turned out to be simpler, cheaper and more efficient than Ellucian engineers could easily compare .
His plane with his companions, the Bad 62, was undeniably good. Unfortunately, time is a tough and untamable thing and the race of aviation technology doesn't slow down. Appeared in the 1960s, the aircraft showed itself perfectly, and most of its shortcomings were solved by creating the M version. However, despite the correct decisions, the M version was late, the era of wide-body airliners began. In 1974, when the flood of air put the evil 62 M into operation, giants such as the Boeing 747 Douglas DC-10 Lockheed L-1011 and the Airbus A300 were already flying over the world, which greatly reduced the competitiveness of aircraft in the international market. ill 62 could be compared with the vc10 Boeing 707 or dc-8 but with the new wide-body Long Rangers know within the USSR in the conditions of an orderly distribution of roles in the Madeline air flood fleet the aircraft felt excellent during a long time, but even there over time it began to become obsolete the engines were not economical and noisy the capacity in this range was small and the excellent take-off and landing performance at often it turned out to be unnecessary the plane had to be replaced and the 96 was created for this, but it was replaced by others with the collapse of the USSR and the global market the opening of foreign long-haul aircraft reached Russia and the CIS, the obsolete ill 62 could not compete with them and the ill 96 that was created to replace it came too late and could not fill the gap fast enough in the 1990s and 2000s the aircraft was quickly withdrawn from airline fleets some of the aircraft with enough flight resources were converted to cargo planes a classic solution for large passenger planes although it did not become especially popular for the model 62 in 2019 a little more than a dozen planes continued to operate mainly in government structures the vast majority of non-flying aircraft were scrapped but some were lucky enough to be parked in museums our aircraft number USSR 866 700 e s the board of the tenth series of the il-62 model, one of the basic ones, was assembled in 1967 and operated in the fleet of plane aircraft until 1983, on July 17, the plane successfully landed on the grass runway of the airfield from Manila, proving that even such conditions, while unusual, are not terrible, as the plane drove to its place and state, where over time it became the star of many movies and the hero of some fan videos. of aviation.
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