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Human-Made Mass Now Outweighs All Life on Earth | [OFFICE HOURS] Podcast #034

Jan 02, 2022
then oh it was easy it will start to separate or definitely not behind that restricted prop they cant be forgotten neither of them will be able to be revived so back to targeting you should have impossible floating antigravity for weeks i don't know what it is the basilisk has its eyes on you what are you going to do so at some point the acceleration will be so high you'll pass 30 feet look i know none of those examples were fun yell the fish on this side would never leave me weightless, no matter where it is or within our own body.
human made mass now outweighs all life on earth office hours podcast 034
I high five the killer. Oh I'm sorry. What were we talking about? it's a bunch of crap no i mean not just like you know but you know just look at all the buildings all the concrete all the infrastructure where is everyone where is all the animals where is all the stuff , the vegetation? I think we should oh I think they need to know about this I think this particular civilization has crossed a scary tipping point in terms of their crap. We should go downstairs and tell them how much is in your trunk. Welcome to

office

hours

.
human made mass now outweighs all life on earth office hours podcast 034

More Interesting Facts About,

human made mass now outweighs all life on earth office hours podcast 034...

Man, that spaceship is landing fast.

office

hour is a live component of the facility where the good professor kyle opens his blast doors as you just saw welcome all my staff all my professors my research assistants and the geeks assaulted i allow you into the office for An hour or so ask any old science or pop culture questions you're wondering and we'll go through, as we want to do a number of yourselves selected topics throughout the week, we'll talk about trash in the trunk of the

earth

. We'll talk about murders, but nothing graphic. We will also talk about sand castles.
human made mass now outweighs all life on earth office hours podcast 034
Taking one of your comments from the last episode of the install, we'll talk about lazy beams because everyone likes lazy beams, huh, but before that, if you'd like to join the install, if you'd like to continue this conversation and get special perks, join our discord etc my security team who is in chat right now we will post a link to patreon.com kyle hill and if you support us enough you get oh you get so many goofs and bonuses yeah I said yes, I

made

it up in my head, what do you want? If you want to join you are welcome to or if you want your comment to be seen even more and support us all on the premises you can try super chat on youtube on youtube chat as you can see they are already rolling on those are. all those fancy comments there and remember this month all the super chats are going towards the grand imahara steam foundation now i would have added it as an official fundraiser for this youtube video but since they are still applying for their non-profit status just like they were created uh not too long ago sadly uh the fa I for one will be writing a check at the end of the year and that will be our little gift to young nerds of all stripes so I'll do it and how they can see, there are many examples of this. top of the show with the 50 who say they get to catch the live stream how to take off today through mom surgery lymph nodes tested negative for cancer that's great too the little

human

is watching and says hello well hello little

human

so happy to hear about your grandma and mom elizabeth everything seems to be going well we also have one of my original supporters uh heather selset with the 50 says in memory grateful to grant something for science yes of course kaylee lee with the 20 says there are consequences to capitalize on and junk is one of them but i wouldn't want to become a communist just to make this situation better ok i'm not quite sure where that's coming from maybe it's your fault uh elizabeth with five others, are you going to argue? the super planet event with jupe jupe and saturn segway maybe just a temporary alignment from our point of view where the planets will come so close together in the sky that it looks like they almost overlap to create a super planet but there isn't going to be any super planet on practice and we also have mix master with all 10 says kyle senpai thanks for noticing me last week how cyberpunk has been for you enjoying it so far you've managed to at least get it going um so this is what's up with cyberpunk right now, what you are seeing on the screen looks better than cyberpunk 27 on ps4 or xbox one i think if it has a chance to be amazing game and cool story and i love cyberpunk stories but if the story is cool and i haven't gotten into it that much now i have refused to continue playing it on the ps4 because i feel like i am getting a bad impression of a possibly very good game because the graphics are 720p we are running like 20 frames pe In a second I'm crashing 9 out of 10 times I play it's atrocious last gen and we should be mad you know it prevents reviewers from reviewing console copies and doesn't allow images to be taken from reviews about bugs that are bad and should. a lot to get back to your camp, especially after something like The Witcher 3, which you supported, oh, so much, uh, excuse me, so let's move on to our first topic before we go too far because I see a lot of you watching waiting.
human made mass now outweighs all life on earth office hours podcast 034
Speaking of junk, let's check our trunk, which is why many people ask when the human age began. I love the name. The Anthropocene is the proposed era of geologic time in which humanity had left enough of a mark to define a new era. A lot of people suggested different um signifiers of the Anthropocene, one was um once we were able to detect all the ra. radionuclides from atmospheric nuclear tests gave activity in everything from vintage wine to old portraits and things like that old paint on paintings once we can detect it's a decent argument to say that humans have had a huge impact on the world another proposed point was the placement of a layer of plastic so that all over the world, um, if you went and started digging like you, well, let's just say that humans a thousand years from now if they started digging far enough back, they would start finding the first worldwide implementation of plastic and because plastic doesn't biodegrade or degrade much that would be one way of saying okay well this is when humanity really started to have a big impact on the planet and today's topic is proposing that I don't know if they're proving that the study is proposing this, but I'm proposing that we're now at another tipping point and this tipping point is when the Human

made

things now outnumber the

mass

of all living things on the planet and I'm not just talking about animals I'm talking about them being outnumbered by flora and you know viruses and bacteria I'm all that could be considered alive or something alive in the case of the virus so now human made stuff exceeds that weight and of course since we're looking at a study we can get even more granular than that so you're looking at a graph of this I study human-made

mass

versus living biomass of about the last hundred years and then pushing another five years just to extrapolate and obviously you can see from the industrial revolution, there's not a lot of man-made mass until about 1990 explodes en masse, you can see the blue section, plastic, metals, bricks, asphalt aggregates, such as gravel, concrete, it is by far the largest. and this black line that you're looking at here is biomass and as any good scientific paper would, they have a wide range as you know there are many different estimates, um, and there are also different ways to categorize biomass.
Consider the wet biomass which includes the water content and it sounds yucky or you could go to the dry biomass the so called dry biomass and that's just included like include more or less just the carbon but that equates to roughly this black line and now or depending on your projections and your actual estimates here, either by the end of this year or in the next three years or so, all human made things weigh more than all living things and to put that in context you can break down the even more numbers from study authors as i think about this for a second the world's plastics just the world's plastics now weigh as much as all the animals think about that every fish in the sea every cricket on land and you know what there are a lot of crickets everything is equal to how much plastic we have i have polluted the planet and i mean i like alliteration not everything is pollution plastic does a lot of fantastic things but in the last hundred years l Animals have gone from being the defining characteristic of t The planet having

life

almost replaced by a synthetic material on that planet sorry I got caught reading the numbers the wet weight of biomass on

earth

is estimated at 2.2 trillion metric tons and we're on track to complete it past that point, it depends again depending on where your estimates vary, um, and whether you take into account a broader view of anthropogenic or man-made mass, like accounting for debris and things like that, we might have surpassed all biomass in 1977. so i bring all of this up to pointing out that this could be another real marker of the anthropocene, this could be the point where humanity has had such an effect on a planet that what makes the planet so fantastic is less than a percentage and i want to bring it up because the perspective is distorted well just think of nature just think of the enormity of the biosphere of the earth every blade we're talking about like every blade of grass all the whales all the bugs all the spiders all the ants you know there's a lot of ants everything everything and there's almost more concrete than everything so obviously to continue we can't continue at a rate like this we are already we have already lost like half the species um things are getting more and more dire every decade so we have to find a way to live in accordance with the

life

and not squash and trample it completely under the foot of industry and progress because you know once the earth looks like coruscant and the collapse of the biosphere that's going to be mr diglett at 20 says sorry i missed the last one reunion got lost in the maze again ok i get lost there too uh david neptune with the 25 says for grant thank you very much uh nice random game with hashtag aus$69 submitted for grant that's all thanks uh here emos to alyssa ronda who is happy to watch the broadcast in her 50s she says listen i love wall-e it's a great movie it makes me cry i'd rather not live it though just a thought yeah huh chris eastman in her 20s says still amazing this is for grant thank you red rum red rum or murder murder with the 20s says hey kyle hey what are you and arya doing for the holidays at the facility merry christmas huh ari and i wont do anything we wont travel of course its good to see family but it's also good to keep people alive.
I would say it's better, so we won't do anything. cats individualized gifts they have to break if they want them but that sounds crazy uh vcdrny says with the 20s says kyle loved the show last week i spent last week spent my birthday with me and me because of covid how excited are? Are you in favor of expansion? What do you mean? The best sci-fi show since Star Trek, The Next Generation and in this week of installation you can look forward to an expansion themed episode complete with full rendering. I mean, not fully rendered. a new spaceship arriving at the facility very soon in which you can see thomas hedrick with the donation of 100 dollars he says that the google monster tells me that scientists have discovered through new mapping data that our little star is closer from sagittarius to and it moves much faster than previous estimates your thoughts last a bit too apollo hot sauce oh um i hate spicy food so probably not but it would be good content to let you know what my life is like if not I'm happy, so maybe, um, as far as Sagittarius goes, space is so big and our lives are so short that most of these cosmic calamities that are projected to happen aren't going to matter to me or to you. unless a gamma ray burst hits us out of nowhere and fries everything huh jesus skywalker should be jesus waterwalker buddy right? you didnt even read king james i dont want to be weird about that i just went to a lot of catholic schools jesus skywalker with the fifty bucks aussie says hey kyle has a planet wide redistribution of materials affected e rth gravity in a measurable way uh no um the uh what they said was ok so let's do a little order of magnitude let's do this off the top of our head what do they say the wet mass was 2.2 trillion metric tons one metric ton is one thousand kilograms one trillion it's 10 to the power of 12 so we're talking about 10 to the power of 15 kilograms or so so 10 to 15 kilograms is all life on the planet and if we multiply that by 2 that would be all human things if they were about the same right now, so we have 2 times 10 to the power of 15, the planet earth weighs approximately 6 times 10 to the power of 24, so 24 minus 15 is nine and wow why do Ido you force me to do this? looks good but generally speaking uh y and six divided by two is three of course so we have earth trumps everything on earth's surface whether human made or biological by uh 30 bill uh times 3 thousand million times 10 to 9 is 3 billion, look at us, we're doing math, um, so that beats it by 3 billion times, to have a real impact on th planet you'd have to say we redistribute one percent of the mass of the earth which is a lotthat's many hundreds of thousands of times more than all life and all the things we put on the planet so you would have to do a lot more because the earth is so huge we are all humanity has made all life on earth everything including all the oceans and all that all the forest that is like the skin of the grape in the grape that is the earth the earth is much more than the patch of biota on its surface it is mostly rock hinfari with the 10 that says hey hey stop hey hey show the program since it looks like we're going back to uh since we're on our way to becoming ravnica which guild do you join obviously simic that's one of the guilds right oh i was thinking shards yeah i'd go stomach selbach just one from my uh selbach teachers with the 10 uh and no message because they have class uh liam for lay with 20 australian dollars says that this problem has accelerated a lot with deforestation um, I'm sure it's part of the problem but it's up to us ing well, it's like the zero sum where you take wood and that's biological and incorporate it into human made things um so you're just taking okay no yeah you're right yeah it wouldn't be what it was. thinking about I don't know anyway and conversely um when you talk about concrete you're taking like sand and other granular medium and that adds to our mass and doesn't take anything away from biology so there are two different ways to look at it and uh, we're doing so much concrete and stuff uh that uh, the earth is running out of sand, isn't that so weird? about the elephant foot just wondering if you would see it and how close it was to the actual events oh the um the show was fantastic and you mentioned the elephant foot if you saw one of my more recent episodes on the install um , called the true story of the demon core huh that video in a new format new documentary style format I highly recommend you watch it because it's something new that we tried it's my most successful video and I will continue what I call the Half-Life stories moving forward , so we'll continue to do a lot of documentaries in that format, um, investigating nuclear accidents and disasters specifically and you mentioned the elephant's foot and man, that would be a great topic for maybe the next mini-documentary I've already filmed was for the five of us and let's stop the super chat so we can get to our next topeka kansas with all five says kyle kyle kyle the kyle i like that one better because it has my name simping for grant too ds9 was better than tng in my opinion well that's just your take on the fact that you are a wrong zodiac transition so I usually wouldn't mention something like this but it has to do with crypto and decryption codes, which is interesting in itself, but I wanted to link it to something else. er famous code breaking thing so um zodiac was um a serial killer and he uh was responsible for that sorry he was reading responsible for the deaths of at least five people in the san francisco bay area um over the years 60's and 70's and he was so confident in his methods that he and I want to say it could be a she but statistically he would probably send letters to the police saying yes more or less if you know different magazines different newspapers and he said if you can if you can find out this code tells you everything you need to know tells you what you know look I shot a man sitting in a parked car right here tells you where I planted a bomb tells you my name by the way my name is that it says it says there by the way my name is, so it must figure out this code, encrypt a code that it applies to some coded message to read it in the proper letters and this, obviously, because it was so, since it was linked to a series. killer and because the murders were horrible ble and creepy this became kind of a pop culture phenomenon and because this was like unbreakable it had this kind of appeal that was very interesting but as of last week the code was cracked, the 340 cipher as it was known, um a doctor and two other cryptologists huh and a supercomputer called spartan in melbourne australia finally revealed its contents and its contents as you can guess from someone obviously sadistic malicious and having a lot of problems i had a lot of things like this you know i hope you have a lot of fun trying to catch me i'm not afraid of the gas chamber i'm not afraid of death scary things again why kyle why are you bringing this up because actually they cracked it and keep in mind they went through 650,000 different interpretations of this code to show you how good this code was at cracking this.
They found out they got a clue. hint ok since they were applying different interpretations of the code again over six hundred thousand in the noise of the output you return say you know if you don't have the encryption right it will just output gibberish but in one of these gibberish output they they saw the term gas chamber and the researchers thought it's incredibly unlikely that a random string of words or a random sentence would have such a distinct and clearly terrible phrase, so they used the part of the encryption that gave this result gas chamber and backed up the engine they reverse engineered working from ok let's assume this encryption when applied to this section gives gas chamber now applying the same encryption to the rest they were finally able to reverse engineer and get the rest of the code at least for this code section again why is this interesting because exactly this is exactly the same way as alan turing and the rest of code breakers during world w ar ii broke the nazi codes the way they were a big part of winning the war by cracking troop movements and the plans and strategy of the axis powers did the same because the code was very complex and both the example of the assassins and uh the Germans during WWII the code was so complex you couldn't do this by hand and you couldn't just brute force it would take millions of years to brute force it so they needed some way to do it, in this case i was recognizing this phrase in the case of alan turing and the nazi code they also made a mistake they put repeated phrases in their messages like hail hitler for example and once they people became codebreakers once they started noticing something like this was in the end of messages consistently they can start taking pictures ok what would it be?
You know? What would this little section of code be with this many with this many letters? art testing code that would, um, give that result and then they can reverse engineer and break everything and then save probably millions of lives, which they did and that was fascinating, but it's cool for me to see the same kind of cryptography. at stake here to crack what is arguably the most famous code in recent history so i thought that was cool and now you know how they did it what am i doing where is chat chat uh wyvern morgan what a cool name that? is that you sound like a detective to a fan like fantasy world detective private wyvern morgan with swords says and they usually didn't change their code key as advised yeah so yeah we're talking about the enigma code and the enigma machine if you want to know more about it um david jones says the allies also started planting false messages that would be reported to berlin yes there were a lot there are a lot well thats common there is a lot of false information being passed around . wn on all sides of a conflict as part of information warfare like with uh like russia is doing to us right now uh scott lekkenby says hi kyle just curious but do you plan on doing more episodes based on the expansion with the new season? it will be out in a few days thanks for taking the time to read my question yes in fact this friday on youtube we have a new episode focused on the expansion and the new season but no spoilers and it will be great because i bought a spaceship a red one uh vanilla gorilla austin kane wow i said once and for all i want some more spooky topics for videos like this the nuke maybe some forensic science how they caught heinous criminals well like i said we will do another mini documentary on arguably the most famous result of a nuclear disaster um and that will be in the next two weeks me too uh i don't want to reveal it but i did something where i almost died and that was fun it was safefish there's security people there that's cool so wait for that uh chalene says what was the name of the zodiac i don't know i didn't crack the code i'm not a supercomputer called spartan though i might be hey kyle fan of the show. dr gibberish says hi kyle fan of the show even before you discovered argan oil sad times i know something like before 20 like 2017 and before i look terrible huh and you and a few others inspired me to make my own channel where i deliver space news like soviet elvis presley, will you rate it well? weird sorry if i'm exploiting your place a bit john josh ash says hi kyle what are your thoughts on nerf and other foam dart blasters? obviously they're awesome they were more awesome when they weren't like weapons of war like they are today and once you punch a kid square in the eyeball enough times it becomes less fun because they start crying then you start crying and then they tell their mom and then you can't play there anymore even though it sucks you know uh thomas hedrick says it's your episode. it was safe kyle has high standards well everything i do is much safer than the backyard scientist or alan pan or crabs and science does those guys dont do what they do its bad thats what I'll say as I'm not calling anyone, but I like having worked with the old mythbusters team, the level, the, they take security so seriously, um, it's pretty awesome, you know, my producer there, you know, he said it. just shooting like a potato gun at low pressure okay look I know you think you know what you're doing but if something goes wrong it's my ass and not yours so I'll take it seriously even if it doesn't you know.
I mean just like shooting like a piston just air out of a piston not even a shell or anything we made the team leave the building like everyone outside was shooting remotely rapid ok ok everyone inside is They take security very seriously, and so do I, even as a small burden. it would be like a mile away you know um merlin says oh oh humble bragging yeah right we got tam at 50 says sim for science thank you so much tam and thanks for being a member of the facility where you get both. lots of benefits oh man uh and come on yeah we are we're good oh sorry joshua john my security team didn't like what you said but I like listening to jazz oh I discovered a new jazz drummer uh yesterday or two days ago his name is uh youssef days youssef d-a-y-e-s and um he's a machine he's really good um there's just a few videos on his channel but the last one i think is an hour long live album if you like how uh new uh kind of acidy jazz it's fantastic recommend it brett jake o hawk says hey k ywould love to hear your thoughts on the arguments that neurodivergent afflictions are based on evolution for example ADHD would be great if you're a hunter- collector, well, first of all, let's clarify that being neurodivergent is not an affliction, it's not a disease, it's a type of brain, um, you hear things on the spectrum, but what you need to internalize is that the spectrum contains everything you know , so you know if we had one end of the scale that was non-functioning autistic and the other end of the scale was fully extroverted, for example, so everything in between there are no gradations, there's nothing good or bad here, it just varies, um, the different tones of how your brain sees things so let's not call them afflictions because they're not and we know that neurotypical neural divergent neurodiverse there's not one big monolithic group of normal people so it's not an affliction it's a state it's a brain state um and uh the problem with evolution Fundamental psychology at its core is that even though there are a lot of great arguments and there are a lot of good ideas and a lot of ideas that make a lot of sense, there's no way to test those theories at all, so it's very difficult to make a good evolutionary theory. arguments based on psychology so to speak, having ADHD might make me apologetic, maybe a better hunter-gatherer, but you can also imagine a lot of downsides and there's no way to test this hypothesis specifically so I can't really comment on that um, but you know, and neurodiversity comes along with a lot of different traits that may or may not be valued by society and that's why we stigmatize them or you don't know, forexample, um, we don't stigmatize extreme, we do stigmatize extreme introversion, but we don't stigmatize extreme extroversion, where if society or human beings were a little different, you might see people thinking, uh, you know, he needs attention all the time. , wants to go out all the time, be happy, bubbly and talkative. all the time in another society they might look at it as divergent and an affliction but we don't have it we just have the society uh and the psychology that we do so yeah embracing neurodiversity there's a lot to learn from each other uh, Dr.
Strange Jove, one of my emeritus professors. big supporter of facility with 100 donation to grant steam grant imahara steam foundation hashtag sim for steam waiting for more nuclear scream stories well you know they don't sound so good when you call them that but you know i will take matt creole with all 10 he says since cloning probably wouldn't work, could we create something like dinosaurs and the size and appearance through selective breeding of certain birds? I'll make a better one. it's jack horner it's jack corner uh the scientist jack horner he's the jurassic park character that the jurassic park scientist is based on and what he's trying to do since we know there's an evolutionary lineage from dinosaurs to birds, what he was trying to do was go back to the genes of birds and flip different switches so that they could all that evolutionary history is there, it's encoded in the DNA, what he was trying to do was change certain genetic characteristics. change so that it would delete something like the reverse, it would delete the bird-like genes and re-express the more dinosaur-like genes and I think it has made a chicken embryo with teeth, it calls it chicken asaurus and I interviewed it once and i said what does it mean he really wants and it's like i want a fluffy pink tyrannosaurus rex and i support it and cloney won't work like you say um because um dna like uh like radioactive material has a half-life it will degrade over time and as far as you can it could going back and extracting the DNA from, say, an ancient gnat or gnat, it's only a few hundred thousand years and obviously dinosaurs died out 65 million years ago so there's no real hope of getting the DNA intact or intact enough and then you would have to find an animal that could give birth to this thing, maybe a bird could, but the physiology might be so different now that it might not be possible. , which is why it's much more possible for something like a woolly mammoth because only you know 10,000 years ago and could probably still be whelped by something like a modern day elephant um elizabeth at 10 says thanks kyle i have adhd and good chance uh my little human also wants to explain a potato gun oh you also want to explain a potato gun okay hey little human i think your mom said your name was alex a potato gun is basically just a pipe and you push a potato at one end and at the other end you have some kind of gas that if you put a lighter next to it the gas burns, um, what does this burn?
It creates a lot of pressure on the back of the tube so when you put the potato in the pressure it wants to go everywhere but the tube is really strong but you know you know what it's not red potatoes and then the potato is pushed out out the other end of the tube and it goes flying, kind of like that sound grenade launchers make in goldeneye 64. super chat for a second so we can move on to our last two topics ryan cohen with the 10 says my first sim for the happy science of giving such a degree gives us a great cause i was just accepted to college for aerospace engineering so thanks for inspiring so many nerds also great shirt yeah thank you very much im so glad you got into college and the field of your choice, aerospace engineering is fascinating and amazing, also if you want my shirt this is a printed version of an actual map. of the moon front and back huh its not the dark side back there but its printed on a map of the lunar surface and i got it in the latest vsauce curio box huh the only box service i believe which is probably worth it so if you want to support um ot his science creator vsauce in his trivia box it's pretty good and very high quality um so with that let's move on to peer review oh what is that down there?
We are going to peer review as I like to do on every episode of office

hours

i would like to take one of your comments, questions, suggestions, corrections from the last installment episode and then highlight it because it made me think or maybe go huh or maybe go and then i give him a badge of honor and then he DMs me and they get access to the facility for a month none of you have done that yet but at least you get a badge am i right? So this week we are digging into phantom savage and phantom savage was commenting on the last episode of the facility which was cyberpunk mantis blades uh i did that with my rager girl thea and arya's lonely body which is fucked up like a lot of you guys commented look i know that's why i don't like to make her mad she scares me anyway it's from the cyberpunk video and looking at how the mantis blades acted wild ghost says now imagine if this was your real arm so you won't worry about the added weight of the stronger materials and the punchy rocking motion was assisted by internal pistons that exert a force of power equivalent to that of a human being. it would be a human sized manta shrimp and then you got the real deal a human sized mantis shrimp would be scary and i like it and i mentioned this i like that mantis blades are an example of biomimetics for manta shrimp the one with you spear a lot more then than the praying mantis because one or a praying mantis doesn't cut or stab they just grab then eat your face while you're still alive while the mantis spear shrimp the mantis shrimp squilla definitely pierce not so much they cut but it definitely pops up and how they do uh it makes a lot of sense they have this really cool biology where they can lock their arm in the same way you would uh if you had a rubber band and then you pulled that rubber band around a surface so now you're putting elastic potential energy, it's called into the system and so they accumulate this elastic potential energy in their body and then they have it, they can bl hide her with his physiology.
Can they lock it in place such that they are just walking around? They're like an example of elastic potential energy walking around with cold eyes, so just walking around with all this potential energy is like they're holding a gun in it So, uh, you know, gunpowder, a bullet has a lot of potential energy. chemistry in reserve, so they walk around this elastic potential energy in reserve and then when they find something they want to hit, it seems to me much more cyberpunk ian where you. you could have some potential energy and you could release it as mechanical energy um to pierce a choomba or something um look I just wish I could play the game without it looking like a dump oh I've never used that as an adjective before who cares making me say that word and think of giant mantis wild ghost people you are now an honorary member of the facility and now kevin will bring you your badge fantastic fanta what come on i know they are wearing headphones i don't care if it goes off just a second ghost i have to deal with something, I'll be right back, yeah, he thought he was going to cobble something under that.
I don't even praise the basilica more. I only praised the devil. I am not a demon. in quantum computers a quantum computer takes advantage of a certain property of quantum mechanics and that's more or less superposition so superposition is the quantum property uh that allows a quantum system to occupy more than one state at the same time so if you want to think about That as a binary example, a quantum system, I'm sorry, I'm fine, there's cat hair everywhere, a quantum system in binary can occupy a one zero at the same time, so this wouldn't be just a little bit anymore. this would be a quantum bit or a q bit you might have heard of so quantum computers use excuse me they use qubits and the big advantage of this is that when I feel like I just had a big gulp of the carbonated stuff the great advantage.
The thing about this is that when every bit in your computer can occupy all states at the same time until it collapses, uh, the entanglement, this allows you to do faster and more complicated calculations than any supercomputer on the planet could possibly crack. any code in moments because what would take a classical computer millions of years to do it can do many of these calculations all on top of each other at the same time so quantum computer is awesome but how do you get all these tangles? going to happen, what do you actually use in a quantum computer? you could use, you know particles, you could use electrons, but in this new research they're using lazy beams and laser beams are obviously made of photons of light and what's really cool about photons of light is that they move at speed of light, so if you could harness something like this in a quantum computer, photons use photons and their sensing of how your system processes information, then you can get something that a quantum can get. a computer that's very, very, very fast, so in this new research what the scientists did was they made a tiny computer chip out of a lot of different beam splitters and they used beam splitters plus light that was so dim you're just shooting like photons of light now what a beam splitter does is partially reflective it's half reflective so when a light beam hits it it can go away it can come back or it can go through and if you point them in a certain n ways it can get the different reliable or almost reliable differences about where the photons go next and you can imagine knowing that the simple programming language says well if a photon is detected here or detected here then it will be a one or a zero or however you want to code it So I'm not going to act like I fully understand this, but with the research why not what the researchers did was they made 50 of these kinds of little logic gates. a little computer chip and they sent photons through 50 inputs of these 50 beam splitters and then read the output of the chip what the photons actually did through the beam splitters now this doesn't actually calculate or solve anything but once you get the output that can be read, you can create a kind of realm of possibilities where you know these outputs look like these outputs if we put light here or here or blah blah blah anyway it becomes very, very complicated, but what?
What's interesting about this is and now I read from the researchers um oh sorry uh I say the researchers had 50 inputs but they had uh the equivalent of 300 beams 300 beam splitters on this chip which gives the total number of possible output states on the chip like 10 to 30 which is a trillion to a trillion trillion trillion different possible outputs so what's really interesting about this is that photons of light get entangled with each other as they reflect or not reflect off these beam splitters because it's just single photons here and think about how long it would take an ordinary computer to get some result out of a possible million trillion trillion different states, well what the researchers got using photons of light entangled together on a computer chip quantum in less than four minutes they got results ok they sent light through 50 inputs 300 beam splitters four minutes later they had some output ok thats pretty cool how long would it take a classical computer to do that 2.5 billion years so as you can see I mean that's you I mean four minutes vs 2.5 billion years you can see I mean anything two times more complicated than this, a quantum computer could calculate something in you know what eight minutes and then your computer you're looking at me on right now wouldn't give you a way out before the sun destroyed the earth so you can see the obvious advantage of a quantum system now i should point out that this isn't really like i said before it's not actually solving a problem this is just reading an output it's not calculating anything it's not running doom on a calculator or anything like that but it shows that using photons instead of other particles in this way could be a big step towards implementing some really amazing technology let's see what the chat has to say these last few minutes uh jack levy with l os 20 says i finally got you live grant was a happy inspiration to support the organization yes my question is the process of animal domestication an example of stockholm syndrome and if so what does that say about animal consciousness?
Well, I think that's really tricky because you're attributing a quirk of human psychology to animals that I don't think is justified. makes more sense taming animals is taking a dog they are probably not getting used to their captor and not being so i guess i say that inseriously, I probably mean that animals wouldn't be trained to be domesticated if they weren't gaining some evolutionary advantage in the first place from, say, wolves approaching humans at the campfire and getting scraps of food and stuff like that, I think which is more of a positive reinforcement feedback loop enacted by evolution over many generations long in populations rather than some quirk of human psychology that probably doesn't apply to animals that don't think the same way, yeah it's that they think at all, um, that it's something else entirely. ing jersey pirates with the 50 which only says by concession i love that uh we also have master of all with the five aussie dollars says hey kyle what do you think of cdpr ad practices with cyberpunk releases has a holiday period hashtag sure just science um i think cdpr the way they advertise cyberpunk was really misleading pc ok but almost half of their player base will be playing on consoles most of those people won't have last gen consoles so completely ignoring the fact that the game is borderline unplayable and looks gross, you know what it's going to be. like 40 percent of your gamers i think not acknowledging that feels like a real cheat and i won't play it until i get a ps5 because i feel like i'm doing the game a disservice if the game is good no i don't want to look at it when it seems like i literally get Vaseline smeared in my eyes elizabeth calvert again with all five says i'm not a demon not just a super villain also lasers hey how dare you i'm not not immortal i'm not a laser immortal demon i mean look at me yeah something i'm like lucifer it doesn't matter uh movie theory assist says who knew the moon isn't made of cheese it's made of kyle oh you mean this regolith hmm i rego lego my record i don't know i don't know what to do with it um jesus not jesus not water walker says for the five aussie bucks sent by steamer and that brings up a good point um for grant's steam foundation note how it's not just stem because I acknowledge and acknowledge that you too also need I do the arts there.
It is a resolution. uh, you know, art and science, engineering and math. It's a reciprocal thing where great art inspires great science and vice versa. thanosis is your name is cool so i have a theory that arya is actually 15ft tall and kyle gets into a human mech for videos oh oh aria is 15ft tall kyle gets into a human mech for videos videos um arya is a computer is she a quantum computer er i would have to ask her she's connected like something in space that has a lot of computing power i don't know i don't ask a lot of questions and you know i'm coming home how was your day ? yes mitch blitz says do you agree with philanthropists wiping out 70 percent of the population by 2030? people that ever turned out to be true, there have been conspiracies, certainly, Watergate assassination plots, but, um, no popular conspiracy theory has ever come true, think about it, why would that be?
Well, it's almost as if the belief system it's based on isn't rooted. in fact hogland says that the moon is completely made up of kyle's previous corpses, you know, between the facilities and because science is so many dead, it would be fun to know exactly how many, just a couple more questions. ns uh joshua mir says simp for daemon core he sure is simping for me it's working on youtube love it master y'all with the five aussie bucks That is. I agree with the others in the chat. The science of rock climbing episode would be awesome, the science of rock climbing and the physics of rock climbing have been on my list as an episode for years, and now I have a lot more freedom to do something like that.
The only problem is blocking my local gym I go to is still closed and I'm respecting that so once rock climbing starts again I want to do that too. I'm only one degree away from uh nolan north and i would love to do an uncharted topic rock climbing episode with nolan north because i think that would be sick uh lars with all ten says hey kyle super nerd here oh old school i love it for Of course you can say I love the show if you feel comfortable sharing how your Catholic upbringing affected your career as a science communicator okay and let's stop it here uh right before uh the top of the hour because I think that's a fantastic question um so yes i went to what 14 years of private catholic education i uh i'm not a religious person maybe those two things are correlated but i went through a lot of catholic education and i'm not going to lie there was some friction sometimes between what i was learning or what I was supposed to be learning and what I thought I should be learning.
Put it that way, but I will say, especially in college, I went to a Jesu, a private Jesuit school and the Jesuits emphasize education above all else, so I had some really fantastic courses, religious courses specifically where I learned a lot and they made me more worldly and it made me more interested in world history because, as one of my professors said, he was a German professor at princeton, it was a history of religion class and he said that the history of religion is important because history de f religion is pretty much the history of the world and it's true um religion has shaped the world like nothing else in human history um and to understand human history you need to be part of the conversation and learn that history learn ya you know how thoughts and beliefs are formed and transformed over the years, it makes you a more complete person.
I feel like if you try to ignore something as monumental and monolithic as religion, you're missing out on a lot of human history and a lot of reasons. because of the things that happen so, um, I wouldn't be ashamed to learn more about history and religions specifically, they're not going to like it, you know, you understand, you know, um, well, some of them will in some parts of the world and that's tragic, but um I think my religious upbringing has made me a more understanding person and at least a little bit more informed and I think more knowledge is always better.
Thank you very much to everyone who joined me in this live office hours. I was a little off my game today, but hey, I'm made of moon today, eh, what are we talking about? We talked about, uh, how now all the human-made garbage now exceeds all the biomass on planet earth, which should be some kind of marker for civilization. if some alien came along and said where they are on the scale of garbage to living things then it could be a very logical marker for the anthropocene, we also talked a little bit about cryptography and how that was a very specific phrase. uh it allowed researchers and a supercomputer to crack perhaps the most famous co code of all time or at least in our lives i didn't talk about sandcastles i was going to make but i didn't oh fun fact the ideal ratio of sand to water to build a perfect sandcastle based on physics and capillary action it's eight buckets of water in a bucket of sand or the other way around it's upside down eight buckets of sand in a bucket of water just so you know that's why no i'm not talking because i screwed up ya huh we also talked about one of your installation comments talking about the people of manchester and how lasers can make quantum computers really crazy thanks for joining me if you want to continue on this conversation if you want to join the facility drape a nice silky white lab coat over your shoulders hop on our discord talk to me almost every day even though I'm on the prowl most of the time and i get episodes early get behind the scenes pics huh you can go to patreon.com kyle hill while my security team is chatting if you missed the live part of this video it will be on the channel later today this week uh the expansion is coming out it's going to be fantastic my favorite sci-fi show my favorite tv show right now and we're going to do an expansion themed episode so stay tuned till then have a wonderful break from your week and then a great weekend because everyone deserves things that are nice and be nice to each other because this is all we have and also delete facebook

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