How to Study for Exams - Spaced Repetition | Evidence-based revision tipsJul 08, 2021
Hello guys, welcome back to the channel if you are new here. My name is Ali. I'm a final year medical student at the University of Cambridge and this is the second in our video on
revisionadvice. Today we're going to be talking about
repetitionand how you can apply it to your own
studyroutine if you haven't seen the previous video which will be linked there and here and everywhere else, check that out first which is about active recall and recall Being active is by far the most important thing you can do right now to make your
studying much more efficient.
This video is going to be about
repetition, which is probably the second most important thing you could do. I put time stamps on everything we're going to talk about. in the description below along with a lot of links so you can follow them however you want and now here is the structure of the video because everyone loves a well-structured video. First of all, we're going to introduce this concept of spaced repetition and I'll be sharing with you a little bit of the
evidencebehind it, we're not going to go overboard with the evidence because, to be honest, a lot of the things around spaced repetition are pretty intuitive.
More Interesting Facts About,
how to study for exams spaced repetition evidence based revision tips...
Secondly, I'll give you some
tipson how you can incorporate spaced repetition into your study techniques and your life in general, and thirdly, I'll tell you about my own magical spaced repetition spreadsheet system that I've been using. for the last few years and that when I used like correctly and I got very good grades in my Cambridge
exams, so yeah, that's the structure of the video, feel free to jump around with the timestamps. Let's start by talking about spaced repetition and the evidence behind it. What is spaced repetition? Spaced repetition is as the name suggests. where you spaced out your repetition of particular topics over a period of time, this is in contrast to studying which is a very popular
revisionstrategy, but as we probably all intuitively know, when you concentrate for an exam the next day you can probably remember quite a few topics. because it's like in your short-term memory, but you know that maybe the next day or the day after that you'll have completely forgotten everything, so studying is not ideal if we're talking about retaining things long-term. memory, the idea behind spaced repetition is that instead of cramming things into a single day, we spread our view over time and revisit topics, ideally through active recall at particular intervals - basically, the reason why works is because of something called the forgetting curve and that's something that's been around in psychology literature since the 19th century and it's something that we can all probably experience intuitively for ourselves, you've probably had that feeling that you know you're reviewing something that fits and then you look at it a week later and it's like you've just forgotten everything, what was the point of that coming up and you have to repeat it, repeat it, repeat it again, that's the forgetting curve in action, it's the idea that with Over time we forget things at an exponential rate, kind of like, you know, radioactive. decay and half-life if you like physics or chemistry at a level, the important thing about the forgetting curve and how we can take advantage of it is that every time we interrupt the forgetting curve, it takes us longer to forget something. so let's say I studied the anatomy of the upper limb today and then reviewed it again tomorrow.
I've interrupted the forgetting curve, so while before I might have forgotten half by tomorrow, now I'm only going to forget 25%. for the next day and if I review it again three days later and come back to 100 percent now it will take me even longer to forget it and the idea is that the more times we do this, the more spaced out our repetition becomes. We are more likely to encode all this information into long-term memory, so now we will never forget that the radial nerve supplies the posterior compartment of the arm because we have repeated it so many times over such a widely spaced interval. that the forgetting curve no longer applies to that part of knowledge or understanding, so yeah, that's nothing special about breaking, many of us already do this anyway, we know we won't remember something if we study right away, so that we make a review schedule and think carefully.
I'm going to review chemistry topic one that day and then I'll review it again a week later and then a week later that's not / - you can't reverse shell obviously, spacing out your repetition is what I personally take home from the curve of forgetting is that, in reality, you know the intervals in which we space things. There is a phenomenon in the Sequoia ecological psychology literature. I'll link some studies below, but I won't. bother to explain it in depth, it's basically the idea that the harder your brain has to work to retrieve something from it, the harder it encodes the information, so the idea behind spaced repetition is that it allows your brain forgetting some of the information so that when you go over it again it's not mindless repetition, it's actually taking some brain power and the more brain power it takes, the more we've forgotten, the harder your brain has to work and, Therefore, the more strongly the information is encoded, why this is relevant. for our own studies it's relevant because it means we have this kind of idea of starting by spacing things out in a narrow interval and then spreading the interval out over time, so like I said in my example, ask me in the upper extremity, let's do it . today let's do it tomorrow three days later a week later and then a month later we have repeated five times we have spaced out these repetition sessions we have allowed ourselves to forget some of the information between the intervals so that when we review the topic ideally with active recall rather than just reread it.
It takes brain power to remember this information, so in the end we have retained much more than if we had spent five times as much time in the early stages trying. study the anatomy of the upper extremity, so that's one point about spaced repetition. I think a more interesting point that I've been using a lot in my own study is that the evidence actually suggests that even if in the same study session, like in the same work day, you space things out rather than in chunks. The evidence suggests that it is probably a more efficient technique in terms of information retention.
There's an interesting study from 2011 where they got four groups of students to try to learn. Swahili words and translations, a group of them only studied the words once and these were their results and as you can see they didn't do very well, that's what you would expect if you saw a vocabulary list of French words. and picture translations you probably wouldn't remember much if you just saw it once the second group saw each word once and then they had to remember each word once and then they were tested and this is their performance as you can see not just remember a word once, as we already established in the previous video, active recall is quite good, it greatly increases your performance compared to what you know, just studying it, but the third group also remembered the words they knew, but immediately after each one of them had recovery. of the same word, so they record the same words several times before continuing and these are their results, so they can't see much difference between the kids who remembered them once, the most interesting thing is the final group who saw each word. and then they remembered it, but then there was a gap of a few words before they remembered it again, so you know, they repeated their memory but they spaced out their repeated memory in the same study session.
These are the results of these guys doing exactly the same thing. The same amount of work, they did the exact same thing, they studied for the same amount of time as the people in group 3, the guys who remembered her in a group and then found another word and remembered to fit in, but they have an amazing improvement in this score up to 80 percent is the exact same work literally the exact same work the only difference is that it was spaced relative to group 3 and that gives you an additional 50% difference in exam performance and like I No I know about you, but if I could restructure my review so that I was doing the same thing I've always done, but doing it in a slightly different order and I could get such a massive performance.
I would be doing it all day and I would be shouting it from the rooftops personally. So what does this experiment really tell us? First of all, I think it tells us about the power of active remembering, but I hope we already know that because we've seen it. the previous video on active recall the conclusion I drew from this is that on a given day let's say I have done five topics of which you know, four praying for my skis or the five topics that I would have done previously is I think that many of what we do when it comes to revision is that we do a topic in the morning, it flows like two hours we finish and then the next one and then in the third the fourth in the fifth and we were and we could use space repeated repetition to repeat it like a day later , a week later, a month later, but the point is that within that study session within that day, we just addressed the topic once and I think what I take from this particular study and other similar ones like this one that are out there a lot to gain from just going over things, like testing yourself on it, maybe like two hours later, let's say you've done topic 1 in topic 2 right before you start topic 3, you know? just ask yourself I wonder how much I can write of what I remember from topic 1 or I wonder if I can answer the recall questions I wrote for myself for topic 1 I know I'll do it tomorrow anyway because you already know part of my spatial repetition method and three days later and a week later, but let me see at the end of the day what I can remember and the results of this study and others like it seem to suggest that if I even do that on the same day, the same study session actually improves your grades , so yeah, that's fairly spaced repetition, in a nutshell, first of all, it's the idea that you obviously know that spacing out your repetition over a period of time is better than studying, that's not controversial, that's not a deal breaker in particular, but secondly.
It's this idea that even spacing things out within the same day within the same study session has the potential to really improve your grades and if it has that potential, even if it ends up not being a 50% improvement because, to be honest, that It's nice, you know, pretty amazing, even if it ends up not being that good, it still has the potential to improve our scores and it improves our understanding and retention of the topic in the long run, so I think it's something that maybe we should practice to do. so a practical tip maybe at the end of the day ask yourself what I learned today, you know, review your quote, your active recall questions, like writing on a page, you know, what's all I can remember in diagram form? spider of this topic. with the book closed and I think it could be a really efficient way to get a lot more information into your brain in a shorter space of time.
This is a quick introduction to spatial positioning. Let's not get into the meat of this video and that's what Many of you have been asking in the comments for advice on how to apply spaced repetition to your own studies and you know many of you are asking how I built my own repetition spreadsheet spaced that you may have seen in the observer video in At this point I am not going to cite any studies or evidence. What I am saying is purely my own opinion. This is purely what worked for me my sophomore and junior years in college.
I really actively and specifically applied active recall and spaced repetition and it was just those two years that I did really well, really anally, just focusing my revision technique on that and those were the two years that I did really really well on my
exams. from Cambridge in other years. After cutting, I fell by the wayside a bit, it was like I was leaving anything. I'm quite tempted to just reread my textbook or highlight things because it's less cognitively demanding and I still passed my exams, did well, but I didn't. doing it in a surprising way and obviously my N equals a personal experience is not a legitimate scientific study so I guess my advice to you would be don't take my word as gospel, maybe try these techniques on your own on your own studies in your own life, if it works for you then great and if it doesn't work for you then you just wasted 20 minutes watching a video.
I apologize, it's time for you to never come back, but yeah, great, let's talk about specific techniques. What you can do to apply spaced repetition to your own studies and your own life. The first thing you should mention is the flashcards and Anki is theapp that I personally prefer to use and as I mentioned in the previous video, I have used it to memorize specific data. I like things like anatomy and pharmacology, but also quotes for essays and I got, as you know, quotes from John Paul II in St. Peter's. Augustine in my ethics essays and the examiners seem to love that kind of thing.
It's quite nice when you can put some fancy quotes in an essay and I use Danke to memorize them. I won't talk about it in depth. I have talked in the previous video, it is just a flash card application that does active recovery and spaced repetition; somehow incorporates this into point number two of the software, it's not really practical. This technique is more of a mindset shift and is something I've applied to my own life since I discovered this power of spaced repetition and you can use it to learn a lot of things in a fairly small amount of time and generally the technique is simply that all you have to do is practice a little every day for years and then you become very good at something and everyone who has played a musical instrument They know it, they know that you know how to practice 10 minutes a day for a while. week is much better than practicing one hour on the weekend or two hours on the weekend, but the way our brain works, the way we encode information, tends to be that people say that when we sleep, so we do it a little better, we get a little bit of muscle memory and then when we sleep these connections solidify and then we do it again and we find a little better so my point is that once you appreciate the power of spaced repetition , you can apply it to everything in your life, not just your studies. or to your review, I've personally applied this to piano, getting graphic design, web design, video editing, coding, like quite a few different things, as well as liking my academic work, and I think it's actually very useful because it increases the amount of improvement that you get. each unit of time is much larger than it would be with other methods where you spend a lot of time doing one thing or you spend a lot of time doing something else and that's what I used to do previously, so yeah, point number two is just about to appreciate power. of spaced repetition, consistency and patience, actually doing a little every day and improving, is not particular or breaking.
I know everyone who has tried to learn to play a musical instrument probably knows this, but I thought I'd share it with you because I've had a lot of messages like YouTube comments and Instagram DMS people saying, oh how do you do so many things? What's your secret? The secret is that you know just a little bit each day and being consistent has an amazing potential that allows you to gain a lot of skills that would make you very happy in the long run and finally let's get to the heart of it, let me tell you about my magic worksheet system. spaced repetition calculus so I used this in second and third year I did very well in my exams and I am using it in my final year and I hope I told you pretty well in my exams using this method basically the way you do it is making a spreadsheet.
I prefer to use Google sheets instead of Excel. Google Sheets are easy to upload. You can download the app on your phone, which means wherever you are, whether it's on the bus, in the bathroom or in the library, you can update your magic spreadsheet if it's a dot XLS file on your desktop and you double click here and It takes an agonizing amount of time to upload which just adds too much friction to this so I prefer to use Google Sheets so that's my advice. Use Google Sheets for this. So what do you actually do with a spreadsheet?
So what you need to do is you make a different sheet for each of your subjects, so it could be biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, English literature, if you're doing a level, or it could be like anatomy, biochemistry, physiology. , pathology, I prepare all the other things if you're a medical student or You know, apply this to your own life, obviously, and the idea is within each type of broad topic in the column of the spreadsheet. You are writing a list of each topic in that topic. Now at this point I just want to talk about the importance of defining the scope of your subject as a friend told me recently and I like to really know what's in your syllabus.
I've talked to a lot of students over the last few years, you know, helping them prepare for their medical exams. and all that, and it is quite surprising to see how few students like to know their course inside out, like knowing what topics are in their AAAS, even chemistry or knowing exactly what topics are. I think that's something if you haven't done it yet. which you should definitely do, spend as much time as it takes, even if it takes a whole day, as you know, writing a list of all the different topics and not following the specs, the specs, I absolutely hate specs.
The word is very detailed, like you know dot one dot zero zero three to be able to appreciate the importance of the nitrogen cycle. You know the topic is really just about the nitrogen cycle, but I've seen a lot of people kind of like you use the spec while we're reviewing it personally. I never found that particularly useful. My personal tactic is to review the exams because, while you can't really rely on a specification, you can absolutely rely on previous exams and if the In previous papers you know if you can categorize things, for example, in physics, if you can categorize them in electricity, mechanics, nuclear waves, and you realize that that's all that comes up, that's pretty much everything that comes up in physics for map B, and that's how I sort of categorized it.
I just looked at all the previous articles and realized, oh wow, there are only four categories, that's how I personally like to structure my own themes instead of relying on the specs, but anyway, however you do it, no matter how you reach your topic, the point is now you have a list of all the topics you need to review in one column, dissolve the spreadsheet, basically the way the system works is very simple, every time you study a topic and you actively remember things from that topic, then you can do it. write the current date in the next column of the spreadsheet, so in this example today I did the abdominal exam and therefore I will write today's date in the box.
Now let's say that tomorrow I do the previous abdominal exam again. You already know. we reread my notes if I'm feeling particularly lazy if I'm feeling efficient I would actively remember I would use my own questions and then once I've done that I'll put tomorrow's date in the box so that The idea is that over time I build up this list of repetitions of my subject so I am going to show you an example of the spreadsheet that I used in my third year when I was doing psychology. I referenced this on the hips. more video of the collaboration we did, which is very fun and you should see it if you haven't seen it and a lot of people asked you, you know?
Can you tell us specifically how you made the spreadsheet? This is what the world I have is like. a list of essays that I want to learn on one side for each of the three different articles within psychology and over time I built up these kind of repetition dates so once I read the essay and drew my place. a diagram for it would write the date and I think something really useful is to color code each box according to how well you remember about that topic, so for example, if I knew it very, very, very well, I would color it green if knew.
If you really didn't know, I'll color it red. If I knew, maybe 50% I'd color it yellow and the nice thing about Google Sheets is that you have red-orange creations. yellow about halfway, so it gives you a very visual representation of what my weak areas are, what my strong areas are and that's the system, it's simple but it works very well, the idea is that over time you know that the marks and then as time goes on you start in red and then they turn yellow and then this target in green and even less so, oh wow, I know everything about it because they've all been marked in green and I know that I know because it's the only reason.
I am allowed to mark a date if I have actively remembered information on this topic, it is not just reading the top chapter of the textbook, I have read my notes, that is a total waste of time, the important thing is have I remembered it? Have I tried to write down everything I know about the subject? Have I answered my active recall questions for that particular topic? So yeah, that's the system. It's pretty simple. You know the topics on one side and then all the times you review them. the topic and actively remember it, along with the rest and then color code how well you were actively remembering the information.
Here are some more
tipson how to use it effectively, first of all, start with the things that don't I don't know, I think a very common thing is that you know it's time for me to study math. I'm going to open chapter one of my textbook and read and solve problems that I know I can already do. I used to do this with chemistry aha you know I want to review chemistry how to open the CGP review guide fundamentals of chemistry the periodic table oh yes you know I know the periodic table song why don't I sing the song in my head trying to take that?
You know, they were things that I knew, I already knew and yet I was doing it because it was right, it's time to review the chemistry. I want to do what's easy please, that's a bad thing to do and these days if I ever find myself. When doing that, I like to mentally kick myself in the head and tell myself that no, I'm going to do a topic that I know I don't know. One thing I like to do is start from the final topic of the textbook and go back to the first one. This is especially true of university lecture notes.
You realize that you become very familiar with the contents of lectures one, two and three, but from lectures 13, 14, 15, 18, you may like them. kind of a little shaky on those and it's very tempting when I think I'm going to review an athame to just open the book to the first page. I think it's a terrible idea, in fact I think it's a better idea to just open the book to a random page or the last page and it works with you and works backwards because that encourages you to tackle topics that you don't already know and as we've established, the longer it takes you to learn a topic, the more effort it will take.
To actively remember, information will be encoded more strongly over time, so that's tip number one: don't study topics you already know, for example, focus on the things you've marked like a redwood and haven't done at all. Secondly, I think the mindset that works for this type of spreadsheet system, at least for me, is that I take a very scattershot approach each day. I try to complete as many books as possible because my reasoning is that it is much better. For me, going over a topic and then actively trying to remember questions and then doing the same for ten different topics over time, then it behooves me to spend 10 hours focused on a single topic, which I might have been more tempted to do. to do in previous days and I think it's something that a lot of us focus on, I want to get really good at this topic before we continue, whereas I think this kind of scattershot approach with the spreadsheet is that you know.
I know I'm not going to be good at this topic, but that's not the point. The point is that I'm going to repeat this topic like eight times before my exam comes. I want to just do it like I write my Recall questions like actively remembering gets my brain going and then moving on to the next thing and then moving on to the next thing after that and this is actually another technique that's in the literature because with evidence is called interleaved practice. a little bit of one thing and then you know, before you completely master it, you switch tasks or something else and then you switch to us and mix it with something else and they have a lot of evidence from similar sports studies where they like I looked at hockey players and they like training methods and stuff, and they practice on one thing and then the players get a little upset because they were getting better at that particular move before the coach's move led them to something completely different, but over time you realize. that the result will be much better if you take this approach where you do it a little, remember a little, move on, do it a little, remember a little, move on, do it a little, remember a little, move on, instead of be right.
I'm going to do and I'm going to be very good at the fundamentals of chemistry before moving on to the next topic, maybe rather. I'm going to spend 20 minutes on the fundamentals of chemistry. I'm just going to write a list of all the questions that come to mind I'm going to go through them through the questions in my head with a book close to the questions, let's move on to topic two and actually, to be honest, at GCSE in it and in a level where you can quite a lot, go through the entire textbook/cg review guide P/review guide or whatever you are using, you can do it in a matter of a few hours if you take some kind of scatter weapon like if I didn't care about the detailsI just want to make my brain work to remember information, so yeah, I wanted a little bit about this.
I'm quite sorry about this. I think it's more efficient for us if we don't like to focus on the mind with you. particular themes and if we don't treat our vision as a block of chemistry and then a block of this other talking chemistry instead of a block of that, instead we do more of a kind of combination of everything, like a little bit of this piece of that. a little bit of this and then repeat it the next day and I think over time that builds a stronger knowledge base and understanding. Cuenca, this is not entirely evidence
based, obviously this is my personal opinion, please take it with a pinch of salt. but you know, maybe try it for a few days, you know, doing this, I'm going to go over a lot of topics, quantity instead of quality, in a way, and I think yeah, that's a pretty good buzzword, quantity instead of quality. quality place.
It is more important to address a large number of topics than to address a small number of topics to get to many topics in a lot of detail because often that detail doesn't really help us and it is active remembering that really builds the connections in our brain, but yes, I think it's a scattershot approach with the spreadsheet method, try to complete as many books as possible. as you can on a given day instead of I really want to get the screen of the book before I continue, so yeah, that's how I do my review. I use my magic spaced repetition spreadsheet system.
I have it on Google Sheet so I can complete it. Wherever I am, I use active recall after knowing, I answer my list of questions that I have written for each topic in my head or out loud or on paper or whatever I feel like and then once I have actively remembered it , I mark the date and color code how easy it was to remember and this gives me a good kind of pictorial representation of each of my subjects, each of the topics within those topics and how well I know those things to know exactly in what to focus my attention on.
In a future review session, I'm finally going to talk about why I personally don't like the idea of a review schedule. I know this is blasphemy. I know a lot of other review YouTubers who are absolutely killing it and really doing it. Well, I fully support the idea of review schedules. What I would say is that if it works for you, then it's absolutely fantastic. I don't think it works for me. I've basically tried it. My problem with revision schedules is that they are expecting you to know how much you need to revise a particular topic, so I like the day I used to make rigid schedules.
I should say right on this day. I'm going to do that and that topic next. I'm going to do that and that will be blah, blah, blah. I've been cooperating with a special request on this, obviously, repeating topics, but you know my problem was that I would be repeating topics that I didn't need to repeat. or I wouldn't spend so much time on topics I didn't need to repeat, so I finally realized that revision is actually a very fluid process, we all find different things difficult, we all progress at slightly different rates, so yes We make a calendar two months before our exam in which we tell ourselves the right thing every day.
I want to stick to this topic, that topic and regulate it like that. I don't think that will work for me, like I said, I'd rather see the review. It's a bit more fluid and that's why I really like my spreadsheet system because it doesn't force me to do specific topics today, all I have to do is every morning. I'm right. I'm going to do a review for section a or my paper one in psychology, let me go through my list and see which of these essays have the red mark, let me do them, okay, perfect, they're done, let's look at the yellow ones, yeah, let's roll out the pencil and you know. just make sure you know the greens, let me see one of the greens, that kind of thing, I wouldn't have been able to plan it in advance and I think if I had tried in my 30s to plan my review in advance, like I wouldn't have done as well as I ended up doing it, yeah, that's why I don't like review schedules, that's why I never make a review schedule nowadays.
I use my spreadsheet and each day I decide, what is the topic? that needs to work on what are the things that will make my brain work the hardest because that's what will give me the biggest improvement in my grade instead of you knowing my schedule, but hey, to each their own, if you like schedules, then by all means do it. Personally, I don't know. If you find that your schedule is not really helping you or that you are not sticking to it as was the case with me when I was in high school, maybe try this method using the spreadsheet. system use whatever system you want, but don't feel like you have to structure your review in a regimented way around a schedule, it doesn't work for everyone, okay, that brings us to the end of the video.
I really hope this was helpful. I've talked less about the evidence in this video than in the previous video. The video above, objectively, I think is actually very good if you want to learn how to review effectively because active recall is the most important thing and because there are many interesting studies about it and because activerecord is semi unintuitive, since they all we prefer to reread, highlight, underline, take notes with spaced repetition, it's a little different, it's a little harder to make a video about this saying, oh, this is going to change this will completely blow your mind because we all know that repetition spaced works we know that studying doesn't really work very well we know it's good to repeat things and I guess it's reasonable to say yes, I'll repeat I'll know a week later and then a month later and then I'll know better, but I hope either way you know if You've reached this point, these videos provide you with some value.
What have we talked about? We've talked. First, on an introduction to spaced repetition, we've said that obviously spacing repetitions is better than studying, but we've also said that, more importantly, within a single study session, perhaps spacing out Repetitions might also be a good idea because that improves your recall according to studies, secondly, we talked about some ways you can incorporate spaced repetition into your study routine and your life, which we talked about and keep very briefly. I'll link it below if you want to check it out and we talk about this guy. mindset, the change of mindset, which is a good way to learn anything, not just academic stuff that you know a little bit every day, is much better than the concentrated, massive, crammed practice, which many of us are very inclined to do , including myself, and every time I catch myself doing that I think no, it's all about spaced repetitions.
You know, I only need to practice 10 minutes of light reading a day and that's much better than doing two hours on the weekend. Finally, I shared mine with you. Personal spreadsheet magic spaced repetition system. I call it magical, it's not that magical, it's really very simple, but it gives you a very nice pictorial representation of where you are for each of your subjects. I think that's actually really important and works really well for me. obviously this particular spreadsheet system is not evidence based, no one has done a study on you know if a review schedule works better than having the spreadsheet system, it just works for me and if it works for you, then fantastic, if not then Sorry you wasted your time.
Get back on your schedule and hopefully you'll pass your exam. I wish you the best of luck so yeah thank you very much for watching this video if you need the channel thank you. Thank you very much for subscribing too, this channel seems to have been growing at an alarmingly surprising rate like these last few days since the previous review video and of course since the start of the collaboration. Thanks apes for that, so yeah, thanks. Much to subscribe if you hear that you haven't subscribed to the channel yet, maybe consider doing so. We have a couple more videos on motivation, productivity, how I take notes and I don't like making notes. apps on my phone how I use the iPad in medical school that kind of stuff aimed at students I vlog regularly about life as a medical student and we also make a lot of videos on topics very specifically aimed at medical applicants, so I know Matt, get interviews and that kind of stuff if you're into that kind of stuff and very very soon we'll also have some videos of my friends singing songs so this channel is becoming kind of a hodgepodge of a lot of things but I hope it's still fun , I hope it's still relevant to some of you and yes, thank you very much for watching the video, if you liked it please give it a like if you haven't subscribed to the channel please consider doing so.
Have a pleasant evening. see you in the next video good night
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