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How They Built The World's Longest Underwater Pipeline | Megastructures | Spark

Feb 02, 2022
120 kilometers off the Norwegian coast lies one of the largest subsea gas fields in the North Sea. It is called foreman lag, it is 40 kilometers long and 10 kilometers wide and contains more than 300 billion cubic meters of gas. It's just huge but it's locked in a frozen tomb at 3000 meters. below the surface of the sea so deep and so remote that it is considered beyond the reach of man and machine until engineers at norsk hedro, the norwegian energy company, decide it is too tempting to ignore it because there is enough gas to supply the 20 % of britain's gas needs for 40 years engineers know there is an expanding market for natural gas in britain the coal

they

have traditionally been using to power their economy is no longer sustainable the british are increasingly using foreign gas to drive the turbines that create the electricity for their homes and factories and

they

need more so the engineers have devised a plan that will take 10 years and cost 10 billion dollars first i will drill the orman lang gas reservoir i will transport the gas 120 kilometers to one of norway's largest processing plants in nihomna and then i will ship the processed gas to the uk for the gas The

pipeline

has spanned a staggering 1,200 kilometers but to build the

world

's

longest

underwater

pipeline

to this depth requires overcoming some not-so-simple problems.
how they built the world s longest underwater pipeline megastructures spark
They are drilling nearly 2,000 meters through the seabed to exploit the gas field, and they will do so with a rip

built

right into the seabed. The real fun begins with this sterega slide. the pipeline that takes the gas out of the field and delivers it to the plant has to scale this 300 meter

underwater

cliff and the seabed terrain is too rough to lay the pipeline so it means digging a trench on this monster the gas itself is a dangerous mixture of debris in frozen water that could blow up a processing plant so they are adapting the system to handle terrestrial gas ormond the planet is big enough to convert 70 million cubic meters of things every day to handle this mega job they have amassed some of the

world

's largest industrial ships, each designed to tackle a specific phase of deep sea construction here in the harsh north sea humans are confined to the upper world Beneath the waves the brawny work is done by these remote controlled underwater vehicles or rovs, they are a fantastic new breed of machine and they are so technologically advanced they are the stuff of science fiction which is a monumental challenge but with loads of gas industry money behind them engineers may dare to drink but these guys are going too far can they make reality Is this dream or is this going to be an engineer's nightmare?
how they built the world s longest underwater pipeline megastructures spark

More Interesting Facts About,

how they built the world s longest underwater pipeline megastructures spark...

They first searched the world for a gas well rig that would work in these tortuous seas, existing designs fall short, so does the climate here. stormy the water is too deep so they suggest a revolutionary solution if they can't get the gas to a rig why not get the rig to the gas inside this warehouse in Townsburg on the shoreline? from norway the linchpin to solving that engineering challenge is being

built

it's a bold move engineers combine the function of a surface rig with a drill guide c-bed it's called a jig and it's a subsea gas rig that guides the drills up to the gas field and controls the flow of the well Conventional gas platforms are structures on the sea surface manned by an army of workers in this case the platform is dropped onto the seabed free from the wild weather of the north sea a drill ship then docks on it and from above guides the driller to the gas field when drilling is finished and gas is flowing the drill ship departs leaving the jig to control the wells four of these monsters will ride on the seabed through of them a total of 24 wells can extract more than 70 million cubic meters per day from the gas field, the staff will then direct and control to the flow of gas to a plant on land, the entire unit operating by remote control from a manned center 120 kilometers eters away richard benion is a submarine engineer the main thing you have the difficulty you have is that it is dark you know it is a heck job putting it in the first place you have to put this equipment on the floor it's a highly valued and high priced equipment and then you have to assemble it with robots and you have to make sure it doesn't leak and other than that it's easy, what is at stake are great engineers. we are building it to withstand pressures that would crush a normal submarine and it has to operate flawlessly for over 40 years in a harsh saltwater environment once it leaves this warehouse and is lowered to the bottom of the sea there is no going back, will be committed to the seabed forever, this 1000 ton monster cannot float on its own so the structure is loaded onto a barge for transport to the launch site with all the planning and construction behind them, it is the weather what will determine whether this mission is a success or failure is a f our day trip to the launch site and they have timed it to coincide with summer being the season for calmer seas which doesn't mean much here in the north atlantic meet the world's largest crane ship in the field a super crane that does heavy loads at sea the two ship-mounted cranes can lift more than 14,000 metric tons, or about 80,747 jumbo jets the barge and elf await a weather window before lifting operations begin the contract to install the subsea components is worth $21 million with so much at stake crane operators practice offshore and the rov rehearse the fall this is a 3d virtual underwater world like they will be working with depth of weather and weight against them practice now it's time for the real thing the lines of things are connected the sea begins to fall unprecedented this is their only chance if they fail and it sits on the seabed in the wrong place they will have to build another one and delay the project for a year co Computer controlled thrusters hold the crane ship above the launch site as it descends below the surface.
how they built the world s longest underwater pipeline megastructures spark
Underwater vehicles spring into action to take control while eyes are on the operation. They transmit video to the control room. Engineers scan the platform for problems. pressure builds from 1000 meters below rov transmits video to crane operator who adjusts yaw must keep ball bearing as close to center of target as possible maintains drop even when meters above sea floor that it's compromised there's no stopping it now it's down and it's so heavy the legs of the base sink eight meters into the seabed but they won't know if they landed in the right place until they check the coordinates the reading shows it's within 40 centimeters from your target close enough to be considered a perfect drop achieved from 1000 meters over rough seas now that the jig has been successfully placed the next step is to tap the gas field i it takes two years to drill the first eight wells and must have them ready to go before pipe can be attached specialized drill ship west navigator is positioned in position over the top of the gas field the ormond lang gas wells will be the largest deepwater wells drilled in the world drill the field with a motorized drill head operated from the ship once assembled the pipe is lowered by the bottom of the ship and the thousand meters to the jig from here the drill head moves another two thousand meters across the seabed to the gas reservoir and then meanders through the gas pockets every step of the way is monitored and recorded in a virtual database that continues to expand and is used by engineers and surveyors to plot the next drill point again on landing the team can enter the cave an amazing 3D underwater world by virtually hovering over the seabed and the gas find can locate the most promising parts of the deposit jens grimsguard can trace the movement of the drill from the cave with a joystick.
how they built the world s longest underwater pipeline megastructures spark
I could also fly in this world just by using this tip here and using my hand movements to guide me through this deposit while drilling. The data collected by the drill is sent back in real time. time to this constantly updated database the computer generates the images that place the team right at the gas tank they identify points 10 kilometers away with astonishing accuracy that would be compared to your dentist being on the tenth floor and you being situated on the first floor and he is going to fill one of his teeth back there we are getting very good results doing this the template gets its power from the earth through a 125 kilometer control cable called an umbilical this cable carries large amounts of electricity enough to power 20,000 homes combined on this umbilical cable are tubes that carry hydraulic fluid fiber optics and electrical cables the welds on these tubes have t or be as strong as the welds on the pipeline this is the power and control connection to the template without this the template will be just a thousand tons of useless metal at the bottom of the north atlantic but how they make do with a cable that is a staggering 125 kilometers in length the cable is built in a factory right on the dock while the cable is being made it is fed to a giant reel on the deck of the scandi neptune once the 120 kilometers are wound up of continuous cable will head to the onshore ormond gas field to connect the control room to the four subsea templates but now they have to prepare the seabed the ocean floor under the north sea is a treacherous place and when you're about to Uncovering the engineers who build the world The

longest

underwater pipeline faces a mountain of problems Eight thousand years ago, two parts of Norway, each about the size of the island of Tobago, slipped into the sea, causing a mega tsunami, the landslide known in Norwegian as storega cr. ate up a huge shelf in the ocean topography the ormond lang gas field is on the edge of the storehouse locked within the huge depression left behind by the landslide this underwater disaster created a mountainous seabed with peaks rising between 25 and 55 meters, but the biggest concern for hedro is how to get the pipe up the sterega slide in front of a whopping 300 meters that is almost as tall as the Empire State Building. it would take a new ice age to dismantle it again, but the study has made them more aware of the seafloor and the path they will need to clear for the pipeline connecting the underwater gas platform to land they must first build a 3D model of the bottom of the sea. sea ​​and find the easiest route what they have created is a virtual reality program with this model engineers can draw the best pipeline route the fisheries in th The North Sea is a big industry and the hydroelectric has to make sure that the pipeline do not harm the reefs where the fish feed and where the fishing boats work, but the concern is not only about the environmental impact on the sea, but also on the coast, where one of the largest gas plants is being built in norway the land connection they have chosen is the small island of gossam and the small community of nihomna the fate of this peaceful community that will be altered forever e now that it has been chosen as the landing site and processing plant for the ormond lang gas project what was once a remote corner of norway is being transformed into the bustling industrial center of the ormond land gas project here, crude gas of the ormond land gas field will be turned into usable fuel, but to do that, more than 2 million cubic meters of rock are being carved on the island and more than 30,000 tons of steel was brought in almost overnight.
What was once a small town has become Norway's busiest construction site for over 2,200 wo Workers are on the job site every day to maintain this mega gas plant that rises from the shoreline rocky. There is a canteen to feed 1,000 people in a city every night. Workers retire to the hotel that will provide 1 million guest nights over the course of the project, but will be phased out when the processing plant is up and running. Three-dimensional models of the plant have been built and engineers walk through it in virtual reality before and during construction. volatile gas the specs have to be executed to perfection but the plant has been built for efficiency raw gas travels through the pipelines and is converted to usable fuel in as little as 10 minutes that's a blink of an eye in this business the units will then be ready for delivery to the ukof gas processing are delivered to the island by ship cranes unload the components onto this massive flatbed transport this remote controlled monster has 48 independent axles and 96 wheels expertly transports the thousands of components needed to build the plant here on land workers have a close employment relationship with the job site but offshore workers hand over their keys for what more joysticks offshore underwater work is done with remotely operated vehicles or all terrain vehicles, from laying pipelines up to heavy lifting, and that requires many different mobile vehicles and people who can operate them in this warehouse is a simulation tank built just for offshore personnel to train in mobile vehicles is a driving school for robot riders here they simulate projects that take place on the high seas require special tactile skills to maneuvering a crane arm from 1,000 meters away multiple cameras allow operators to see the action after intense training with the rovs being sent out to sea where the stakes are high and it's no longer a game no second chances this is it pipelined final completion unit or plet a large machine for a simple task connecting subsea jig e or gas well to ormond lang pipeline but it is never that simple with 35 meters long and 30 meters wide this 350 ton device is being going down 1000 meters to the sea floor now that the plate is at the bottom of the sea it assembles its components called modules these components make the crucial connection between the template and the pipe that feeds gas to nihomnia all connections at this depth are made with rovs but they can't do any of this work without first testing the systems thomas burnt is the sub c manager we are testing and testing and testing a here and when we get out of this hole we are 100 sure that this connection will be tight when we get to the coast there will be no leak a leak is offshore at 850 meters with large volumes i guess its a disaster we have to avoid practice lowering the modules and testing the connections that will handle 70 million cubic meters of gas each day they are training with an exact replica of the one at the bottom of the sea is a big investment but the money well spent surrounding the connection module is a steel cage that It protects you from stray items that might fall off the drill ships and fishing boats when the gas leaves the field.
Expand steel pipe a little expansion is fine, but the reason they're going to go to so much trouble is they expect the ormond lang pipe to expand its entire length by up to a meter and that is enough to rip it apart so they have solved this by using a connector that slides into a Fore and aft on rails, it absorbs pipeline movement and maintains gas flow while engineers tackle the sterega slip and attempt to get the umbilical cord or control cable to run 120 kilometers from the jig to the control center. far, but to do this they have to find a way through the rough and churned terrain left behind by the slide the solution is to build an underwater excavator agile and strong enough to handle the job it is a daunting prospect until they built the spider, the The machine that inspired this was originally built for the Swiss forestry industry and, like its Swiss cousin, the spider moves using motorized tracks and jointed legs, its mission is to dig six tr advances into water depths of up to a thousand metres, the greatest one of them is a monstrous trench four meters wide by four meters deep, big enough to drive a truck through a spider, equipped with a powerful shovel, strong enough to throw a three-ton rock instead of a shovel, the other spider has a suction nozzle, powerful jets of water break the bottom of the sea and the nozzle lo it sucks up and shoots the mud to the side while the spiders will tackle slopes up to 35 degrees there are sensors on all moving parts connected via an umbilical from a support vessel that floats above and monitors your progress the umbilical carries control and power cables and allows operators to manipulate the twenty-foot-long spider with an accuracy of 10 centimeters 10 centimeters from a thousand meters above is an unprecedented mobilization of robots so complicated and agile in all these two excavating champions managed to dig 500 cubic meters of soil creating a safe path for ga The Langeland pipeline, which runs 1,200 kilometers from Norway to the United Kingdom, is the world's largest underwater pipeline.
This job requires a third of the world's combined pipeline production capacity, which is over a million tons of steel. The value of the pipeline contracts is an unimaginable 700 million dollars langed uses pipelines of more than one meter in diameter and each piece of pipeline must be able to withstand the enormous pressure at the bottom of the sea for the next 40 years the pipelines have 12 meters long and weigh 10 tons another 10 tons of concrete and metal are added to give them enough weight to stay on the ocean floor a total of 100,000 steel pipes are needed to cross from norway to the uk which includes more than one million tons of concrete and 25,000 tons of steel reinforcing robert payne is the man responsible for the integrity of the pipeline as it is assembled each joint pipeline weighs about 20 tons about 10 tons of steel 10 tons of concrete is concrete and It's I stuffed a wire mesh base inside of it to help it hold together, there's so much volume inside of it every time it gets up on a seed bed and gets little air e, wants to float for concrete to hold it situated on the seabed each of the 100,000 pipes are numbered as they leave the plant destined for a specific location on the line as the crew trenches the steep sterregas line prepares the rest of the route from the top of the slide to the eastern shore is the border island is a state-of-the-art trenching ship that combines two types of trenching methods in one powerful machine they survey the flat areas where they believe that they can bury the pipe by scraping a trench through the sandy bottom what they discover is not a pretty picture the sandy bottom is actually clay and the clay is hardened like cement a new excavator is required to dig a channel up to 7 meters deep wide and 5 meters deep the margin of error is only 50 centimeters wide and 10 centimeters crucial rs in the depth the hybrid clay cutter gone the only one in the world is lowered to the sea band the cutting tool uses its 24 water jets positioned at different angles to cut a trench through the clay suspended above it is the four-stroke jet propeller the propeller pulls large volumes of surrounding seawater driving it with great force towards the seabed clearing debris from the trench seabed mounted transponders transmit a 3D image of the operations to the control ship and track throughout the entire operation as a formant on a job site is a rov examining the trench and confirming it was dug to spec the clay battle is finally won but when they start laying the pipe in the bend of the sea the problems really begin The seabed beneath the North Atlantic is a tortuous and uneven landscape.
There are more than 1,000 kilometers of terrain like this along the route of the oil pipeline from Norway to India. Glaterra is so rugged that only small sections of these heavy pipelines will actually make contact with the seabed it's called free expansion and they don't want it to mean that unsupported sections of pipe will sag and then break under their own weight this would be an environmental catastrophe they have to find some way to flatten the pipeline route if you can't level the seabed by removing dirt from the path you may have to fill some holes with rock or other fill material level the pipeline route by placing gravel on the seabed this ship loads gravel into its cargo holds and delivers it to the area that needs grading can transport over 9700 tons of gravel at a time once at the job site uses a flexible drop pipe to place the gravel In the path of the pipe, computers create a 3D model of the seabed and the path where the gravel must be placed.
This method allows the crew to tion to place the gravel precisely where they need it in these kinds of water depths you have a problem because you don't have that degree of control I mean w Whatever is doing the work down there is a long way from the mother ship and still it should present a flat and smooth profile for the pipe to then sit on the other thing to worry about is what you have to do. that profile as close as possible to the time the pipe will be laid because mother nature tends to move things around again after you've left so you come back a couple weeks later and find out there's been a storm or whatever whatever and what you have been so careful to flatten has suddenly moved again so you would lose the work you have done before the pipe itself is a monstrous job once the pipe has been fabricated it is placed to the supply ships for delivery to the pipe laying barge the 200 pound the barge is huge longer than two football fields it is a huge floating steel welding factory that has to work with military precision there are only three of this kind of ships in the world and hedra was using two of them here the route of the pipeline has been inspected before we came here we have a rov boat standing with us monitors the pipeline when it hits the sea bottom and it is a predetermined route that we follow the barge has been used in the gulf of mexico in the mediterranean and off the coast of west africa but this is their largest and most historic assignment once the pipeline process begins it cannot be stopped Not because of weather, not accidents, nothing, the pipeline is built as a continuous tube that is dropped from the ship to the bottom of the sea if the ship stops for too long the stress on the pipeline could break the barge It moves at four kilometers a day and requires a constant supply of pipe sections that must be delivered in the order they are to be connected and laid are 100,000 pieces of pipe laid end to end in a predetermined pattern that are moved by crane three or four times and go through about 15 or 20 welding stations and coating stations sections of pipe are delivered to the assembly floor inside the 200 lb here welders s They divide into teams their job is to create sections of the pipe called double joints these double joint sections are 24 meters long the stakes are high the pipes have to be joined therefore there is no chance of leaks and the assembly line must keep a steady pace.
The entire operation is monitored by engineers who have video cameras watching the process both inside and outside the pipeline. It's amazing technology, but the fundamentals are very simple. Fundamental thoughts behind it because it has to be very strong and it has to work every time the first time the actual basic engineering is still pretty simple the next stage of the assembly line is to attach this short section of pipe to the main pipe it has been fed from the rear of the ship to the bottom of the sea is a complex process requiring many fine adjustments this is no ordinary welding operation the process involves a special welding machine with eight heads per station passing through each of the stations welding in seven minutes the pipe is then checked by an ultrasound machine if a fault is detected it must be repaired immediately before moving on to the next station the process cannot be stopped the connection has to be perfect because this is the stage that unites them to always the assembly line is manned by industrial workers from more than 30 countries the ships work day and night to keep the assembly moving 24 hours a day every day the teams have to assemble three to four kilometers of pipe and drop it to the bottom of the sea after all the welding stations have connected the pipe the final step of the operation is to seal the exposed metal it is covered with a protective heat shrink plastic without this the steel pipe would corrode in the sea water now for the most critical step of the operation discharge of the pipe to the seabed the section where the pipes meet The pipes are covered with foam to protect the welded joint during descent.
The decks are cleaned and the pipe is now ready to be laid on the seabed. A rubber tensioner grips the pipe and holds it in place as it slides out of the pipe. barge as the pipe enters the ocean it begins to sink and pressure is put on the entire pipe, which hangs freely below the ship without exactly the right tension. to. The pipe could break like a match. back of the barge and is in its wake towards theseabed some distance behind that unsupported pipe which has to prevent it from bending under its own weight, so to keep it under control you have to keep it under great tension to prevent it from collapsing under its own weight as the pipe is lowered. pipe the barge advances 24 meters not a meter more with this well-oiled operation the 200 lb is capable of laying more than 100 kilometers of pipe per month as long as the route is clear and clearing that path is a complicated process in these particular sections of the pipeline route they need a two meter deep trench so they bring in the huge saipem plow this is the pl2 it is being used to dig trenches in shallower water it falls to the bottom of the sea over the one meter diameter tube where its strong clamps pick it up and then as the surface ship pushes it forward the plow cuts a trench five meters wide and two meters deep to fill the trench, the bpl2 follows e behind with fill to cover the pipe with a protective layer of sand early in the design phase it was decided that they would bring the gas from the ormond lang field to the processing plant in nihomna and then build another 1200km pipeline to great britain at the 600 kilometer mark the line is discontinued and connected to the schleichner lift platform the sleightner platform functions as a hub monitoring the 70 million cubic meters of gas that flows into the uk every day but linking the pipeline to the platform creates a wh A new set of engineering headaches: underwater robots can align pipeline and connecting pipes coming from the platform.
A massive underwater crane moves them into position, but when they're paired, there's no technology that replaces humans to make the final connection. so welders have to become divers too ready to go down the hose ok it's ready to go down thanks it's just these welders are working on the bottom of the sea like they work on the moon divers are They move in pressurized modules for work. site lift it up once to see if we can rotate it into its correct orientation with you guys oh here new edges need to be cut and chamfered at each end of the pipe before the weld bucket is lowered onto the joint to connect the two sections welding habitat is dropped to the ocean floor has to be maneuvered into place perfectly over meter diameter tube clamps tube then closed habitat is pumped full of air forcing water off the surface supervisor Divers use cameras to keep a close eye on them and detect any danger once it is safe divers move from the module to the welding habitat within this habitat welders divers make the final permanent connection it is a complicated and dangerous procedure welders are confined to this small room 72 meters deep and there is no escape if something goes wrong when every weld is finished the engineer checking the monitor on the boat or above you can inspect the job this latest weld completes the connection from easington to the schleichner gas platform midway in norway this is the first of many subsea welds they will need to make all the pipe connections for the gas flow. 600 kilometers of pipeline still need to be completed but an important goal has been achieved with this connection now that the pipeline has been sealed and connected it has to pass an inspection before it is committed to the next 40 years of service this is done with the internal pipeline gauges aka the pig makes the epic journey through the entire pipeline looking for weak spots and also rips it clean dirt and salt water once it emerges at Easington and data is analyzed the pipeline passes inspection and the team moves on to the next phase of laying the pipeline to land and enter the nihomna gas plant, but landfall is blocked by a surprise discovery.
A mysterious shipwreck has been found 500 meters offshore on your way and there is no way around it. The wreck is directly in the path of the pipeline. They have no choice but to stop the work, they look for alternative routes, but the underwater terrain near the coast prevents the pipeline from going around or under it, they have to go through it, but before they can, they decide to study the wreck and recover the largest as many artifacts as they can the problem is that the wreck is in over 200 meters of water well beyond the reach of archaeological divers merrick jacinski is a professor of marine archeology his team is called to investigate the wreck 500 meters from the port i I don't think they were very happy when they discovered that there was a shipwreck along the way that may have stopped the pipeline in its tracks, but for archaeologists this is a fantastic opportunity to excavate and recover a piece of history, but it's hard enough to make one.
Proper archaeological excavation in shallow water at these depths is considered nearly impossible, so the team takes a page. One of Ormond Lang's engineers and uses a remote-controlled vehicle that can do archaeological recovery for them. These vehicles suddenly become a new generation of tools for archaeologists, but the remote-operated vehicle's propellers stir the sediments and obscure the wreck site, so they create a way to put a rov on the site and move it without propellers, the rov docks to it. steel structure covering a section of the grid once attached to the structure gears and pulleys control its movement with precision and archaeologists can continue the work of unraveling the mystery of this wreck our theory is that the ship was headed for the North Russia to our countries and that this ship was part of the trade network between Western Europe and North Russia.
The find is amazing. over 18th century artifacts from asia, the mediterranean region and all of europe once the sand is cleaned fully intact wine bottles plates and coins are collected by remote controlled vehicles in the laboratory the find is being investigated they may never know the name of the ship these artifacts are from but it is an extraordinary opportunity to investigate maritime history an opportunity that might not have occurred had the ormond lang pipeline not stumbled upon the wreck but as issues are being resolved in norway are far from being resolved in england The coastal city of Easington is chosen as the landing point for the pipeline.
It's a convenient place to land because it already has some infrastructure from the gas industry, but there's a big drawback here that can set the project back decades every year on the battered coast. over the millennia by the north sea the land around easington gets smaller up to two meters of coastline disappear every 12 months for the 40 years the life of the gas field erosion could reclaim 80 meters of land to avoid exposure after the erosion the pipe is rooted through a tunnel 400m under the cliffs on the Easington coast and then brought to the plant yes i think you have one i have a system which is certainly as good as man can make it i mean , if a set of forces were to come into play that we didn't anticipate, we may have a different game on our hands, but we have a fair understanding of the forces that pipeline will go through during its lifetime English coastal erosion is just a One more problem facing an engineering team already exhausted with devising solutions back in Nihomna now they have to deal with raw gas coming out of the Ormond onshore field, the p problem is the liquid slugs, but what comes out of the gas field and through the pipe is not pure gas, it contains large pieces of debris called slugs, the slugs move through the pipe with such force that when they come back Every time they they reach the treatment plant on land, they have the potential to explode as liquid bombs and they will enter the plant at a fairly high speed and with a lot of mass, so if they entered the plant directly they will probably destroy it, the solution is to build a slug collector a maze of pipes and filters a 10,000 ton monster will encounter the debris and stop it in its tracks before it reaches the nihonna plant now they have to deal with the millions of cubic meters of condensate they are dealing with all major gas producers end up condensing a valuable stew of raw materials that can be converted into other types of energy the problem is storing it and then moving it the solution tion here is to use huge underground caverns dug into the norwegian mountains this mega natural storage tank can be filled with 230,000 cubic meters of condensate engineers do not have to line rock caverns with anything water pressure from the surrounding area forces the mud toxic to remain confined within these walls every four days the caverns are pumped dry and the freighters take more than 24,000 cubic meters of condensate because this by-product is also liquid gold that can be converted into other types of fuel for the international market at as the nihomna gas plant is completed, the final stretch of pipeline is being installed to the ormond lang gas field, 120 kilometers offshore. a special ship is required to work in these dangerous waters off the Norwegian coast.
You can maneuver in tight spots using dynamic positioning, moving meter by meter from shore to shore. ormond land gas field here near the ormond lang gas field the loner reaches the limit of his pipeline capacity and cannot go any further his work comes to an end at the top of the sterega slide this is the most demanding part of all ormond lang The Project The rugged terrain left behind by the Storega landslide requires a special pipe ship. This is the s-7000. She is an old crane ship. She has been modified with a 130 meter tower. s the aft deck is taller than a 33-story building it is a floating factory and it is so big that one can easily forget that it is 100 kilometers from the coast in the north sea twenty thousand pipes are welded together in groups of four they lift the now 48 meter long pipe into the 130 meter tower and then lower it onto the pipe here it is welded to the pipe and then the pipe is carefully slid through a series of turnbuckles inside the tower and lowered vertically directly from the ship the entire operation takes a month to complete the jig's final connection to nihamna with the final link made engineers do the seemingly impossible they built a super pipeline through some of the most rugged underwater terrain on the planet the question is whether this super pipeline will deliver what it has delivered is a gigantic leap in subsea engineering technology, the technological advances achieved here could well end up being used under the impenetrable gas fields of the Arctic by the time this happens. the pipeline goes into full production the huge army of divers, welders, engineers and construction workers will have already moved on to other projects leaving behind a super pipeline hidden in the depths of the north sea

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