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Hitting Earth with a Grain of Sand Going 99.9% the Speed of Light

Hitting Earth with a Grain of Sand Going 99.9% the Speed of Light
hey everyone today we're

going

to be seeing what would happen if the

earth

were to get hit by a

grain

of

sand

going

at near the

speed

of

light

what would happen to the

earth

so the reason that I say at near

light

speed

s is because a

grain

of

sand

which has mass can never actually reach the

speed

of

light

in fact anything that has a rest mass can't reach the

speed

of

light

that's because the faster you make something move the more energy you give it and the more energy you give it that means it has more mass because mass is related to energy so that means the harder and harder we try to push something to get to the

speed

of

light

the more energy we need to push it to get even closer to the

speed

of

light

so because we don't have an infinite amount of energy usually what we do is we say that something is moving at a certain percentage of the

speed

of

light

like 99.9 percent the

speed

of

light

so now let's see what would happen if we had a

grain

of

sand

going

99.9 percent the

speed

of

light

now something

going

that fast is definitely classified as something having a hypervelocity so basically what that means is when you have collisions at hyper velocities it doesn't even matter whether it's a solid or a liquid they all just act the same basically everything just gets obliterated and turn to a vapor for example this image is the result of a lab test between a small sphere of aluminum traveling at 6.8 km/s and a block of aluminum that's 18...
hitting earth with a grain of sand going 99 9 the speed of light
centimeters thick so basically just

going

around 6.8 kilometres per second you get this energy flash of plasma generated and then extremely high temperatures and everything's vaporized so this is a picture of the moment of impact when a hypervelocity projectile hits something you can see the plasma generated it's awesome now what's crazy about this is 6.8 kilometres per second is extremely fast you can see the damage it does to a huge block of aluminum from a little tiny ball but 6.8 kilometres per second is nothing compared to 99.9% of the

speed

of

light

so the

speed

of

light

is 300,000 kilometers per second and that was an impact of just 6.8 kilometers per second so you can imagine the damage that would be done when you just increase the

speed

at near the

speed

of

light

so now we kind of have some expectations for what we might see if the

earth

were to be hit by a

grain

of

sand

going

99.9 percent the

speed

of

light

okay first let's get our

earth

here let's slow down our time because we're gonna be moving extremely fast okay so I'm

going

to set the launch velocity to 99.9% the

speed

of

light

okay so this is my

grain

of

sand

so I'm gonna say my

grain

of

sand

is about ten milligrams okay I'm gonna push play and see what happens three two one turn up the time okay here we go one millisecond is passing per second whoa so you can see that there's a crater right here so it looks like a small explosion happen but not really much damage so...
hitting earth with a grain of sand going 99 9 the speed of light
why didn't it just completely obliterate the whole

earth

well the reason is because a

grain

of

sand

going

that

speed

does have a lot of energy but let's calculate how much energy it actually has now it was

going

99.9% the

speed

of

light

so that means that it's Lorentz factor was twenty-two point five so that means that I need to calculate whatever its kinetic energy was I multiply it by twenty two point five because it was

going

at relativistic

speed

s and if you do that you calculate that you get around twenty tera joules of energy that's about how much energy is in the fuel of a jet airliner so basically imagine a plane exploding in the sky and that's how much energy this

grain

of

sand

would have when it hit the sky but what's interesting about a collision like this is it actually wouldn't be as bad as even an explosion in the sky like that because as the

grain

of

sand

hits the particles of air as it's moving along it's

going

to have relativistic collisions that it's

going

to generate a lot of radiation so what that means is this wouldn't be a point explosion it would basically be spread out through space and so all of the energy wouldn't be exploding in one spot but it would be spread out as it moves down through the layers of the air so most likely there would be a boom in the sky but probably not any effect to people even on the ground below it so even though we see a tiny crater form here this simulation actually was...
hitting earth with a grain of sand going 99 9 the speed of light
overkill for that it wouldn't even form a crater

hitting

the

earth

but that was a tiny

grain

of

sand

let's see if we just increase our mass a little bit more let's hit it with a bowling ball now

going

99.9 percent the

speed

of

light

okay now our bowling ball weighs seven kilograms as opposed to 10 milligrams okay let's see what this does to the

earth

three two one turn up our time a little okay that had a little bit bigger crater so even then not much happen with even a bowling ball-sized

going

99.9% the

speed

of

light

hitting

earth

so let's increase our mass a little bit more so now how about instead of a bowling ball we hit the

earth

with a Pyramid of Giza

going

99.9 percent the

speed

of

light

and let's see what happens okay so our pyramid weighs six billion five hundred million kilograms and it's

going

99.9% the

speed

of

light

now let's see what happens okay three two one let's increase our time a little bit okay it's flying towards

Earth

here at 99.9 percent the

speed

of

light

zoom out a little bit

hitting

just above Florida whoa look at it just vaporizing everything oh man just took out all of the United States hey the explosions the shape of a pyramid look at that just obliterated this side of the

earth

so you can see the fireball moving across the atmosphere around the

earth

so this just vaporised all of North America and moving into South America so most likely that would kill everybody on

earth

but we didn't really see any...
planetary change from this scale so let's continue to increase our mass and see what happens so why don't we add now Halley's Comet

going

99.9% the

speed

of

light

okay here we got Halley's Comet let's see what happens when it hits

Earth

going

99.9 percent the

speed

of

light

okay three two one there we go whoa oh man it just completely vaporized everything here Oh see how much it changed so I heated the

earth

now to 485 degrees Celsius but the

earth

is still there I think we can do better than this let's increase a little bit more so let's hit it now with a planetoid called Sedna it's around five hundred twenty kilometers in radius three two one Oh and there goes the

earth

just completely vaporized so this is basically like a supernova explosion now

earth

and the planetoid Sedna are just completely vaporized now nothing left you just have this expanding gas cloud now nothing that literally just vaporized

earth

and it's gone and thanks for watching another episode of the action lab I hope you enjoyed it if you did remember to subscribe if you haven't yet and hit the bell so that you can be notified and know in my latest videos out and thanks for watching and I'll see you next time