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Hermes - The Immortal Guide (History & Mythology Documentary)

Feb 23, 2022
Although many Greek gods have remained popular throughout time as ancient mythological figures, few have maintained as active a presence as Hermes or Mercury, since he was first known to the Romans attested in Mycenaean Linear B script dating from 1300 a. C. was equated with various other gods during the period of Greek expansion such as the Egyptian god Toth giving rise to Hermes Trieste Magistos the thrice-born in Gaul Great Britain and Germany Hermes was one of the most honored gods while in Greece only had three temples specifically dedicated to him in gaul had more than any other god the averni hired the greatest greek sculptor of the day xenodorus to build a colossal statue of the god which may have been in pewdie's dome which it took 10 years to build and cost 40 million sistarti.
hermes   the immortal guide history mythology documentary
A soldier's pay at that time was only 900 sistarti a. year, but this screaming, germanic

hermes

really had something to do with the greek

hermes

who stole the cattle of apollo who served as a

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for travelers as a herd on the heights like a thief in the night what is the origin and nature of this god and the meaning of some of his most important greek myths who is this lord of heralds herds and contests who is hermes mount kailena one of the most mentioned places considered sacred to the god it was here where the homeric hymn locates the birth of hermes In a cave on the second highest mountain in the Peloponnese in the rugged region of Arcadia a region named after the bear Kylena was probably a place frequented by wild animals such as bears and wolves whose howls echoed from the mountain ridges above the mountain. dedicated a temple to the god which according to legend was one of the first temples built in greece dedicated by ly cayenne a legendary founder of arcadia his name e is derived from likos wolf a story relates how he was transformed into a wolf by zeus for trying to feed him with human flesh, but despite his infamous deeds as the cayenne he was also remembered as the founder of the state, the great progenitor or his arcadians whose fifty children were the names of their towns and villages and the man who created one of the oldest competitive athletic contests in greece, although it is claimed that lycaen was a palazzia perhaps referring to the pre-greek population from which his name originates purely Indo-European as are the werewolf myths surrounding it the later Greeks anything that seemed unusual in religious or cultural practices was known as polaskian but at least some of those things like the prophetic oak of dodona were things with European connections stronger it was in arcadia where hermes and his son pan had their strongest followers those sites in boasia and in other places also affirms ron that his birthplace hermes was sometimes referred to as kailena's and the mountain's name may be derived from a Proto-schello Indo-European word meaning bent or crooked which also forms an epithet for hephaestus chiropolion the lame foot related perhaps with irish kulin the name of the legendary blacksmith and a mountain in ulster throughout greece hermes was worshiped as a god but only in arcadia are specific temples known to have been built to him this can be misleading however as he was worshiped almost everywhere except in temples in groves fields mountains inside the house and of course on the road where its stone markers served as shrines and even in the temples of goddesses like athena or demeter where ancient figures were sometimes placed of hermes stone hermitage were also placed in front of some temples and the doors to houses or even as markers for graves hermes was absolutely omnipresent and In everyday life and ranks third in number of artistic representations only slightly behind Heracles and Athena He is also the ancestor of some of the most famous Greek heroes Great-grandfather of Odysseus and Jason Leader of the Argonauts, both great travelers from ancient Greek myth Through his son Oftolikos, the most famous and successful cattle fighter whose name e means the wolf himself was a bane to Sisyphus, the Corinthian tyrant and a friend of Heracles, he taught him how to fight and at the same time got him into a little problem. there is a lot that is not understood about hermes, although the subject is almost as broad.
hermes   the immortal guide history mythology documentary

More Interesting Facts About,

hermes the immortal guide history mythology documentary...

Like all of Greek myth, we will eventually have gone through an odyssey that will reveal the nature of the god and his origins, but as with any journey, it is best to start at the beginning. The recorded

history

of Hermes begins with the Mycenaeans sometime before. 1600 B.C. C. Indo-European Proto-Greek speakers advanced south into the region of modern Greece. They would have held similar religious beliefs to other nearby groups that originated in the Indo-European setting. They gained dominance over much of the mainland and eventually the Cycladic islands. and crete along with changing elites came a change in language and culture, although certain vocabulary and cultural practices were absorbed over time, they retained key structures of their language Languages ​​and religious beliefs most notably included the god zeus, who is cognate to a name or word for god shared in many Indo-European cultures;
hermes   the immortal guide history mythology documentary
However, the Pilos and Maisini Linear B tablets show that Hermes under that name was being sacrificed as early as 1300 BC. C., a catastrophic period fell on Greece and the entire Mediterranean. Approximately in the year 1200 a. C., in 50 years, the Mycenaean civilization had collapsed. Its major cities were left as ghostly reminders of a glorious past, and memories of those ancient days lingered in many of the gods themselves. be cultured, but the status and myth of those gods may have changed between 1300 and 750 BCE. C., when the Iliad is recorded during that chaotic time. where the direct descendant of the mycenaean dialect of greek continued to evolve, the region of arcadia derives its name from the proto-indo-european ancestor denoting the rugged mountainous region likely inhabited by the creatures in ancient times was from the myths of this region that the greeks named the big and little saucepan after callisto and his son archus, who were transformed into bears and put up in the sky arcus was an important founding figure who gave his name to the region and hermes is shown caring for Arcus and some myths say that he was raised by Mayan mother Hermes.
hermes   the immortal guide history mythology documentary
Many of the Pleiades sisters play important founding roles in the mythical origins of Arcadia and the Peloponnese in general. To understand who Hermes is, we will first look at their related associations through genealogies. . the pleiads but from the close group the hyades plania are sometimes known as aethra which means clear sky hyades means rainy and they are rain nymphs and in the rainy season along with the pleiads they were said to weep for their brother hyatt murdered or by the strain of his father's charge. Her tears were rain. The Pleiades have been used for navigation but also had associations with agriculture in relation to seasonal patterns they rise before the sun in May marking the calm sailing season and summer but are also connected with showers and storms when they set at dawn in late october hessiod said but when the house bearer climbs the plants out of the ground to escape the pleiads then it is no longer the season for digging vineyards this suggests that when the pleiads have risen with the sun it brings dryness from the that the snail escapes by climbing the plants but also links them to the storms saying but if the desire to navigate uncomfortable assails you when the Pleiades dive into the misty sea to escape the rude force of orion and then real gales of all kinds roar The importance of these star clusters in marking g seasonal activity and climate cannot be overstated connected to this seasonality e s the month of Hermios which is marked in many ancient Greek calendars often sometime between October and February perhaps aligning its month with the nightly rise of the Pleiades and the wet season which was most prosperous for crops and pastures, the Pleiades were One of the most important stellar groups for the ancient Indo-Europeans appearing in the Nebras sky disk dating from about 1600 BC.
To the representations in Roman art more than 1600 years later, the name Pleiades comes from the Indo-European blue meaning to fly, float or run, the origins of the English word flow playo in Greek meaning to sail and this etymology seems to coincide with its representation in the Bronze Age. Euro Hesiod in Works and Days cites the setting of the Pleiades at dawn as marking the bad season for sailing in the Odyssey. Homer says that Odysseus never closed his eyes, but kept them fixed on the folds of the bootays that set late and in the bear that men also call waning and that goes round and round when faced with orion and never plunges alone into the okeanos current to sail, then the stars were more important probably why some considered hermes the founder of astronomy, however, hermes is also connected to his grandfather atlas and is sometimes called atlantea roman days valerius flacco said of a representation art ística his iron atlas stands in okejonos the waves swell and break at his knees but the god himself helios the sun on high rushes their bright steeds cross the old man's body behind with smaller wheels follow his sister and the crowded pleiades and the fires whose tresses are wet from the dripping rain this represents atlas as a path by which the sun and moon travel home it says of him in the odyssey atlas of the baleful mind that knows the depths of all the seas and he himself supports the tall pillars that keep heaven and earth apart in the theogony of hesiod atlas he is the son of yaptos who represents the pillar in the west his name means the piercer and is associated with mortality being the ancestor of all humans according to some myths and the father of prometheus the west means the sunset the beginning of the night and death in the iliad it is said that both the fit and the kronos were thrown s to tartar by zeus, however, although hesiod's story associates the other four titan brothers with different quarters, it is atlas who is consistently shown as the one who holds heaven and earth apart prometheus meaning foresight epimetheus afterthought or instinct benoits power doomed and enduring atlas all seem to represent particular aspects of consciousness prometheus presented in some genealogies as the chief ancestor of the greeks his brother epimetheus accepts and marries the first wife his mother was clemena which means fame but specifically related to fame later of death she also slept with zeus giving birth to memory but that these progenitors of man are also titans thrown into tartarus is not that far from julius caesar's comments related to the gauls believing that they were descendants of diese patter a god of the underworld this will be examined in detail in a future video but Qu It may be interesting to keep this in mind when considering the nature of Hermes, but the bottom line of this video is that Hermes' ancestry is closely related to royal lines, and in fact, the atlas of humanity's origins is, in many ways. , the same as the world tree that supports and connects.
Together, the cosmos, its name derives from the Proto-Indo-European tele which refers to supporting or enduring and also related to the ground or earth. It is sought to have become a mountain, but few agreed on which exactly and in the earliest form before. face anthropomorphic boys atlas was almost certainly the sacred mountain itself that supports the earth and sky above it similar to mount olympus meru the persian hara barasaiti that t The sun, moon and stars revolve around in some local myths. Hermes was born on the top of Mount Olympus in tanagra. Hermes was believed to have been born on Mount Carrichios.
Also Orion's burial place nearby was the site called Polos, meaning pole or center where Atlas is said to have sat and meditated on the nature of heaven and the underworld. Mount Kylena is also identified as the home of Atlas. depicted as being at the outer edge of the earth just before the dark night at the edge of existence hessiod says and atlas, through a strong restraint, holds up the wide sky with head and arms unwavering standing on the edges of the earth before the clear-voiced Hesperides as Hermes represented by the stone pillar Atlas is the pillar in Prometheus tied Prometheus says I am anguished by the fate of my brother Atlas who stands to the west carrying the pillar of heaven on his shoulders and from the earth no easy load for his arms to grasp the hyad the pleiades are sometimes known as the golden gates of the ecliptic because the path of the sun and moon passes directly between them atlas at least in the roman period there was a figure standing in the west arching over the heavens on his back with the sun and moon approaching him he may be the father of these two groups of stars because they were the symbol most visible of the ecliptic the path of the sun and the moon and the wandering stars the back of atlas hermes is widely recognizedfor having been a god of the roads, a watchman and a guardian at the gates, the intermediary between men and the gods, and it is not difficult to see the connection between the god of the physical path on earth and the god of the path of the sun and the moon passing through the gateway represented by the sons of atlas this connection extends further to the command of the god over the herds and the pleiades and heidi are the central stars of the constellation of taurus some pleiades like tegeta appear t is derived from the names of the regions of the peloponnese and with zeus gave birth like a diamond to the mythical king who has the same name as the region of lacademonia who married sparta dardanas the ancestor of the trojans was the son of the pleid electra and zeus doing he, a very close brother to hermes sisyphus, the trickster who chained death and escaped hades, but was forced to roll a stone uphill forever, married playad merope, who gave l uzglaucus the king and founder of corinth and father of bolero fontes all sons of the pliads in local traditions were closely linked to ancient ancestral figures, however this raises an interesting question: why is hermes a god and all these others sons of playad nymphs with zeus? or poseidon are found in kings but they are mortal the children of nymphs were by default mortal only hermes stands out in this but unfortunately there is no surviving myth that gives an explanation what is clear from the stories however is that hermes is One of the most humane of the Maya gods was born on Mount Kailena called the house of Atlas.
The nymph Kailena was sometimes named as the wife of Palazzos. The first king of the Pulaskos gave his name to the Peloponnese and fathered Ly Kayon though others Accounts say that Kylena was the Lychaean wife and mother of their fifty children, mostly named after various Arcadian Maya peoples, in turn it is said that she raised Arkos, the Lycheon grandson, with her daughter Callisto and zeus hermes was raised by kylena or sometimes believed to have been raised by akakras son of lyqaeum and another myth says that pan usually the son of hermes was the son of callisto and zeus and the divine brother of arcos, although there are many versions Ones of the myths are commonly thought that, like Keon, he sacrificed his son nichtes, meaning night, and tried to feed Zeus his meat as a test of the god.
Zeus brought Niktis back to life and Ly Cayenne was transformed into a wolf as punishment and her other children. dead or in some myths also transformed into wolves in other accounts it was arcus his grandson who was sacrificed roman poets lucan and marshall dan arcus as an epithet for hermes it could be that the mountain nymph kylena and maya the nymph born kylena were in origin the same lycan instituted the worship of zeus as i am and is likely to represent in some way the god and the oldest layer of his cult on mount as cayenne has now been recovered f Beneath the huge pile of ashes that formed the altar of the gods, the human remains of a child sacrificed at the site probably sometime before 1000 BC C. and legend may reflect this event, but also on the mountain was a shrine to pan-lycael associated with the lykkian. games featuring early athletic competitions the cult of pan as han is said to have been brought to italy by evandros son of hermes and a latin ancestral figure who immigrated to italy from arcadia bringing the cult of hermes and pan as chaon and establishing the lupercalia called so for the wolf, but for now let's retrace our steps from this route because there are other avenues that need to be explored before this path becomes clear.
Hermes is constantly associated with figures linked to wolves, bears, or other animals. goat-man, but was also said to be the father of optilicus, the wolf himself, the satiri, one of whom is called wolf and kephalus, who mated with a she-bear and gave birth to t or arkesios a name also derived from bearing the Odysseus's grandfather on his father's side in many accounts a story similar to that of Callisto and Arcas the Homeric Hymn to Hermes says he was born and dwelt in a cave on Mount Kailena despite extensive searches no cave there has ever been found a Sophocles play tracking satires that survives only in fragments may explain when Silenus and a group of satires are sent to search for Apollo's lost cattle stolen by Hermes end up on Mount Kailana satirists can listen to music and put their ears to the ground to hear the silence at first he doesn't understand what they are doing, but when he too hears the strange enchanting music coming from somewhere under the ground, he threatens to stomp his feet and jump into the ground. ground until whoever is down there steps out in their place. from the appearance of hermes kylena, the nymph of the mountain, appears to them and tries to scare them away, she finally admits the story that says that zeus came to the house of atlas and hermes is there and that she herself is raising him by the force of his mother is tossed by sickness like a storm the pleiads are linked to storms not surprisingly in the argonautica it says like when zeus shoots lightning from his high citadel i when he shakes the pleiades and mixed rain and thunder or snow icy when the whole plane is hidden by the white downpour by the law of the sky zeus had drawn the stormy constellation pleiades from the firmament as he rolled the earth on its eternal course and immediately the rain ran everywhere it is often believed that the nymphs reside in moist underground caves rivers springs flowery meadows and damp or damp places spread around water which maintains fertility creating dew mists and clouds the nymphs that carry water into the sky are called clouds and form the basis of a common epithet for cloud-gathering zeus, thus hermes is the son of a rain star and the bringer of thunder and to a very archaic point in gre According to myth, it was probably related to clouds and rains, making it a suitable herald for Zeus, a thunderclap.
In this way, he is associated with fertile forces, generally like those contained in the rains that ensure growth, for which reason he is represented as growing very quickly. his underground location after a storm, the pastoral god must ensure the flow of water for the herds to drink and the plants to grow; this function is completely monopolized by zeus later, but traces of hermes remain in the homeric hymn. hermes is described as an autumnal breeze or mist. and in the odyssey he

guide

s the ship of odysseus when clouds covered the night sky and mist covered the waters he is said to unite with all kinds of nymphs bringing fertility to the earth the murder of his son mirtilus is said to be the cause of the dryness of the peloponnese and caused by extreme drought the name hermes is related to the word for a pile of stones a hermitage occurs along roads or near boundaries and there is some evidence that these stone piles may Having played a religious role in the Mycenaean period or even earlier in their most archaic form, they were nothing more than loose rocks piled up, though they often had a stone pillar in the middle or to the side of them, perhaps suggesting the pillars. which was said to be held by his grandfather eventually some were topped with the head of a deity sometimes with genitalia the heads of the pillars did not always represent hermes but sometimes dionysus or other local gods or heroes and although the erect penis in some of the pillars is believed to represent fertility, not necessarily the case in all examples, they are usually placed to mark boundaries to act as guides and protective symbols, the erect penis may have been a sign of power and hostility towards harmful forces , consider the words often used in modern speech as an insult or threat fu and what represents phallic images was to ward off the evil eye in second place is related to fertility in that fertilit and drives away the evil of the infertile and destructive even in ancient greece its shape was not really understood it is said to have been taught by the pulaskos the word hermitage does not just refer to the pile of rocks but also to a support support a defense a hill a band or an earring a rope or spirals there is an underlying theme to these meanings which stem from an Indo-European root ser which means to unite unite or protect the Mycenaean word hermata in the linear b spelled means straps the mycenaean form of hermes the name of the god is in linear b this is strong evidence that the name hermes is of Proto-Indo-European origin this root ser is the origin also for the Persian hara meaning to protect or bind the mythical mountain hara barasaiti believed to mean high guard post or lookout post ser also gives rise to West Germanic sarwa meaning cursive armor servos meaning guardian Greek hero meaning to hold or bind ormos a rope or chain but also shelter or refuge Latin ceremo what does conv ersation mean one that joins words there are many possibilities for interpretation of the meaning and purpose of the union n referred to, but you often find a defense concept associated with it binds secure things makes them secure when we look at the function of the hermite there are two main functions that perhaps have the same meaning: they are boundary markers and symbols of protection; they stand as guards along roadsides and in front of gates and when we think of the etymology of boundary law, it comes from the word bind the link between hermes and ties appears in a number of myths, perhaps the example More graphic is a cult site on Crete dedicated to him and Aphrodite where representations of the goddess in human and tree form tied with leashes have been dedicated in the Homeric hymn Apollo attempts to bind Hermes, but the lasso falls off, then they grow like vines under his feet and spread throughout the cattle creating the first cattle tethers he creates sandals by weaving strands of tamarisk and myrtle twigs together and tying them to his feet when aphrodite and ares get caught in hephaestus's net and they make fun of him apollo jokes that hermes probably wants to sleep with her and hermes boasts that even if many more chains were put around him he would still sleep with her in front of everyone gods and goddesses, which perhaps meant that no amount of restraints would be able to hold him down the way they did.
This idea some sources also say that it was Hermes and not Hephaestus who tied Prometheus to the stone. Homericom finally establishes him as the god of exchange and commerce between men solidified by contracts, however it is likely that this idea of ​​tying is merged with the notion of protection and vigilance as in other examples, so that his name can mean the guardian or the watchman in the same way as the binder; in fact, one of his epithets calls him the porter or the guar. dian at the door now his name is only one aspect of his nature, but his etymology is clearly Indo-European because it matches his many functions if one derives an etymology that does not match the character of a god at all, then that etymology should be questioned. , but when there is a probable or possible etymology that directly matches the nature of the god's character and myths, then that is the most likely possibility and that is the case here, not much is known about the worship of Hermes and the Mycenaean period , but there are some clues that the cairns appear in some Mycenaean art, but they may be present in pre-Mycenaean art from Crete which features a so-called pre-Greek animal master and this may be evidence to suggest some continuity in the Homeric hymn Zeus grants Hermes dominion over horses and mules flocks and herds prophetic birds dogs lions and wild boars with gleaming fangs he was the father of bread and g great lover of nymphs and his first identity acted as a shepherd in ceramics from the archaic and classical periods, he is often presented with animals and sometimes with monsters, he is shown subduing cerberus with a wave of his hand, of standing happily among lions, petting the chimera, gently tending the horses, fighting alongside a lion and often it is in the company of heracles performing his monster fighting feats or just relaxing together over a drink sometimes in scenes with other gods where beasts are present you will look directly at the animal instead of looking at any of the other gods a hound will sometimes make it into his company and there is certainly a connection between him and the animals that cannot be overlooked however , this is similar to other Indo-European deities identified with hermes, so it is difficult to say if this is really a characteristic of the so-called pre-Greek master of animals or rather the trait of an indo-european master of animals lions were an important symbol of mycenaean power the apex predator of the bronze age in greece still today a symbol of nobility and ferocity perhaps most famous are the lions that stand at the gates of mycenae they seem to be the guardians of the entrance a role of hermes played by one of his symbolic animals an epithet given to him in Mycenaean times was arrest means warlike not a feature that survives much in myth but there are traces of it the association with the wild beasts is suggested by lycaen the werewolf having been one of the first to build him aotoricos temple meaning the wolf himself the legendary thief and odysseus grandfather was son of hermes as were the satiroi imagined as animal men one of whom is called lykos the wolf who breeds bread who is a goat god or the multiple paneers too is closely related to arches the bear the wolf especially is characterized as a thief because he steals the food from the herd at night it is largely for this reason hermes is characterized as a cunning thief represents the qualities of the herd thief the cunning wolf apollo says in the homeric hymn you will plague many lonely shepherds in the mountain glades when you meet the flock and the thick wool sheep and have a craving for meat this imagines hermes as the wolf or the lion hermes is often depicted as if hungry something unsaid of other gods in the odyssey a shepherd sets aside a full portion of the food divided for hermes and the nymphs and utters prayer tions to the god but what would happen to this food reserved for hermes it may have been eaten by wolfhounds or other scavengers it is said to crave meat to relish even its smell and one of its epithets is bolfonos cattle killer in the comic work the hermes Pluto complains that he has stopped receiving sacrifices and is so hungry that he can only lie there for days with his legs in the air, in other words, he is represented as a hound, he was a god of lions and he was very often in the company of heracles heracles first feat was to kill the lion nemion and hermes is almost always shown with heracles while fighting the lion heracles takes the lion skin and wears it as his armor representing the transformation of the archaic warrior as the waterproof berserker the bear sure heracles is made invincible by his lion shirt but that lion is connected to hermes the lion's master, the god, sometimes gets the epithet diactoros from home ro and this has been misunderstood for a long time, although it is often translated as minister or messenger its true meaning seems to come from the verb dioco which means to chase seek to chase or hunt transport in the case of hermes the pursuer or hunter his son pan is also a hunter and the fear that bread causes panic is related to the sense of being hunted the other very significant animal for the Mycenaeans and all European warriors was the wild boar throughout Europe the wild boar was a symbol of the warrior the Mycenaean warriors created helmets with the tusks of the Boars they had hunted demonstrating their prowess against the ferocious and deadly creature and the Caledonian Boar hunt that took place in Arcadia is just one very ancient example.
Boar hunting is believed to have been part of a warrior's initiation rite in ancient Mycenaean society and hermes being a god of this creature connects it to this ancient rite. Hermes was still in the classical period and beyond the god who he oversaw the rite of passage of young men through local competitive festivals called hermaya in crete, there was an ancient tradition continued intact since at least the Mycenaean period, when young men resided in a remote location under the tutelage of an older man and they were expected to hunt and kill in the mountains as part of their rite of passage into manhood.
Hermes was the man. god of the sanctuary of syrina was given the epithet anagonius or argonias especially in arcadia meaning of contests contests fights bindar quotes hermes as the lord of contests several times in his poems this is often translated as games to fit with the more typical perception However, these men were not playing dice, they were fighting or competing in athletic contests, he ruled the arts of combat in which men were engaged and was the patron deity of the arena widely recognized as a god specifically of Wrestling. His divine daughter was palestra the name of the wrestling school and his son Aftolikos taught heracles wrestling.
Boxing was also done there and was the nucleus of the gymnasi. um, in the iliad, zeus was said to hold the scales when he weighed the fate of warriors in battle; however, in artistic representations, hermes is always the one holding the scales. such as lions, wolves, bears, or boars, and may have involved practices in which warriors took on the characteristics of the animal. hermes is called kratos strong in the homeric hymn apollo marvels at his physical strength in art hermes can be found carrying a spear or sword and sometimes fully clothed a depiction of armor shows him fighting a giant alongside a lion.
In some places, they called him pro majos, which means the warrior at the front. A story is told in the Tanagra region that he saved the city from an invasion by personally leading the youth. from the wrestling ring and onto the battlefield with nothing but their stridgels for weapons and they won it is said that he defeated ares in a boxing match by the hand of the nymph tanagra who gave his name to the city he is also called savior it is said that he rescued a city from a plague by carrying a ram on his back and circling the city of all the olympian gods hermes is depicted as the most humane and, despite his wolfish nature, the most benevolent towards the man called the giver of all good things in the Homeric hymn to hestia goddess of the hearth and hearth the two gods are invoked together to safeguard the house faucenius records several cases where the representations of hermes stand out in addition to hestia, the shepherd was a important figure in early Indo-European society, as in many others, and it is the role that seems to be the cornerstone of the nature of Hermes, even more so than his role as herald of flocks, cattle, and horses were the wealth and food of the first Indo-Europeans who were originally mainly shepherds the shepherd was both a warrior and a traitor had to be able to guide the herd on safe paths lead them to new ones to graze or take them to markets far away protect them from wolves lions and boars and also from raiders however the shepherd himself was a raider and these raids formed the basis of much of the indo-european war in ireland and scotland this type of raiding war did not end until early of the modern period and therefore the herdsmen of Indo-European society were heavily involved in martial activity and thievery.
It is this nature of the shepherds that is strongly connected with Hermes. It is also related to his major myths and the origin of his alternate name used by homer almost as frequently as hermes argefontes throughout the iliad and odyssey homer calls hermes argefontes this is not an epithet it is an independent name homer uses to refer to the god only slightly less frequently than the name hermes homer gives no explanation of this name but may have been mentioned by hesiod in a non-surviving work thought to mean slayer of argos argos was the name of a tw giant four-eyed, headed shepherds tending the cow io there are several versions of this tale in writing and art and using them to reconstruct the framework of the original tale may have gone as follows zeus fell in love with a woman named io a priestess of hera , but when hera discovered them, zeus transformed her into a cow, hera demanded io from zeus as a gift and he agreed to try to hide his identity, but hera She knew exactly what was going on and placed Argos Panoptes, the all-seeing giant. to serve as his shepherds, zeus asked hermes to retrieve the cow, the chase was not easy, hermes had to locate it accompanied by a falcon sent by zeus, some say it was the falcon that argos noticed and prevented hermes from escaping with the cow there was a battle in which hermes won the game argos tries to flee with the cow fleeing from his desperate pursuer driving the cow madly in front of him but hermes speedy in pursuit threw a stone knocking him down the oxen killer hermes then runs away he encounters the fallen shepherds who are pleading for mercy, seizes him roughly by the hair on his head, and decapitates him with his golden sword. he killed him, but this does not match any Greek description or depiction in early depictions.
Argos has the head of Janus, but is later shown with eyes covering his entire body in the Iliad. argefontes is usually accompanied by other descriptors such as kratos, which means strong. most of the times with diactoros traditionally this word diactoros has been translated as minister or messenger actually comes from the verb dioco which means to run pursue pursue seek or hunt in the context of diactoros argefontes homer calls it the seeker pursuer or hunter fitting exactly with the tale in which he must chase Argus to retrieve the cow, this myth is part of the original aspect of the Indo-European herdsmen who was both a herd keeper and also a herd raider such a tale forms the heart of the Irish myth the tanbo khaligner though later given a localized expression in relation to the city of argos her origin probably predates even that ancient city io she is said to be from argos she was a priestess of hera and daughter of inachus a local river her mother is melia and okayana his role in the ancestry of the greeks is fundamental being an ancestor of the whole line like cadmus heracles perseus of europe i Even Dionysus, the myth was not purely local to the city of Argos either, as Hesiod mentions that Io was transformed into a cow on the island of Euboea, named after her in the Iliad archives, a name that can be used for Referring to all Greeks fighting with Agamemnon and Troy Argos the land born suspiciously has the same name as Argos the city Earlier depictions of him show him as either a Janus-headed figure or with one eye on the back of his head in the city of argos there was an ancient wooden depi tion of zeus who had an eye on his forehead argez is also a name given to one of the cyclops born on earth by hesiod and it could be that argos was originally a cyclops odysseus descended from hermes must also fight a cyclops it is possible that there is an ancient connection between the city of argos and a cyclopean styled god but the full scope of this myth goes beyond the limitations of this present ation the role of hermes and the origin of his name argefontes is as the murderer of the shepherds or cattle thief of this primordial cow in the name of zeus in the work prometheus bound hermes kills argos atlerna io says stung by a sharp fang horsefly ran with frantic leaps to character sweet current and larryness spring but argus the earth-born shepherds without restraint in their rage they chased me watching with their many eyes my footsteps unexpectedly an unforeseen fate stole his life hermes is not called by name here but more well referred to as the life thief of argos this unexpected moro s means fate fate or fatality lioness was thought to have an entrance to the underworld possibly the myth involved hermes releasing this primordial cow from the underworld in comparative analysis the myth has similar characteristics to the Reconstructed Proto-Indo-European creation myth involving the stolen cow the first warrior herdsmen owed in retrieving the cow in the name of the heavenly father another well known story of hermes is his theft of apollo's cattle the story as preserved in the homeric hymn to hermes is comical and sometimes it may even seem like it was written by someone which intentionally mocked the god even though it was called Homeric was written several hundred years after the Iliad probably around 530 BC.
C. or so presents Hermes as an infant and younger than Apollo in contrast to his depiction in art up to this point continues the theme of cattle wrestling while adding another layer of mystery what are the cattle that hermes roba in the odyssey helios has 350

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cows corresponding g to the number of days in a year calculated at that time in the oriental calendars they are watched over by the two daughters of helios fethusa which means glow and lampethia which means to shine elsewhere the names of the horses that pulled the chariot of dawn these cows may be representative of the sun's light is divided into the number of days of the solar year according to the ancient oriental calendar; however, there is likely an overlap in meaning: the cattle are actual cattle that Hermes wishes to eat, but they also symbolize something else in the hymn. although the cattle are presented as belonging to apollo, there is reason to believe that they are directly related to the sun, it is read that helios was going down underground to okeanos with his horses and chariot when hermes came running to the shadowy mountains of pieria where the divine cattle of the blessed gods had their places the mountains of pieria refers to the northern region and includes mount olympus associated with hermes by homer a region that for most of antiquity was under the control of the thracians take the cattle to the sunset drives them south overnight an impossible distance into the peloponnese feeds and cares for them performs a bizarre version of a sacrifice and hides the rest in the cave before dawn the hymn suggests that hermes did not eat any of the cattle as they Eating the meat is not something

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s do however the theft was entirely motivated by Hermes' desire to eat because he craved meat a description used forlions or wolves when dawn begins to rise Apollo comes out he realizes that the cattle are missing and asks an old man who has seen hermes if he had seen the cattle saying that they stayed behind the dogs and the bull that is a great wonder but the cows strayed out of the soft meadow away from the pasture as the sun was setting, the bull refers to the constellation of taurus left behind in the night sky while the cattle disappear with the sunset the old man explains to apollo that he was pushing them back with his head towards him this refers to the rays of light emanating from the sun receding of course leaving out possible solar connections he subdues dogs and drives cattle back an amazing feat earning him the title of the god of the herd there is a dynamic of time at play and the narrative emphasizes time often with hermes born at dawn playing the liar at noon and then emerging from his cave to steal the cattle at sunset leading them through the night feeding and slaughtering them just before sunrise hermes tells zeus of apollo that he came to our house today for his wobbly cows as helios was just getting up on his statement the god He says that I did not drive his cows to my house so that he can prosper or cross the threshold I say this truly I revere Helios and the other gods very much and I love you but I fear him because he refers to Helios when on the surface it has nothing to do With events the most plausible reason is because the cattle that Hermes stole were Helios's cattle and Apollo appears as the sun god in the hymn, an early occurrence for this level of identification between the two gods, but seems to be what means hermes return with apollo and free the cattle from the cave and after hermes surprises with the liar apollo grants hermes the whip to drive the cattle which means he is the am or the herds. he leads them back to the safety of the cave at night hermes so he leads the sunlight from the earth at dawn and onto it at night this also ties in with the other gift apollo bestows the golden wand the carol keon latin caduceus now in the hymn this is not specifically described as such, but i think we must assume it is the same caduceus described by homer and all the other poets in the iliad, said to put men to sleep and raise me from sleep, this is the driving power associated with the rising and setting of the sun, thus Hermes is given various powers related to solar energy in connection with his role as master of the path the sun passes through and guardian at the gates of the horizon and the limits that the sun must cross. relates to the influence of the sun at particular times of the day as it relates to its movement is born at dawn invents the liar at noon expressing the full creativity and auspicious power of the sun at its peak, but then when the sun sets it steals the light and assumes the trickster and hunter element of the wolf. hermes was the father of cephalus meaning head or top by hersi meaning dew or raindrops the daughter of zeus and the moon possibly preserving hermes in a role of distributing dew cephalus was courted and carried off by eos the dawn but he he was always looking for and procreate from mary a name that also means dew and he has a magic spear that never misses its target but he left he goes hunting on top of a hill procras comes without him knowing how to hear it and think it is a wild beast he throws his spear and kills her this may be a very old story involving the sun or sunlight in the rigveda the sun is considered to be the lover of dew and the slayer of dew as dew forms before dawn, but then it evaporates with the rays of the sun, so eos carries him in love, marries the dew, and then kills her with his spear, the hot rays of light, most versions. the addons also make this kevlus the great grandfather of odysseus both great grandsons of hermes jason and odysseus have a close relationship with a son odysseus with the help of hermes towards kirka the daughter of helios later becomes his lover ensuring his help jason gets help and he marries medea granddaughter of helios this dynamic is notable because in a hymn contained in the rig veda possibly dating from 1600 b.c. the pastoral god of roads pushon marries the daughter of the sun and there seems to be a similar element preserved in the myths of the descendants of hermes hermes may be covertly related to certain solar functions in the odyssey odysseus arrives on the island of kirka landing in silence guided by an unnamed god he and his men are starving and he goes out to get something then a large deer jumps before him gifted to him he is called odysseus again by an unnamed god but he follows this up saying that previously the deer had been dwelling in the shade of the trees but had come out drinking because he was driven by the oppressive heat of the sun these kinds of random blessings are almost always attributed to hermes the god has a similar relationship with animals like kirka and they have a

history

together because she declares to odysseus that argephontes told her a long time ago that she would come there the name kirka means circle and can refer to the circle of the sun and he exchange of duties and elements between hermes and apollo in the homeric hymn is not only to try to clarify the functional roles between these two sun related gods but also to illustrate the lordship over the exchange process, hermes even cleverly exchanges for powers oraculars the process of exchange is a type of contract and hermes oversaw the contracts that took place between buyers and sellers this role is also related to their pastoral origin but also has a relationship to the sun shepherds must bring cattle to market and trade with he markets were the first places of cattle trade and cattle were the main source of mobile wealth in the ancient world, since it governs the roads that were used to drive cattle, it governs the trade of that cattle, however, the son is the final witness in many contracts and oaths because he is the one who sees everything that this association seems to have led to. to persian mithra the god of contract whose name means the one who eventually unites becoming the sun rather than being related to particular solar aspects in hellenistic persia mithra was at least in one place equated with helios apollo and hermes as a singular entity in a separate but related myth to that found in the homeric hymn when hermes was stealing the cattle of apollo batos saw him from the top of his crest asked for payment in exchange for silence hermes agreed to the request but made batos swear to comply his part of the deal after he hid the cattle hermes changed his appearance and went back to batos offering batos as a reward for information battos broke his word and revealed what he had seen hermes then hit him with his staff and turned him into stone showing that hermes punishes those who break their vows and contracts hermes punishes by turning someone to stone is another element of binding power able to rob one of all mobility after apollo and hermes exchange goods apollo fears that hermes will steal them back and so hermes swears that he will not steal the far shooter and apollo swears that he will be his friend loved above all other immortals and Zeus sends his eagle to confirm the great oath Hermes also swears a false oath in the hymn and Optolikos, son of Hermes, was said to be a master of sneaky oaths;
However, part of this hymn clearly tries to delineate Apollo and Hermes; however, in addition to the role of the shepherds, hermes is the herald of the gods, but to understand this we need to know what an ancient herald is the kiruks was the word itself may have been adopted from the pre-greek population alternatively the kirok they could be related to an old root kara meaning to sing in any case the paper associated with it seems to contain ideas that were already common to Indo-Europeans in Homer's time. There are indications that the ancient meaning of this position was not fully understood, but there are traces of an early sacred function.
The first is that the kirok was untouchable they could walk across a battlefield and no one from either side could hit them they were under the protection of zeus himself but their god was hermes they carried a special staff indicating their position in the archaic period this was not it was the staff with two entwined serpents a later Hellenistic adaptation but a type of circular formation possibly representative of the union they spoke with the authority of their king and also accompanied the king on many tasks when Priam King of Troy ventured into the camp of the Greeks the unique takes his herald with him the heralds were also present and took part in important rituals and ceremonies, sometimes carrying sacrificial victims they called assemblies and exercised authority over those in attendance they also administered competitions the heralds talthibius and adeos one trojan one greek separate ajax and hector, in the middle of the fight, they order them to stop the fight and their two are powerful lords and warriors yet they obey the orders of the heralds.
This is because the heralds were enforcing the rules and customs on behalf of the gods. The heralds proclaimed to them that both are equally honored by Zeus, but that the knight's mandate cannot be denied. Ajax and Hector then exchanged weapons. and part as friends but how was it that telstibius and adeus were trusted to enforce sacred rules and even have power over kings in particular situations in the earliest times still vaguely reflected in homer the herald was not a servant of a king but the herald of men and gods in an earlier period his position may have involved the memorization of sacred laws and customs the ability to interpret the will of the gods and the application of sacred rules and traditions, some of those functions remained such as supervision of competitions during festivals and assemblies, but as the Iliad shows that their supervision over competitions may originally have included aspects of warfare, they are not separating two competitors in the Olympic Games, but on a hotly contested battlefield, they proclaim the will of zeus in the matter and the heralds of both sides, greeks and trojans, working together to make lo, a king would have been captured or killed on the battlefield, not the herald and this shows that his position and power emanated not from the king on whose behalf he may have been acting, but from the gods.
This is also why Priam only brings a herald with him thinking to claim some measure of safety under the divine protection of him, who actually manifests as the herald god. he comes and escorts him back and forth personally later due to their impregnable status they were used to carry messages but in earlier times the position seems to have been comparable to the Irish philly or vates which may share an etymological origin with the name odin memorized laws and traditions and acted as interpreters for the gods this seems to be why hermes is associated with prophecy when trying to compare analysis this aspect of hermes is often overlooked but it is one of his oldest characteristics In the opening book of the Odyssey, Zeus explains even now that Augustus, beyond what was ordered, took for himself the wife of the son of Atreus and killed him on his return, although he knew of the total destruction when he saw that we spoke to him. before sending hermes, the sharp-eyed argephontes, who should not kill the man nor woo his wife because from orestes will come revenge for the son of atreus when once he has already reached adulthood and longed for his own land, so spoke hermes, but despite all his good intentions, he did not prevail over the heart of egystus, both hermes act as spokesmen for the gods. among humans, but he also acts as a prophet because he warns of destiny that has not yet been fulfilled. him exactly what would happen if he hadn't intervened and what will kirika do when he arrives and how to counter it by showing that he has full knowledge of what hasn't happened yet, but more than that because through his intervention he can actively change outcomes if he is asked to. pay attention this relationship with fate arises in its association with the lots with which odysseus is shown to have great success in any good thing that happens unexpectedly it was attributed to the actions of hermes if someone finds a treasure unexpectedly it is called hermione and the who found it were bound to share it equally the homeric hymn has hermes barter with apollo for skill and oracles ending only with lots and with the three nymphs also located on mount parnassus hermes finds a tortoise outside his mother's cave and takes this as a great sign a symbol that in the plural refers to counts but of course in English we know it as a symbol even hermes farts are represented as omens by which apollo declares that he will make him find the cattle apollo then says that hermes will be an omen of the gods but denies him the art of prophetic speech but this is at odds with the odyssey where hermes is clearly represented with the power of prophecy in some local myths pan the son of hermes was the one who taught prophecy to apollo the cave of the nymphs located in parnassus was closelyrelated to pan with inscriptions for him inside the cave apollo's monopoly of prophecy seems to have sidelined hermes and even zeus among the educated classes sometime between homer and the homeric hymns the herald should be able to know and to proclaim the will of the gods or not he would be a herald though dodona continued to be the site of prophetic zeus was greatly eclipsed by parnassus and was more visited by those of the lower classes as well as those who continue to follow hermes in his prophetic role as talicus al odysseus's grandfather is asked to name the child and he decides to name him odysseus de odo which means anger or pain explained by from the lips just as i have come from afar creating pain to many men and women across the good green land so his name be odysseus the son of sorrow a name he will gain in full and when he comes of age and pays a visit to parnassus the greatest estate of his mother's line where all m lie is treasures the son of hermes lives on parnassus and prophetically names his grandson for the great suffering he will endure or potentially understood as the great wrath he will incur from the gods the sacred role of the herald is probably also reflected in tradition making of Hermes the originator of the fire of the fire sticks and performs the sacrifice of the force of fire which is the fire created from the fire stick. s was seen as the most sacred form of fire and altar fires could only be started by forced fires or from fires coming from another sacred source. the specific form of sacrifice performed by hermes in the Homeric hymn is actually unknown from other sources, leaving scholars puzzled as to its meaning, it may have been a local tradition, perhaps even specific to the worship of hermes, however, we should not, since some have concluded from this, believe that hermes is the god of fire that the hymn says is hephaestus, it is rather that hermes is the herald because he is the intermediary between man and the gods represented as the lord of the path that connects heaven and earth in the underworld, but because the god of fire agni is in the rig veda, often called the herald of the gods, people have wanted to connect these two things, but it doesn't really seem There is a very strong connection, Hermes is also the kindest of the gods with men, his main action in the Iliad is when he helps Priam to recover Hector's body that all the gods wanted Hermes to give him. stole Achilles out of pity, Homer says in book 24 that the two were not invisible to Zeus, but when he saw the old man he took pity and immediately spoke to Hermes, his beloved son.
Since you love the company of man above all else and listen to whomsoever you make your mind to, go and guide Priam into the hollow ships of the Achaeans so that no one among all the dnans can see him or be afraid of him until he comes. the son of peleos appeared to meddle like a young prince with the first mouthful of hair on his lip the herald of prime first thinks that the man would tear them to pieces describing him as if he were a lion or a wolf priam is terrified but homer says the very same kind god approaching took the old man's hand and spoke to him i will do you no harm myself i will even keep another away from you who might bait he replies saying there is a god who has held his hand on me who sent such a wayfarer like you to find me a omen of good because as such you are by your form your admired beauty and wisdom in your mind mentions extending a hand in relation to hermes protection that he is a good omen and wise then he calls hermes the best of men and hermes says it would be your escort and I would take good care of you even until I reached glorious Argos in a fast ship or following you on foot and no one would dare fight with you because I despised your escort like that The kind god said so, in other words, he would carry it even into the heart of the enemy safely, then he jumps up and takes the reins of the chariot and breathes great force into the horses and mules as they reach the gates he throws.
He sleeps on the watchmen and opens the doors once outside Achilles' cabin, declares his true identity to Priam and tells him how best to approach the warrior to obtain his request in the Odyssey when Hermes appears to him in person. He also takes Odysseus by the hand. the action is one of friendship and sincerity as it still is today and also has connection with leading in the rig veda pushon the lord of the roads is asked to take the worshiper by the hand and guide him through safe paths but he is not the last while helping priom the old man exhausted by his nocturnal adventure and his dealings with achilles goes to sleep in his hut homer says that when all gods and men sleep it is only hermes that sleep never overtakes him like mithra, that He does not sleep and is always awake, Hermes stayed awake thinking how he could guide Priam to his home. he wakes the king and escorts him from the camp and across the river before returning to Olympus at dawn.
Hermes is the defender at night, always watching like the shepherd. guarding his flock in the play humanities of aeschylus apollo says you hermes my blood brother born of the same father watch over him true to your name be his guide shepherding this supplicant of mine in the iliad says hermes was granted a great forged scepter by hephaestus and given to zeus hermes then gives this symbol of kingship to pelops the ancestor of agamemnon linking hermes not only to the herald's staff but also to the scepters of ancient mycenaean kings these scepters conveyed authority and privilege of the king in assembly There was a story beyond this between Hermes and Pelops, some claimed that Pelops was the son of Atlas, others that he was the son of Hermes, but most said that he was the son of Tantros, who was the son of Zeus and Dione, the daughter of Atlas, making his genealogy very similar to that of hermes pelops was killed by his father who tried to serve it to the gods as a meal strangely similar to the story of lycaeon but only demeter ate any of it afterwards the gods had hermes place all of pelops's body parts in a cauldron and bring him back to life since demeter had eaten his shoulder she replaced it with a shoulder of pure ivory strove to win the hand of hippodamia she who is a teacher of horses that could only do it by defeating his father we know that mouse wineman in a chariot race we know that mouse was sterope's husband the sister of hermes mother took the heads of those who lost the contest against him fearful of this pelops sought myrtids help the charioteer of oynomaus the son of hermes said he was the best chariot driver he was in love with hippodamia and pelops promised him the first night with her if he only made sure when a mouse lost bilberries or left him he lost or did not fix the wheel of the cart and when a mouse crashed and died when mertillus tried to make a move on hypodamia however phelps killed him by throwing him into the sea mertillus yelled a curse over the land and n the name of umbrian zeus meaning of the reigns and caused a drought accounts say that there were nine islands called islands of pelops and that even when it rained not a drop of water fell on them others said that he cursed the family of pelops directly hermes is related to almost all of the main characters in this founding tale as well as in the story of lycaen some say that pelops was the first to build a temple and sacrificed to hermes and with this he hoped to avoid the wrath of the god on the land of the death of mertillos that he gave his name to the nearby sea where he drowned, but why is killing the son of Hermes related to drought?
As we have seen, the Pleiades were connected with rainfall and the distribution of water, to which Hermes was perhaps connected in the form of the guide of the clouds. It is said that the family of Pelops suffered a great curse that included the theft of Helen a mysterious golden ram appeared in the herd of pelops and due to a prophecy grants the kingdom to whoever has it the brother of atreus steals it seneca said there is within the lofty folds of pelops a stately herd and a marvelous ram the leader of the herds rich over his whole body a fleece of spun gold hangs and from his back the new crown king of the house of tantalus has his scepters wrapped in gold his owner rules him makes the fortune of the whole house follow this golden ram who Serves as a symbol of royalty and whose gold is used in the manufacture of the scepters of kings can be related to Homer's version of Hermes, granting Pelops the scepter forged by Hephaestus, however, it gives as The result was a massive internal strife within the family perhaps intentionally caused this golden ram and its meaning also aligns with the golden ram in Jason and the Argonauts and we might wonder if hermes was t The true origin of that golden ram as well as in the Pelops story, Jason's golden ram is also related to a drought.
The Olympia Hippodrome was thought to be haunted by hammers. Pelops built a mound there to propitiate the murdered son of Hermes, but occasionally he would appear and terrify the horses, making them bold and causing clashes that were sometimes fatal. This element of fear associated with Hermes is not isolated. The son of Hermes is famous for the panic based on his name and the feeling he generates the terror one experiences when hunted in the wild The story of Pelops is very similar to Celtic myth and that of Lycaen and Hermes is closely related to the founding myths also involve death and resurrection this mortal who is sacrificed and brought back from the dead pelops or arcus later serves as king of at least several major royal lines hermes was also the father of hallon the first king of samuthrace whose name is Same as the mountain on which the great temple of Samothrace was built, his mother Rena may have been the same as the playat Electra and Sauon identified with Yasun, elsewhere said to be the son of Zeus and twin brother of dardanos, who went on to found the trojan town hermes was also the father of good which means mound or altar who became the king of corinth after aietes son of the son or he went to colchus but in a tale with similarities to pelops and arcus hermes is the father of athalides he is known by the argonautica he was the herald of the argonauts and has an infallible memory capable of remembering even when he crosses into the land of the dead That is why he always spends half of his time in the world of the living and the other half in the land of the dead. he was the reincarnation of athalides and therefore a son of hermes hermes is called eggmanni the meaning guide but literally the one who goes before or leads the way and therefore leader the orphic hymn calls hermes the cueranos leader of mortals in a work from theatrical plutus by aristophanes hermes offers to be a guide but is rebuffed saying the once blind god plutus can see well enough now instead of his offer being construed as a leader it is believed that he will guide the god and in myth he often does exactly this, he can bring gods to mortals or mortals to gods at the beginning of the Homeric hymn to Aphrodite. we are told that zeus put the desire in the goddess's heart to marry an immortal man as revenge for having exerted her powers on the other immortals when they meet and kiss, he tells her that the slayer of argos caught her when she was dancing with mugwort and flew her over the vast wild lands and that he told her that she would be the wife of his parents and give him children why does she tell him this story and kiss her? he accepts her mainly on the story that it was the will of argephontes the guide that she be his wife who used the tale to deceive him shows that hermes was believed to bring good things to men, including wives, as homer says in the iliad, hermes is the most willing of the gods to help man the shepherd in at least hermes was not a liar or a thief at least primarily but a revered and trusted patron god this also relates to his role in bringing pandora to epimetheus perhaps originally she was as her name suggests one of all gifts rather than a curse she may have been a Blessing however Hermes being ordered by Hermes to bring her to Epimetheus by Zeus may have been part of the trick of Zeus sent by the god who gives gifts who gives wives.
Hermes brings women to men and often appears at weddings. similar to that of the vedic god pushon who leads wife to husband in marriage and is believed to be a god of marriage hermes presents pandora the first wife and aphrodite uses him in a lie to secure e the bed of ancies who believes that she will be his wife who was given by argephontes the same hymn tells how zeus made peace with the father of ganymedes but that this was achieved through hermes in the iliad zeus is described holding the scales of the fate of warriors in the battle, but in art, the skills are always in the hands of Hermes when Heracles tries to steal Apollo's tripod.
In the myth, Zeus intervenes to separate them sometimes with lightning; them acting as zeus in many artistic depictions hermes is shown accompanying heroes known to have been favored by zeus during the trojan war hermes was said to be one of the gods who fought on the side of the greeks homer says that hermesgiver of all good was the father of ephdoros, meaning well-endowed, who is swift on foot and valiant in battle, one of the commanders of the mirmadans, as with the story of aphrodite, said to have been associated with the mother from fdaros poli mel the one who was a dancer of artemis in the war the gods come to blows and face each other poseidon against apollo hera against artemis athena against ares and hephaestus against scamander the god of the river and the powerful hermes against letto mother of apollo this selection is not random but seems to be a collection of opposites hephaestus the god of fire has to fight water ares the furious has to fight athena the wise poseidon the dark haired god of the sea must fight apollo the shining one heaven hera the goddess of marriage status and femininity versus artemis the virgin girl of nature hermes then the guide versus letto the hidden as her name means homer says then the slayer of argus guide and guardian said letto letto I will not fight with you it is bad to come to blows any of the wives of zeus, therefore boast as you like among the immortals that he defeated me in a fair fight.
This seems to be intended to express the god's loyalty to Zeus, but also his unwillingness to participate in such a u. It was said that Hermes did not run uniform contests, but there could be another dynamic here, which is hider vs. guide through the darkness. Although Hermes does not appear much in the Iliad, there is one character that plays a very important role. who appears to be his deadly doppelganger odyssey, he is described identically to hermes, he is even given identical epithets, such as polymetes full of cunning polytropos, one of many forms in the odyssey, he is also called politlas, meaning he the class is the root of atlas.
He is an excellent speaker and very skilled in everything except funeral games. He excels in wrestling and running, both of which are ruled by Hermes. He is also a descendant of the god. His grandfather on his mother's side is Ottolikos, the famous cattle thief and son of Hermes. who is the one who gives odysseus his name the father of odysseus is laertes the name is formed by laos which means people and hero which means fas ten or strings together from this same root as the name hermes which means the one who unites people the father of laertes is in christians by some they say that he is the son of zeus but by others including aristotle that he is the son of cephalus son of hermes on the outskirts of the village of odysseus was the hill of hermes, however, strangely In the Iliad, it is not Hermes who is depicted helping Odysseus, but Athena, and it is Athena who is said to have been their patron god on pottery.
Athena and Hermes very often appear together helping heroes, however. or, in the written sources, often only athena is mentioned, there are representations that show hermes helping odysseus, he drives his chariot, helps him escape from the cyclops under the ram and helps him against dolon, who tried to sneak into the greek camp dressed as a wolf by chance odysseus and diomedes were on a secret raid of their own at the same time and saw dolan then hid and managed to capture him but they don't mention hermes at all in a play dolan dresses up as a wolf and the chorus tells him that all he needs to do now is pray to hermes with the audience knowing that dolan ends up dead and hermes helps odysseus when odysseus runs a race in the games which he wins as a result of his competitor slipping on a pile of rubbish that goes into his mouth athena is said to have caused this but since hermes is the god of athletics and deceit in general wouldn't it make more sense if this was the result of hermes odysseus wrestling with ajax who is the strongest of the Achaeans and they reach a draw for a well-matched couple in a sport ruled by the god of well-matched couples, but the god is not mentioned the absence of hermes in several scenes of the iliad and in elsewhere when fitted into a situation and even depicted in art it seems almost intentional instead athena has been inserted into such roles leaving hermes for the potters and there may very well be an element of class here in both the iliad and the the odyssey athena intervenes in the form of a herald a guide and a shepherd even though hermes is the god of these three groups the greek soldier epeos who built the trojan horse commissioned by odysseus and who helped lead the stealth attack on troy as described in myths as being aided by athena but in the city of argos according to pausanias he is said to have dedicated an ancient wooden statue of hermes, not athena, presumably in gratitude for his help there he could it would be a test of a literary change in the odyssey athena is telling zeus that he should send hermes to tell calypso to release odysseus then he decides that he will go and goad his son into lamachus's date i will guide him to sparta and sandy pylos thus spoke and tied under her feet her beautiful sandals of immortal gold that wanted to carry her both over the waters of the sea and over the boundless lands swift as the gusts of wind in the fifth book when Hermes prepares to leave for the island of Calypso Homer describes the scene like this he spoke and the guide ergefontes ignored him instantly tied under his feet his beautiful sandals of immortal gold that wanted to bury him on the waters of the sea and on the land without limits as fast as a breath of wind. homer wind could have pressed copy and paste these shoes are mostly a defining characteristic of hermes but athena also acts as guide the role of hermes when odysseus arrives in the land of the fakians athena is s help having cast sleep on him and then wakes him up in the morning the exact powers of hermes hermes flies to calypso's cave to deliver zeus's decree on odysseus calypso is a daughter of atlas her name means she hides and hides odysseus lives on an island in the very center of the ocean that is in the far west and perhaps associated with darkening clouds or the aspect of the atlas that hides her son after dark the goddess welcomes hermes and seats him at the table serving ambrosia and nectar he he insists that he must release odysseus and though angry he submits as hermes leaves odysseus walks in and calypso sits him down making it clear that he sits in the exact same seat that hermes had just vacated , then she offers him food and drink as she did to hermes but of the mortal type and again specifies this differentiation but similarity the scene confirms the mysterious link between hermes and odysseus without explaining it and it seems that odysseus is some kind of mortal avatar of hermes when odysseus is with the fakians efrealis challenges odysseus saying I do not compare you with a man who is skilled in contests such as those that abound among mortal men but with one who walks from one place to another with his crooked ship is a captain of sailors or a merchant one who is aware of his cargo and is in charge of a home cargo and the profits from his greed you don't look like an athlete his words could well have been directed at hermes god of competitions and athletics who is at the same time the lord of mercantile endeavors archaic depictions of hermes do not show an athletic youth but rather a man of years with a rye beard and often sneaky seek do powerfully throwing a disc Odysseus proclaims because in all things I am not a weakling, even in all the contests that are practiced between men, Hermes helps Odysseus, most famously providing him with the magical plant mali, which protects him against the magic of kirka, the son and the daughter, and it is probably not co The incidence of Hermes appearing to protect him from the daughter of the sun probably since it helps many shepherds or workers who work outdoors on long hot days perhaps hiding the sun with a cloud Less recognized is that Hermes is also the unnamed god who helps guide his ship that lands silently on the island and also through the heat of the sun leads a deer directly to Odysseus' spear when they die starving also helps odysseus to land on the island near the land of the cyclops it was the best of the islands free from danger full of sheep fresh water and meadows in a completely natural state without the touch of man this is the paradise of hermes odysseus says there we sailed and some god guided us through the murky night for there was no light to see but a mist lay deep over the ship and the moon showed no light from heaven but was covered for clouds then no man's eyes beheld that island nor did we see the long waves rolling on the beach till we brought our tightly bent ships ashore this nameless god is associated with mist and cloud that covers the moonlight, but also with safe guidance through the murky night odysseus's escape plan from the cyclops involves hermes when the cyclops returned to the cave the next night after odysseus had formed his plan to blind him unusually he brought all his flock normally the rams were left outside odysseus says that he immediately put all his fat flocks into the cave and left none without in the deep courtyard either because of some presentiment or because a d god commanded it so this is central to odysseus's plan which involves the use of restraints that can escape from under the rams to select the men for polyphemus's blinding odysseus also draws lots that come out exactly as he himself would have chosen them and A ceramic depiction of Hermes is shown present as Odysseus sneaks under the ram Hermes and Odysseus' actions further connect him to their mixed relationship with the sun.
Not only do Odysseus's men steal the sun's cattle, but he also ends up in the island of kirka and it is hermes who must save him from it, he knows exactly what she will do and exactly what odysseus must do to counter her and get her as a helper by using cunning oaths the sun maiden and hermes seem to have met because she says that surely you are odysseus man in many ways that fontes of the golden wand argue once told me that he would come here that athena ends up as e he god of odysseus instead of hermes may be due to the imposition of views of the local elite on Homer and others that eventually shaped religious views in general.
Another mysterious thing about Odysseus is that he can travel to the underworld without help. This is not something that is said of many people in Greek myth, in fact, he is one of the only figures when he questions this kirka and tells him not to worry about it, but it may be that he is being guided by an unnamed god or that somehow this story relates to that. t nameless god in a mortal form now, although the exact reasons may elude us, it is clear from the deceitful character of odysseus, his many abilities, his epithets, which are identical to those of hermes, his tales of journeys to the underworld, their relationship with the daughter of the sun and is somehow fundamentally connected with Hermes, even if we can't say precisely what exactly that original relationship was, the creation of the liar was the first thing Hermes was said to have done and he did it without hesitation, from the very beginning. instant thought to action, the liar is associated with various qualities of hermes, it is made up of strings that must be tied and requires a foolish hand to use in the homeric hymn hermes also explains a particular secret of how it should be played correctly by one with wit and wisdom I asked slyly he teaches through his sound all sorts of things that delight the mind, being easy to play with gentle familiarities because he abhors work and monotony cease, but anyone who asks for ignorance s of him with violence speaks mere vanity and foolishness in the odyssey odysseus says thanks to hermes the guide who gives all work of our hands the grace and fame that god deserves is associated with the skill of the hand particularly of domestic servants chores to fleece a liar, it is more connected to the hand with its hand-holding gestures of both Priam and Odysseus in the comedy Pluto Hermes comes pounding on the door seeking entrance and a meal offered for work I would like to live with you, have mercy and receive me, but how could we employ you here?
Put me near the door. I am a watchful god and would stay away from thieves. deals, but we're rich, why should we haggle? Hermes, let me intrigue for you. No, there are no forbidden intrigues. We believe in good faith. I will work for you as a guide. well t then I will preside over the assemblies ah what can you object to that nothing is better for pluto than giving a musical and gymnastic assemblies hmm how useful it is to have so many names here you have found the means to earn your bread I do not It is not surprising that jurors so eagerly try to participate in so many courts, yet a comedy conveys the idea that Hermes has numerous roles in everyday life and it's hard to narrow down his scope.
It's also an eerily similar story to the story of the Gaelic god luge seeking entrance to tara listing his various abilities to the gatekeeper when seeking entrance the connection to the hand links to the ability executed through it and ultimately with all human crafts in the vedic scriptures there is an invocation to perform the sacrifice with the hands of pushon perseus' quest as he survives features hermes in a supporting role, however the oldest depiction tells us that instead In fact, it involves Hermes in an important way. Perseus was the legend and founder ofmycenae the very symbol of mycenaean power he is a son of zeus and danny a descendant of io the cow whom hermes freed perseus appears in the garb of hermes often the two are depicted together and sometimes distinguished only by the caduceus and harp the sickle-type sword carried by perseus there are several versions, but in most hermes gives him guidance his sword and shoes or helps him get them the helmet he received from hades that made him invisible but is represented identically to the winged helmet of hermes hermes slays an all-seeing watcher odysseus blinds the cyclops luge slays balor with the deadly eye and perseus slays the gorgon with the deadly eye all tales involve combat against some creature more notable for its eye or eyes and may share some common origin type hermes also slays the giant hippolytus in the giganomahe, a name meaning freest of horses, perhaps establishing hermes as the horse thief's bane in art, hermes is often shown preparing horses to ride in another connection between hermes and clouds in a kalamata hymn when inid children are misbehaving tethys calls the cyclops upon them the primordial storm gods she names them arges and steropes bright flash and lightning but it's hermes argefontes the murderer of arges who instead comes playing boogie dressing up as a cyclops with ash to appear dark the boy runs to his mother in fear and promises to behave this in various ways, those who misbehave such Maybe they are not distributing the waters, so she calls on the lightning gods, the Cyclopes, to bring them in line, however, in this playful way, Hermes has been acting as if he were the terrifying primordial giant of thunder and thunder. lightning that makes them bring. its moisture this tale presented as comic contains one of the strongest links between hermes and an earlier role related to the clouds also supports the idea that arges the cyclops is related to the name argefontes as apollo hermes may originally have been a slayer of these cyclops finally we come to what is perhaps the most intriguing and misunderstood role of hermes his connection to the dead hermes takes the dead to the underworld and sometimes strictly outside of it he only goes as far as the harem which takes the dead to across the river in his boat, but he is also named as the only messenger between zeus and hades. leads heracles in and out of the underworld along with the hellhound cerberus he is invoked as hermes the hetonic in prayers to the dead or other gods of the underworld and in some local myths he is worshiped alongside demeter and persephone the role of hermes In relation to these goddesses of the ground and the underworld it is often thought that he is a god of the underworld, however it is as simple as paper that covers almost all his other myths: the god of the road.
Woe to the bonds and boundaries to bring Persephone to the surface requires your help to guide the goddess out of the underworld to the surface like a seed opening and sprouting through the ground that forceful act of transition and boundary crossing requires hermes who controls the paths between worlds also implies the fertile agent of rain or the water spilled by the nymphs with which hermes was closely related he is the escort of the soul because he is the guide the master of the path between heaven earth and the underworld controlling the limits as a guardian like the hermite placed along the borders while atlas is the pillar that separates and supports the sky from below the seas hermes is the god of that pillar that connects the heavens with the underworld, therefore , it is incorrect to classify hermes as a whole as a hetonic deity although he has a hathonic duty, he traverses all realms but is considered primarily celestial, so he is the herald of zeus, he is scared in relation to the underworld and the dead because he is the one who can reach the underworld to deliver words and prayers to the spirit his binding power also keeps the dead where they belong, by far, the best known son of hermes is the god pan he is often depicted as a goat from the waist down the homeric hymn to pan says that he was the son of the daughter of triopes meaning oak face possibly referring to a mountain that abounds in oaks or just an oak itself palsynius records an oak grove that was sacred to Hermes.
Other accounts connect Dryout Base with Apollo. However, when the king migrated his people from Mount Oeta to the Peloponnese, they named his chief city Hermione, which means lady of Hermes. The Homeric hymn to Aphrodite also links Hermes to the dryads. The story of Apollo's courtship of Dryopes even makes him turn into a tortoise, one of the symbols of Hermes and Pan showing that in particular regions, these two gods had a significant overlap, thus confronting her in the Homeric hymn, others say that Pan was the daughter of Penelope and some thought that this woman was the wife of Odysseus given the time we spend on the connection between Odysseus and Hermes, such an opinion perhaps makes more sense than some give.
Credit despite playing a small role in central

mythology

, Pan is recorded as having shrines and altars dedicated to him extensively, including at least two Eternal Flames, one main from the highest mountains in Arcadia was sacred to Pan was a god of the shepherds of the rustic music of the wild places of the packs of hunting dogs and also prophesied that the tortoise was also sacred to him because of the liar on the mount as chaon where the famous zeus lycaeon is honored with his mountain sanctuary pan was also worshiped as pan like chaos the son of zeus and was the divine twin of arcus with callisto or was raised by him or with him the dryad erato the wife of arcus was the first prophetess of pan in some local myths it was pan who taught apollo the art of prophecy and the founders the roman god equated with bread was also linked to prophecy and was an ancient king of latinum another roman founding figure evander was the son of hermes who tra He brought the worship of the Pandikeans and Hermes to Italy and instituted the festival of the Lubricalia.
Some believe that originally Pan and Hermes were the same god with Pan being another name who eventually became a separate god preted as the son of Hermes when we see that even the homeric hymn to hermes combines satu in relation to the prophetic nymphs it is plausible that the arcadian chaos pan-ly is the son of zeus but is also connected to a vander the son of hermes as Cayenne is said to have built the first temple to Hermes, perhaps on top of Mount Kailena, but a cult site of Pan associated with athletic games stands on the side of the mount like chaos.
Lycaen's wife is usually Kailena, who appears to be a lookalike of Maya. Pan is associated with many of the same things including herding the lying prophecy and probably had a wolf form, the origin of depicting him as a goat may even be intended to summon this form because his other form was feared, it is possible that the hermit who represented one in the same god eventually some people saw him as separate by engaging in comparative analysis we will be able to put this to the test it has become fashionable to describe hermes as pre-greek in fact a new trend is emerging to deal with of attributing almost all elements of Greek religion and culture to mysterious pre-Greek origins, however, we have shown that the name hermes has an Indo-European origin and that it also shares the greatest similarity with other Indo-European gods, so much so that it is unquestionable that it has an identical origin to them ten hymns in the rig veda are dedicated to the god pusan his name derives from the theorized name i Indo-European peusan from Indo-European pe meaning to shepherd or protect in Greek this name becomes pan related to the same root since words like poi mean shepherd or shepherd used as an epithet for agamemnon the shepherd of the people the connotation is that the shepherd is the protector of the herd pushon is called lord of the road and is asked to lead the cattle and worshipers on safe paths guide and protect them from wolves and other beasts drive away thieves and protect the pastures destroy the two-headed one quo the one we invoke for help that reigns supreme the lord of all that is or moves inspire of the soul that pushes may promote the increase of our wealth our guardian and our infallible guard for our illustrious good far and wide may indra prosper us may the master advance prosperous of all riches is carried by the clouds traveling the roads far from heaven and far from earth often called strong is the best or charioteer drawn by goats he even guides the sun through the dappled clouds and woos the sun maiden he escorts the spirits of the dead to the abode of the ancestors and leads women to their husbands he is skillful and powerful standing beside indra as he fights virtra and together they milk the cows of the clouds drink the pastures called a sage or seer he is asked to protect against deceivers and to soften or rend the hearts of the cheap man who withholds livelihood guides followers to treasures is called the lord of all prosperity and the one who brings heaven to He is also invoked as an impeller to aid in magic and to give strength in combat and is asked not to send heat early but to lead grassy meadows are sought for food and are asked to feed the worshipers and invigorate as Hermes wields a golden sword. sword, but also an awl and cattle goad, in other words, he is associated with many of the functions of Hermes and apparently even has several corresponding myths that are very closely related, but Hermes has several characteristics that are not attributed to thrusting but to other closely related gods the name of the Indo-Iranian god mithra means one who unites the Persian mithra lives in the brazati the central mountain in which the sun, moon and stars revolve around a mountain similar to the nature of the atlas with a name hara cognate with root name hermes mithra rules over contracts and oaths in zoroastrian yast mithra repeatedly called lord of the wide pastures said to bestow wealth in cattle and secure waters also repeatedly called s sleepless homer ​and always awake says the same about hermes in at least one case during hellenistic persia mithra was equated with helios apo lo and hermes in the rig veda mitra and varuna were associated with the pillars that uphold heaven and earth and like the persian mithra they dwell in a mansion with a thousand columns but the staff of hermes that puts to sleep and wakes is also power itself of the god savitar who puts people to sleep and wakes them in the morning associated with the rising and setting sun hermes most likely had a common origin with the god pushon, who also at a very early period shared similar roles with others Indo-Iranian gods, the name hermes developed from the hermit that marked the paths and boundaries that the god protected and became a separate name and eventually a separate but closely related god so that pan was thought to be his son the god of herds pastures roads and boundaries was probably one of the most archaic Indo-European deities as it relates directly to the lives of the early Indo-Europeans who were pri Mainly shepherds, the god had a solar connection that embodied the paths, movement, and energy of the sun, but it is distinct from the sun and appears to be related to clouds called cloud-carrying, the clouds looked like cattle in the sky that it would have to be milked for it to rain on the pastures.
If this analysis is correct, we would expect to find gods of a similar origin throughout Europe, and indeed we do in Gaul many. local epithets are attributed to mercury who is one of the most revered gods, it is generally accepted that this figure appears to correspond to the god named in Gaelic myth as luge in Gaulish as lugus was associated with shoes and shoe making according to archeology and some surviving Welsh tales and hermes also in the Homeric hymn makes a strange pair of shoes luge is skilled in all the arts takes the sage's seat when he comes to tara is protector of the herds in crops and trees a and drives invaders away from the borders his mortal son is best known for holding off an entire army at a ford junction while they tried to steal cattle he is sometimes compared to the sun but clearly unlike it must kill balor of the mortal eye to free the cattle he kills with a stone sledge he is left behind from the initial invasion of ireland because it was said that they wished to win without guile he is associated with the prophecy with ha bali hounds wolves even lions oversees competitions was the first philadelphia a class similar in forms to the ancient greek herald originated festivals created games and horse races is closely related to the earth goddess who organizes her funeral games most significantly perhaps when houses are laid out by the dogda luge receives rod ruben i.e. the durable road lug trains under the master named esros which means exit, passage or path and his son kuhlen was originally called shitanta which means path residing in the n was called by the name of kuhlen for slaying a coolan smith hound possibly related to kylena swears to take overrole of the hound guarding the herds fields and borders finally luke's name may come from the word for oath herodotus said thracian nobles only oaths sworn by hermes in the center there is a relationship with roads roads borders pastoral activities things related to bondage the slaughter of a giant related to the eye or eyes who steals a cow with mastery of great skill although in Celtic tradition the god has a stronger militant aspect which seem to come from the same source and even have myths which one could reconstruct as originally being the himself, but what about Odin?
Surely the king of the Norse gods could not be related in any way to Hermes or could he during the time of his royal worship odin or woden equated to mercury and therefore hermes but why in myths like those preserved by saxo grammaticus odin appears to ancient kings giving advice telling them what? what they must do to achieve victory teaching them guiding them he is compared to the sun even as he returns to drive away those who had usurped his kingdom in his absence and in Ragnarok he will wear a shining golden helmet in battle he is a great wise man and seeker of knowledge with numerous spells that will help a man the world tree is called yggdrasil which means odin's horse this is taken as a poetic meaning the place where odin hanged himself to sacrifice himself that may be but the world tree is the point of connection between all worlds as atlas of noor smith travels to the underworld to consult the dead as hermes and odysseus odin is also associated with memory prophecy wild animals such as wolves and bears is called the journey in power god of burden the wanderer the screamer something close associated with pan federer federer listener master of gods walker god of horsemen bringer of sleep and awakener it is possible that e the two wolves of odin are also the ones that c has the sun and the moon causing its daily cycle its main enemy is the wolf that will consume it like the wolves that will consume the sun and the moon now there is much in the nature of odin and in lube for the case that he is not like hermes in terms of his role in the overall myth, which is in fact much more akin to the lofty nature of Zeus as lord of cosmic law, but again we find many related abilities and functions that are specific to of this god that can hardly be accidental paths leading sound memory bonding trades sleep and alertness the wolf the bear even sacrifice no other greek god is pictured making a sacrifice and hermes sacrifices himself and the other gods both odin and luke they also seem to share a myth in which they die in a tree and we saw that many myths associated with early kings involved those kings dying and being resurrected and that they were closely related to each other.
Knowing that Odin was interpreted as Hermes or Mercury during the Roman period, people including me have tried to find numerous ways. In explaining this, however, having gained a better understanding of the origin and role of Hermes, it appears not only that the Celtic and Germanic peoples were It is correct to equate these gods, but most likely developed from the same set of ideas. . Several founding figures in Roman myth are also associated with Hermes or Pan, such as Evander and Falnus, but how is a god of heralds or seers a god of the roads? and a shepherd, how does he become a king?
Hermes is the herald because he is the lord of connections and the god, but the herald of the invisible king becomes the king himself. cosmic zeus makes known the god's will to man zeus is rarely depicted directly connected with men if he wishes then often hermes goes in his place he brings the gods to man and guides men to follow the will of heaven zeus in his highest state is the supreme mind governing the laws of the cosmos but plays a dual role as a storm god but what if this were not the case and if hermes were the herald of this remote almost unfathomable deity of the cosmic order, this role of herald becomes very different, he becomes the only one capable of interpreting and guiding one according to the cosmic mind that only he knows rules over the connections between heaven, earth and the underworld represented By atlas or the world tree in this way, hermes gets a kind of christ-like role and that did not go unnoticed by the early christians who represented jesus as hermes calling him the good shepherd since whether guiding cattle to market or grazing guiding hunters through dense forests or leading us towards knowledge leading us to hades or olympus a large number of the concepts surrounding hermes involve paths and leading one along those paths his most important animal the ram is most famous for finding those paths along the slopes of steep mountains hermes is, among other things, the guy, the god of paths both cosmic and within daily life and in the death well i hope you found this video interesting and if so will you consider supporting my work via patreon videos or paypal as this requires extensive research and time to put together and i couldn't do it without all my wonderful patreon supporters and paypal and I thank you very much my best wishes to listen and as always stand your ground

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