Full Documentary 10 Ways the World will End 2020May 03, 2023
there are many existential threats facing humanity, some are not entirely unlikely but may just produce numbers, other threatening scenarios that may have the potential to wipe out humanity in its entirety are less likely to occur in our list of top 10 disasters that play wipe out humanity this century threats of nature occupy places take through six have survived asteroid impacts weather fluctuations etc etc does not seem very likely that one of those who sin within the next hundred years and therefore I believe that if we do go extinct within the next hundred years it is much more likely to be the result of anthropogenic risks risks of our own making from a distance the city of Prypiat looks like any other concrete city built on Ukraine during the 1970s, but as you get closer it becomes clear that Something is wrong here, not that long ago tens of thousands of people lived here, but it was turned into a ghost town by a man-made catastrophe, so now we are pretty close to the reactor unit and we realize that it stopped below the technicians at the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl did not wish to cause a disaster they were simply experimenting to find out what would happen if they ran the plants turbines of power without an external power source. uninhabitable for centuries to come the question is whether we could cause even greater devastation a disaster so severe it would wipe us out completely three weeks before the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima the first nuclear weapons test was carried out in the desert of New Mexico's so-called Trinity test on July 16, 1945 had caused some level of anxiety beforehand.
As early as 1942, physicist Edward Teller argued that an atomic bomb could, in theory, start a chain reaction that would ignite the atmosphere of the planet. whole
world. A small nuclear reaction is occurring. in the bomb, but perhaps all the atoms in the atmosphere could also be drawn into this chain reaction and the concern was taken seriously enough that a report was commissioned and some physicists took it upon themselves to calculate whether this would happen. Scientists now know what it would take for the doomsday scenario to come true, but at the time of the Trinity test, the physical effects had not been
fully explored, despite this, the test was carried out. , we now know that it was physically impossible for it to happen, but it is very interesting to reflect on how confident you would have to be in your calculation to be
willing to risk the future of humanity in correcting it today scientists are performing other kinds of physics experiments at CERN on the outskirts of Geneva we have built a huge particle accelerator in To carry out experiments involving unprecedented levels of energy, this is the room we run from and record good data coming from the collision of the two beams of the LHC in a tunnel 27 kilometers long.
Large magnets are used to accelerate the protons to near speed. of light as they collide new particles are formed and scientists hope they
willhelp us understand the composition of the universe this video is from March 30, 2010 people are excited about the particle accelerator that just set an unprecedented record for For the first time two beams were accelerated up to 3.5 TV Kerby and we immediately saw in our detectors the results of these unprecedented collisions that produced this particle locus at the end of the experiment and we clearly became aware that the new era in particle physics had begun. with the exploration of new territory but there are those who believe that the experiments in Geneva will cause the end of the
worldthe scientific progress represented by the Large Hadron Collider is a huge benefit not only for particle physics but for all kinds of theoretical physics but for us as well.
I want to make sure the risks are assessed and known before going ahead with this. The cost of an unwanted result is incredibly high. In this case, it would be the loss of the entire planet, and therefore several people felt it was their civic duty. to his duty to the earth, to humanity, to stop things until this assessment can be done correctly and Wagner has the support of this German professor, a physicist should al
waysdo his best to try to find the weakest points of his own ideas so that I'm just one of those people who say to be careful Otto Roessler argues that CERN scientists took a chance on that day in March 2010, the energy of these collisions was multiplied by four compared to my warnings this year and when these numbers become as high as planned.
I once calculated a risk of about 8% that the land could be less than a log to two centimeters in a few years. Several different scenarios have been proposed for how high-energy physics experiments such as those taking place at the Large Hadron Collider could pose an existential risk to humanity due to the probability of having a resident black hole within the Earth and this probability is a math professor this is the N and according to his calculations colliding particles create holes to form in this field of black hole theory new discoveries can still be made and I think my group made a discovery in that area and black holes could form very small if there are enough high enough collision energies so far the accelerator only works at energy levels that Rough Seas are acceptable but this is about to change we are making big strides to increase the intensity of the other two beams and, in fact, these days we are taking another step of a factor two or three more in intensity in the collisions and this is what worries me because my results say that in this area there is a certain probability finite disaster black holes are regions in space where gravity is so strong that not even light can escape it is believed that there are large black holes at the center of galaxies and that stars collapse into medium-sized black holes when they finally collapse they run out of fuel but theoretically a black hole could be infinitesimally small and in that case one could be created in Geneva according to Fabiola Gianotti that is exactly what they hope to achieve let me tell you right away this production of minimal causes will be a very important very cool discovery so we are looking forward to producing their cause there they are these are particles that can be produced if there are additional dimensions and a microscopic conditional dimension that the production of many black holes could be possible but these mini Black holes evaporate instantly, so they will be completely hard, but the fighter argues that man-made black holes would have properties not found in black holes in space.
My results show that these small black holes will not disappear and if they are slow enough to stay inside the earth they will eventually eat the earth from the inside out and the question then is how long will we take the restless doomsday scenario, the man made black The hole would fall right through the containment field of the particle accelerator. Gravity would push the hole toward the center of the earth, where it would grow by sucking in the surrounding atoms, slowly at first, then at an ever-increasing rate. It would just have the characteristics of a Fool, which means there would have to be two Jets coming out in two directions that would eventually come out of the earth in both directions and then people would know that there is an active machine inside that is going to eat Saigon or less water. to the people at CERN. recognized that man-made black holes can behave in
waysthat are difficult to predict, but they don't think we're at risk, you're right, we don't know what the outcome will be, but the fact that this experiment that we're doing at the LHC Nature has been doing that for four and a half billion years means that whatever is produced that we don't know isn't dangerous to us the risks that the scientists in Geneva might perform a doomsday experiment are probably non-existent so far any Another prominent physicist shares the roasters' concerns regarding miniature man-made black holes, but no one knows what future scientists might build in an effort to tame the force of nature on our list of the top 10 existential threats. . dangerous physical experiments rank at number 5. physics experiments may fall into the category of theoretical threats, but our next scenario is very tangible, in fact, it's summer in Antarctica in January 1909, polar explorer Ernest Shackleton has just left his efforts to reach the South Pole on his way back to base camp, he discovers something that will radically alter our perception of this frozen continent a piece of fossilized wood and also finds a piece of sandstone that buries the clear imprint of a plant there can only be one possible explanation for the presence of these elements this now barren environment was once the site of a tropical forest the earth's climate varies over time a fact not well understood in Shackleton's time is something we now know to be a In fact, sometimes the earth's surface has frozen completely and there have been warm periods, for example what is known as the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. there was no ice in the world there was no height she is Antarctica and Greenland were not covered by ice and we know that in the Arctic in Antarctica actually lived crocodiles and palm trees, now we are heading towards a new warm period and this time we are the ones we cause that what we are doing is gambling with a planetary life support system, we were talking about a real earth experiment with us and all the other living things along the journey what we don't know is if we have a decade before either it's too late or we have a century left the signs of global warming are clear and virtually all climates Scientists now agree that we are facing serious changes in our climate.
I wouldn't rule out at this point that the melting that can already be seen in Greenland has already created an irreversible situation that we won't even know is an irreversible situation for twenty years. five to fifty more years and then once it starts you can't stop it and that's what we call a tipping point. 55 million years ago something happened that led to a sharp rise in global temperatures that happened relatively quickly perhaps as quickly as the warming we are causing now by putting more CO2 into the atmosphere we associate the greenhouse effect with the small molecule called carbon dioxide but there are even more powerful greenhouse gases, methane is 20 times more powerful as a greenhouse gas and a surge in the level of methane in the atmosphere is believed to have set the stage for warming 55 million years ago years, climate scientists fear we will reach a tipping point where dormant methane will spring back to life.
The largest methane deposits on the planet are found here, in the Siberian tundra and at the bottom of the East Siberian sea, and nowhere on the planet is experiencing a more pronounced increase. in temperature right now not a good mix Arianne Gustafson from Stockholm University has recently been on an expedition to the East Siberian Sea the consensus used to be that permafrost kept the gauge locked to the sea floor but this is not found this should not be the case, so he talks to the proverb of Santos for the level of moral capacity has the Lambada stone - ekans osteoma TDR attitude in Matins capstreet system state level with a health to rehearse to return name in deer or fleur metals -de-lis tempo Ferran is duly sworn in millions of atones per job no one knows at what point we will cross the tipping point and cause the release of devastating amounts of methane it all depends on whether or not we are able to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions Before industrialization 150 years ago the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was 270 parts per million today it's 390 that's an increase of almost 50% if we continue on this fast track we're on we're probably headed for 800 to 1000 ppm by the end of the century, which I would not hesitate to consider a catastrophic scenario very likely.
Stephen Schneider is one of the lead authors on the United Nations climate panel. He has been analyzing how the planet would react if a disaster scenario occurred. if it happened there was a thousand ppm, we would probably warm up to somewhere over four degrees Celsius, maybe up to six or eight, there would be a major Greenlee deglaciation, fifteen to thirty feet of sea level rise, intensifying hurricanes, superfires up to 40% of acquaintances. species could bedriven to extinction really bad floods in europe you know bye bye venice and everyone will say what have we got BOTS could climate change make the planet uninhabitable and cause humanity to be wiped out well im not the biggest pessimist on this i have colleagues who really think its worse of cases would drive humans to extinction, cause outgassing of all the methane in the tundra and under the oceans and that instead of warming the equivalent of a thousand ppm, we will double that in the future we may face a crisis and be forced to use extreme measures.
Yes, this is the idea of deliberately changing the Earth's climate, for example by injecting soot into the atmosphere or building mirrors in space that would block some of the sunlight, called geoengineering. involves employing technical solutions to prevent the planet from warming is like a plan B in case we can't reduce our carbon dioxide emissions, but many believe that geoengineering could actually make things worse geoengineered products could cost your own risks we know that when we humans start messing around with complex systems that we don't understand very well, it often turns out that our interventions have side effects, what are you going to do if there are side effects that you can never prove how much you contributed to having the risk of the cure being worse than the disease, so it's a very, very dangerous experiment, it's not likely that humans could cause a climate disaster that would leave the planet uninhabitable no matter how hard we try, but worst case scenario cases, we may be forced to do what animals and plants did 55 million years ago and move to an ice-free Antarctica, I would say this is probably a higher risk than any we've previously considered here, the impact threatens to supervolcanoes or even perhaps physical experiments, which is why the threat of climate collapse ranks number four on our doomsday list.
No threat has been more tangible of late than this coming October 1961 open F bomber. is headed for the Arctic Ocean major android no surf is in charge of a weapons test the magnitude of which the world has never seen before or since cargo planes is the most powerful bomb ever built the so-called saga has a yield of 50 megatons and is more than 3,000 times more powerful than the Hiroshima bomb the mushroom cloud reaches an altitude of more than 60 kilometers and the shock wave travels around the world three times before abating, so our bomb was dropped during the heyday of the Cold War, six months after the Bay of Pigs invasion and a year before the conflicts of the Cuban Missile Crisis that could have led to the start of World War II.
In the third war at one point there were over 70,000 nuclear weapons in the world today's nuclear arsenals are much smaller but there are still thousands of American and Russian missiles that can be launched simply by pressing a button this point represents the
fullexplosive power of all bombs used during World War II two to three megaton explosive power during which 50 million people died the rest is the current equivalent explosive power of the current nuclear arsenal one would think the explosive force and lethal radiation levels would represent the greater threats in the event of a nuclear war but the most serious consequences for humanity would be caused by something else a nuclear bomb is like bringing a piece of sun to earth for a fraction of a second it is so bright it is like a match it will light up ignite anything around ten kilometers or so and it's the smoke from these fires that would last in the upper atmosphere for several years that would absorb the sunlight and cause the Earth's surface to cool and darken that would make the weather will change The sound of exploding bombs fades and is replaced by silence as a devastating flower rises into the sky.
The work of the Allen robots shows that the current nuclear arsenal would be enough to cause a radioactive winter. This is the smoke and how it would be distributed around the world. the winds would blow it around the world and in two weeks it would cover the entire planet, so it doesn't really matter where the smoke would go, it would then be distributed by the winds and cover almost the entire inhabited part of the planet. a couple of weeks, according to this simulation, temperatures wouldn't even rise above freezing during the summer, so this is the first summer after the smoke, this is the second summer after the smoke, and the third summer the one where temperatures would be below freezing all the time so nuclear winter farming would really stop it would stop it would get cold and dark and dry and most of the world pam would starve to death the cold war came came to an end in the early 1990s and the political situation is much less tense now, but the threat of possible future conflicts cannot be ruled out, we should not delude ourselves that because the Cold War passed without a nuclear incident, therefore therefore we are safe from the danger of nuclear war it is one thing that technological advances will result in new and more powerful weapons future weapons may employ science we cannot even see nanotechnology it is about manipulating matter or a scale atomic and molecular working at the nano level allows us to make things stronger, more durable and more flexible and it can also make it easier to fight disease and environmental problems basically it's a very powerful technology once it's developed that could be used to do a lot right or wrong nanotechnology has a darker side nanoweapons have already been talked about there are many many predictable weapon systems one of many examples of the type of weapon that could be built are autonomous or semi-autonomous flyers the size of mosquitoes, but each one capable of killing an unprotected human, can you imagine maybe some boat that releases little robots that can fly and search for humans and inject them with poison and in the human they inject you are dead the prototype for this scenario autonomous flying machines already exist they are getting smaller and smarter and it is possible to imagine an even scarier scenario than you could imagine microscopic bacteria like nanotechnology they all have machines that would be able to harvest resources from the natural environment and could proliferate uncontrollably and our model of machines the size of bacteria could devastate enemy territory by consuming everything that gets in their way this is still beyond the limits of current science but cannot be completely ruled out i think this is one of the major existential risks is zero right now in the sense that we currently don't have the kind of nanotechnological weapons that could pose a threat to humanity this is a future existential risk we are going to build a system of weapons that collectively can destroy the world as our nuclear arsenal could be the answer to that and the danger is still being looked at but i think it will be a long time before we get to the point where some madman or random terrorist can build a numb weapon out of molecularly made components WWI was called the war of the chemicals tear gas mustard gas and chlorine gas were produced for use on the battlefields of europe world war 2 gave us the atomic bomb with the weapons with which world war 3 will be fought nobody knows einstein once said that i don't know what weapons world war 3 will be fought with, but the war in the woods will be fought with sticks and stones this is a category of different specific risks risks with nuclear weapons risks with nanotechnological weapons risks with weapons that have not yet been invented and therefore the overall probability of existential disaster occurring as a result of war seems very high the threat of a doomsday war ranks third on our list at number two we find a thread that still belongs to the science fiction category was thought to be impossible and actually happened in 1997 a computer defeats the current world chess champion absolute master of Europe from the box Amadeo calm skin Appetit dr. frack historian so here I have the undeclared Kaspar Woody Blue charm.
I'll need you to live in New York. The heat in a courtyard was not yet on the supercomputer. Deep Blue makes a move that catches Garry Kasparov completely off guard. that the computer will fall for the trap, but the computer does not behave like those he has played against before, after two minutes of calculations, Deep Blue decides on a move that sets the stage for the fall of the world champions. Movement 37 is completely unexpected and then Kasparov could only say that the machine seemed to have displayed human intelligence it is not an exaggeration to say that we have entered the machine age it would be impossible for us to return to a world without computers and automation machines are essential to manage air traffic control maintain Ling's nuclear power plants and global communications and control the world economy without them our civilization would crumble those who fear we are already at the mercy of machines will find even more to fear in the future there will be more machines and they will get even more advanced pr2 you can open a door you can plug in you can grab a drink from a cooler and a full towel we have you doing a wide variety of different things Willow Garage in Silicon Valley develops the appliances of tomorrow here you are sure to that robots will become as commonplace as dishwashers or computers are today this is the room where we do all the assembly we build all the robots we believe they can improve people's productivity i believe they can improve people's quality of life people i think you just see them in your house you will see them at work a dishwasher is an excellent dishwashing robot it just isn't general purpose if you can make it a general purpose robot they could do the dishes and they could put them in the cupboard and they could take them off the shelf, all of a sudden it has a lot more value to someone, but good machines get advanced enough and given enough control that they can become a threat to us.
Could they turn against us? What we have seen in science fiction. They are still children, they have barely learned to walk, but we can guess what the future will bring, it is not difficult to imagine that robots can handle weapons and not just drinks and soccer balls, the military has long had non-aircraft vehicles manned, now ground robots are appearing in the Military robots on the battlefield are becoming so common that conferences are being organized to discuss the ethical issues that arise from the use of robots in wartime. and Iraq but those and these are used for surveillance, they are used to defuse bombs and we're not really opposed to that, what we're really opposed to is weaponry, what we call weaponized platforms, which are robots that carry weapons, these can be controlled from a distance, but they can also work completely on their own when the robot detects a target, establishes a firing solution in a split second, and still waits until a human command to fire is part of the reason these systems are autonomous it is that there is a change in the rhythm of the war there is no longer time to consult with humans at some point about attacking a target that is a very serious concern the question is what level of authority are we going to give these systems in terms of deciding whether to attack an objective target or not, but for fiction to become reality and for the Machine to turn on us, it will take more than brute force, they will have to get smart, the scientific community is divided on the subject of the possibility of creating artificial intelligence or AI been Gert cell is one of those who argue that machines will not only reach our level, but will surpass us.
I'd say it's 99% likely or more that within the next century eyes will become massively smarter and more powerful than people so that we're no longer the best dogs on the planet a new research strategy has raised expectations among AI advocates Scientists are now trying to create a digital version of the human brain piece by piece the brain is becoming ones and zeros synapses per brain cell synapses per brain cell if the effort succeeds, the digital mind could outperform to their biological counterparts I believe digital minds may be better than human brains in several dimensions they may be more intelligent they may be more ethical than humans and may also be more adept at modifying and improving themselves a super intelligent machine could handle all planets processes more efficiently than current computer systems, but collaborating with machines could be a dangerous gamble. list of existential risks we cannot completely rule out a scenario in which we create eyes withtargets that look good to us but then turn out to be the wrong target this may seem strange maybe it sounds like pure science fiction but a super intelligence could very, very quickly develop all sorts of very powerful technologies that it can use to implement its will, whatever it is, there is a possibility that a digital mind could turn against us and we cannot be sure that we can do it. stop it in time so it can think straight, if it starts doing harmful things you can turn off the superintelligence now, this is an action that this superintelligence might anticipate that we could take, so you will see the scenario where it goes offline as a complete failure for achieve his goals and therefore take steps to prevent this from happening, perhaps hacking his way to the internet so he can backup himself all over the place, perhaps taking control of some robot. manipulators and then he can use that to seize power if we object that artificial intelligence might employ the robots of the future to keep our hands off the kill switch and if we take up arms well then he might decide it would be easier to get rid of. of these biological troublemakers basically by the time you have super intelligence that this hostile towards us is indifferent to our well-being the only safe assumption is that by that time we have already lost and therefore what you have to do is making sure the first time we build a super intelligence is a friendly super intelligence something like this since in fact with all existential catastrophes you only get one chance to get it right the threat of super intelligent machines is at number two on our list of existential threats we have arrived at Sport number one on our list of doomsday scenarios was a Friday like any other in March 1979 but before the day was over the staff of military complex 19 in the Soviet city of Slavs would cause a horrible accident a technician removed a A vent pipe filter noticed this, but people working the next shift didn't notice as the filter was removed, anthrax spores leaked through the vent pipe, the official number is about 80 people killed, but unofficially we suspect that about 300 people died in this accident, the employees of the ceramics plant across the street were the most affected, most of the people who worked there that day would die within a week as a result of what became known as the biological Shinobu the Cold War superpowers have officially dismantled their bioweapons programs but the ability to produce deadly microorganisms has not disappeared the Soviet Union produced hundreds of shades you won't believe me the Hundreds of tons of bioweapons enough to kill to the entire population of Earth.
Based on this historical example, we can project that the country has relatively moderate resources. It could produce a large number of biological weapons. By manipulating the genetic code, it is now possible to create new life. -Forms the field of research is called synthetic biology and many hope that this will help humanity deal with a wide range of problems. People are really interested in using synthetic biology to go find tumors in the body to clean up sites that have radiation and so it's kind of your imagination is the limit for the field of synthetic biology, but it's hope that we can developing new fuel for our cars and planes once we've run out of oil is currently driving huge investment. in this field this grass will be genetically modified to grow faster and taller then a super bacteria will be created that can turn the grass into biofuel so the goal is really to be able to cut and paste genes from any organism to make a renewable fuel the powerful potential of this technology has also raised a lot of concern there are many risks you cannot be one hundred percent sure that we are not going to accidentally release a microbe that we have genetically modified into the environment and so there are also efforts to designing automatic kill circuits so that these microbes would essentially kill themselves if released into the environment, but what he fears most is not that the disaster would happen by accident the potential for deliberate destruction is even greater these two men sparked a heated argument over the ethics of research when they used synthetic biology to produce a dangerous virus a Wimmer card and Geronimo cello downloaded the genetic makeup of the polio virus from the Internet and acquired the DNA sequences by mail using standard University lab equipment they were able to revive the polio virus, it suddenly became very clear that if you can do this with a small virus like the polio virus, you may one day be able to do this with the smallpox virus, their intention was not to spread the polio virus, they just wanted to show that it could be easily created, people were shocked, it was of great concern to the public that it was being misused with increasing technological powers, particularly DNA synthesis machines and other techniques. way where these kinds of capabilities will be available to anyone who wants to buy them, for a few thousand dollars secondhand on eBay, so 10 years, 15 years, 20 years from now unless something is done to stop this, anyone could print their own version of their smallpox virus or ebola virus in the 21st century synthetic biology seems to be the biggest threat to humanity and is at the top of our doomsday list our list of the top ten doomsday scenarios is complete, but there is actually one remaining threat that could be more serious than all the others combined there is an eleventh card in the pripyat deck gives us a glimpse of a possible future shows us what it would be like a world without humans whether humanity's journey will be long or short could depend on our ability to survive this century if we survive beyond that time, the risk of human extinction and existential catastrophe could diminish and make the lifespan of humanity human species at that time is extremely long and the future of humanity may be far greater than our past you
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