Elecrical Power System A320 FamilyJan 25, 2022
there are two identical engine driven generators called idg integrated drive generators are used as the main
powersource to feed the aircraft mains the idg basically contains in a common casing a generator and a constant speed controller csd the csd provides a constant input speed to the generator which is required for a constant output frequency each generator supplies 115 volt 400 Hertz AC alternating current to its own bus generator 1 supplies AC bus 1 generator 2 supplies the AC bus to this supply is known as split operation, i.e. AC
powersupplies are never connected in parallel each AC bus feeds one TR rectifier transformer AC bus one feeds TR one AC bus to feed TR two the TRS converts 115 volts AC to 28 volts DC to power its associated DC buses DC 1 and DC 2 then DC bus one powers the bus DC Battery DC Battery bars can be powered by batteries or receive power from batteries as a backup source if no other power sources are available to the electrical
The stem also includes two essential buses, one is AC essential bus powered by an AC bus and the other is the essential DC bus powered by a DC bus. These buses are used to power major aircraft
systems. This is the basic electrical system that we will see now introduce some other components that also power the system the entire electrical network can also be powered by the APU generator on the ground the aircraft electrical network can be powered by any one of the external power sources power supplies can supply the entire power grid like none Parallel connection is allowed in this aircraft split operation.
We have to give priority to the different energy sources in the supply of the busbars. The AC 1 and AC 2 buses are powered in priority by their own side generator, then by external power, then by the APU generator and then by the opposite generator, the electrical system is also equipped with a TR essential rectifier essential transformer that feeds the essential DC bus in abnormal conditions or in emergency configuration in abnormal configuration loss of T r1 or TR - the essential TR is supplied by the essential AC bus the hydraulic power to drive the emergency generator is provided by an air turbine ram rat via blue hydraulics the rat is located in the belly fairing and extends in case of severe electrical or hydraulic failures we will see the activation of the rat later in the emergency configuration loss of AC bus 1 and AC bus to TR essential is powered by the emergency generator in emergency configuration with emergency generator not available which one feeds the essential bus from AC through the static inverter and bat to feed the essential DC bus, you can see that all the components that we have talked about are shown on the ECAM page, notice that each component has a title to help identify Gen 1 and Gen 2 supplying AC bus 1 and AC bus to NT 1 and NT to supply DC bus 1 and DC bus to two essential buses powered by the corresponding main buses, the DC battery bus and battery 2 For simplicity, have removed the component prompts, we will now present them as shown.
Each component can be monitored through its indications. The electrical panel is located in the upper panel at 318. A commercial pushbutton switch has been added to the electrical panel for emergencies. there is an amaryllis on the left side of the top panel now let's see the relationship between electrical panel and ECAM electrical page battery voltage can be monitored on top panel or ECAM page each battery is controlled by push button switch both the main generators and the APU generator are controlled by their associated pushbutton switch external power is also controlled by a pushbutton switch the essential ac power pushbutton switch allows pilots to change the essential bus ac supply of the ac bus one to ac bus two when the bus tie pushbutton switch is in the auto position, allows the opening or closing of the os bus tie contact to supply ac and ac to the buses according to priorities power supply when off, both bus link contactors open to isolate one side of the mains from the other, for example, configuration No smoke in case of failure, these pushbutton switches disconnect the IDG from the engine gearbox, commercial pushbutton switch allows detachment of galley cabin and associated commercial loads with you, emergency generator testing , which is used to test the emergency generator in avionics smoke conditions, the Gen 1 line button disconnects the generator from the bus bar but remains energized to power the manual fuel pumps on the push button the rat runs automatically by the system in case of loss of the AC 1 and AC 2 buses to pressurize the blue hydraulic system then the emergency generator automatically feeds the essential network if its parameters are correct, note that the rat can be extended manually by pressing the manual button protected red on the rat + emergency generator light turns red when the emergency generator is not yet on online transient configuration about three seconds or the generator is faulty you the static inverter converts the direct current from battery 1 to alternating current if no other source is available the battery charge limiters must be controlled by Ciel the battery coupling and decoupling of DC battery bars to ensure battery charging and protection each battery is rated 24 volts with a capacity of 23 hours and all TRS are identical and interchangeable ground power control unit GPC connects the external power to the aircraft network if all the parameters are within limits, it is also the central unit connected to the centralized fault display unit for maintenance purposes on board the electrical generation interface units, for example, UI used by the ECAM to display the AC electrical parameters of the generator control units GC use protection and control aircraft network and generators main CB panels are located in the cockpit at the EPG s the GPC is replaced by a ground and auxiliary power control unit G a PC you the G a PC you control the APU generator and external power channels the essential TR is identical to the TR one and TR - converts 150 volts AC to 28 volts DC at a rate of 200 amps there is the emergency GC you connect the emergency generator to the grid essential if all conditions are met the GP CP ground power control panel and external power receptacle are located in front of the bow landing gear on this panel two lights indicate the availability of the ground power unit readiness light and connection to aircraft mains non-use light ground power unit must provide 400 Hertz three phase 115 volts AC rated at 90 kV minimum maintenance bus switch located on the forward cabin CB panel allows the AC and DC service buses to be supplied without energizing the entire aircraft electrical network.
The aft cabin CB panel contains only CBS. The rat will automatically extend to pressurize the blue. hydraulic system that powers the emergency generator if the aircraft speed is sufficient and AC buses one and two are no longer powered. Caution, the rat will also spread if the red shielded manual push button is pressed, even if the aircraft is not powered electrically. the GP Cu is the interface between the use of the GC and the CFD UI for testing purposes and reporting failures on the MCD use both the BC LS and the emergency GC you communicate with the CFD UI for the same purposes the TRS are connected to the CFD UI so they can be reset via the MCD you in the EE PGS, the GA PCU is the interface between using the GC and the cfd UI for testing purposes and fault reporting on the MCD we you
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