Egoism in Nietzsche and Rand: Part OneJun 09, 2021
Egoism in Nietzsche and Rand by Stephen R Chicks published in the journal of Ein Rand studies volume 10 number two spring 2009 pages 249 to 291 first
parton the critique of altruism Three Nietzsche and Ein Rand To what extent does the ethical theory of Is Ein
randNietzschean? Three Friedrich Nietzsche are relevant to making that judgment here is a certain Friedrich Nietzsche, the worshiper of human greatness. quote the concept of greatness implies being noble wanting to be alone being able to be different being alone and having to live independently such a man quote only has a taste for what is good for him in quotes and quotes instinctively seeks great responsibilities in quotes every choice the human being instinctively strives for a citadel and a secret where he is saved from the crowd the many the vast majority in quotes he also knows how to make enemies everywhere in quotes the noble man is honored as someone who is powerful also as someone who has power over itself that knows how to speak and remain silent that delights in being severe and hard with itself and respects all severity and hardness in quotes there is a fundamental certainty that a noble soul has something about itself that cannot be sought or found or perhaps losing the noble soul has reverence for itself in quotes more quotes believe me the secret of the greatest fertility and the greatest enjoyment of existence is to live dangerously build your cities under Vesuvius send your ships towards unexplored seas without quotes living a life like that says
nietzschequote one emerges again and again into the light one experiences again and again one's golden hour of victory and then one rises as if born unwaveringly tense ready for new things even more difficult and remote like a bow of that anguish serves to rock here, in quotes, there is another Friedrich Nietzsche, the critic of altruism, hypocrisy and cowardice, and the greatest name-caller in the history of philosophy.
Nietzsche calls Plato, the philosopher who projects another kingdom of perfect and static forms in contrast to this disordered and changing physical world quote a coward in the face of reality unquote Christianity says Nietzsche quote is Platonism for the people is to say playing tag for fools and also cite a rebellion of everything that crawls on the ground against that which has unquote height Nietzsche calls emmanuel kant, the ruling philosopher of Germany in the 19th century, cites the most deformed concept of all time in quotes and, given the abhorrent Kant's scholasticism, in quotes, that is, his predilection for weaving webs of emasculated rationalist ideas to trap the unwary, a spider disaster, in quotes, The emerging welfare state of the 19th century is, in quotes, the coldest of all the cold monsters, where, in quotes, the slow suicide of everyone is called life.
In quotes, such quotes explain why Nietzsche's writings can appeal to those who are also drawn to the sparkling prose and heroic vision of the Iron Rands man. They are like Nietzsche's an adrenaline rush for intelligent young readers for whom the world is fresh and full of promise and whose lives lie ahead. His writings like those of Nietzsche remain a powerful source of inspiration for older readers who have managed to remain young at heart. In a world that contains much compromise, complacency, disillusionment and outright evil, Nietzsche and Rand are kindred spirits of passion and exaltation, those who remain with Rand both philosophically and literary do so because they judge that his philosophy of reason, independence and freedom is true and they maintain that We go to those principles in the face of vigorous opposition from the philosophers of irrationality, conformism, and authoritarianism.
In most cases, Nietzsche's enemies are Rand's enemies, so Rand's philosophical readers resonate with Nietzsche when he attacks his common enemies in Plato, Kant, and the statists. However, there is a third Nietzsche, one more ruthless and bloodthirsty, speaking well of the noble races of the past, Nietzsche explains his achievements in this way, quote, one cannot help but see at the bottom of all these noble races the beast of prey, the splendid blonde beast eagerly prowling. in search of loot and victory this hidden core needs to erupt from time to time the animal has to come out again and return to the desert without quotes about slavery
nietzschesays that a healthy aristocracy accepts with good conscience the sacrifice of incalculable human beings that for his sake we must reduce him and demote him to incomplete human beings to slaves of instruments without quotes about war nietzsche says quote we must learn from war we must learn to sacrifice many and to take the cause seriously enough not to forgive unquote men about violence in general nietzsche says approvingly quote the beginnings of everything great on earth are completely soaked in blood and for a long time comments in quotes like these should give pause to any identification of
rand's views with the Rand's vehement opposition to slavery and Nietzsche's zero-sum conflict worldview has become
partof the philosophical canon and Rand is becoming so common for the two to identify with each other and that is why the question of the intellectual relationship between Friedrich Nietzsche and Ein Rand is important.
Nietzsche is generally interpreted as an arch-individualist, anti-altruist, and as an iconoclast outside the mainstream, the same points hold true for Rand, so for many casual readers a simple identification of Nietzsche and Rand follows some intellectuals about Nietzsche and Rand a sample of popular intellectual culture produces many such identifications norman markovitz 2005 speaks a leftist critic quote ragnor sikh danishuld a character in einrand's corny glorification of social darwinism and laissez-faire capitalism atlas shrugged rand called her jivy hodgepodge of objectivism from herbert spencer and friedrich nietzsche, meaning that a social law of the jungle represents the highest level of science unquote philosophy blogger murray me 2003 connects nietzsche and rand this way quoting nietzsche is explicitly on the side of the aristocracy, another admirer of Napoleon and is blatantly opposed to democracy and Buddhism, which he equates with nihilism;
In this latest election he foreshadows the brave new world of Aldous Huxley and the novels of Ein Rand, unquote science fiction writer China Miaville in 2002 is less flattering in evaluating Rand's writings. she cites this panoply of portentous Nichianism. rand to nietzsche but only because rand was a child in comparison, though not in innocence or joy unquote and abiola lapide in 2005 concludes that rand's continued appeal can only be explained in terms of youth psychology i quote nietzsche imitating pulp fiction writing an egoist self-proclaimed that is still adored by millions of callow teenagers and peter pans around the world, quote-unquote, none of the above quotes come from professional philosophers, but they do come from intelligent journalists, philosophy graduate students, and political commentators, and they speak to a reputation common to Nietzsche and Rand, most scholars will say. almost the same thing i quote most philosophy professors will tell you that einrand is a poor man's nietzsche unquote read 2004 the late alan bloom 1987 is a representative quote when i first noticed the decline in reading in the late 60s, I began to ask in my many introductory classes and to any In another group of younger students I spoke with what books really matter to them, there is always a girl who mentions Iron Rands the Fountainhead, a book, although hardly literature, that with its Subny assertiveness excites somewhat eccentric young people to a new way of life.
In quotes, there is another parallel. between nietzsche and rand in the judgments made by both about the philosophers who were their contemporaries when nietzsche was a young professor of classical philology at the university of basel in switzerland the philosophy professors at the university told their students not to take the courses of nietzsche arguing that he was a lightweight intellectual and not really a philosopher quotes for a time nietzsche then a professor of classical philology at the university of basel had no students in his field his lectures were sabotaged by german philosophy professors who advised their students not to introduced to nietzsche courses cowan 1962 page four, the above quotes illustrate two variations on a common theme of believing that the views of Nietzsche and Rand are essentially similar.
The first is that Nietzsche and Rand are equivalent in the content of their philosophies, but Nietzsche is now respected for the philosophical power of his opinions. Rand can be dismissed as a light intellectual two, the second is that Rand's views echo those of Nietzsche, but in a cruder, more callous, indifferent and bloodthirsty way, in my opinion the common theme to one and two is the fake Nietzsche and Rand disagree on many, many more philosophical issues. than they agree to even focus on their ethical theories where the common assumption is that their views are quite close; They agree on very little;
They share a deep agreement that altruism is an immoral and dangerous ethic and their analyzes and condemnations of altruism are strikingly similar, but when one turns to their positive alternatives to altruism, one finds almost complete opposition. The question of the intellectual relationship between Nietzsche and Rand is important both for accurately understanding the views of each thinker in their own right and for understanding where each stands in the landscape of philosophical possibilities. Nietzsche, for example, was an influence on Sigmund Freud, Martin Heidegger, Martin Buber, most intellectuals and politicians associated with the National Socialists, and most postmodernists, including Michelle Foucault and Jacques Derrida, all views of those. thinkers are far from diatribes and, although Nietzsche was also a The influence on Rand to call them all Nietzscheans does not clarify that most of those thinkers were immersed in the continental European intellectual tradition, so, in my opinion, the connections between Nietzsche's opinions and his views are much stronger.
One problem that has plagued Nietzsche studies is the numerous interpreters. those who come to Nietzsche from the Anglo-American tradition and read him through the lens of that tradition's enlightened individualism, however, Nietzsche warns against such readings and repeatedly only despises the English style of doing philosophy cite that these English people are not a philosophical race. bacon means an attack on the philosophical spirit hobbes hume and blockade a degradation and diminution of the value of the concept of philosophy for more than a century it was against hume that kant emerged and rose it was locke of whom bombardment understandably said je m'apprei's lock i despise Locke In their struggle against the English mechanistic softening of the world, Hegel and Schopenhauer were in agreement with Gerta, those two hostile philosophical genius brothers who were striving toward opposite poles of the German spirit and in the process harming each other as only brothers harm each other.
Yeah. another in quotes that is from beyond good and evil section 252 in other cases, however, the association of nature with rand is based on ignorance or a superficial reading of one or both or on the desire to negotiate with Nietzsche to stain it with the unpleasant. elements of nietzsche's philosophy so it is worth analyzing the topic more closely a warning in this essay i will focus only on the ethical philosophies of nietzsche and rand and only on rand's mature ethical philosophy i will leave aside for other scholars his views on metaphysics, epistemology, politics and art. as well as the question of to what extent nichian rand's youthful writings were or were not
egoism, altruism and selfishness the normative content of an ethic is derived from its standard of value what should be one's highest value the value to which one devotes one's efforts and against which one measures all Other values The two main contenders in the history of ethics are the self and others.
The Ethics of Self-Interest holds that one's self is the highest value, that one should pursue one's self-interest, and that one should measure all one's values in terms of one's own interests. impact on self-interest all these ethical theories are egoistic from the Greek ego for oneself or i
egoismis therefore an egoism based on ethical principles that reject self-interest as the highest value, generally substituting the interests of others as the highest value and maintain that one should devote oneself primarily to the interests of others and measure all other values in terms of their impact on the interests of others all these theories are altruistic from the Latin altar for others altruism is, Therefore, a principled otherism a series of closely related questions must be answered by determining the full content of an ethical theory, whether selfish or altruistic, what the self is, the self that must be identified with the mind, the body, the spirit, reason or emotions, is the self essentiallyIndividual or not, does the ego have the capacity for volition or will?
No, and if so, how much power does the self have to shape itself? What are the main interests of the self? Are they the satisfaction of basic physical needs? Pleasure a sense of community serenity freedom knowledge power wealth flourishing or what are those objective intrinsic or subjective interests are they? universal to the species or are particular to the individual by what cognitive means the self comes to know its interests through instinct passion reason o what is self-interest the standard of value is ethics fundamentally about the maintenance and development of oneself o is The self is primarily a means or part of developing some value beyond itself or has no value, as some religions maintain, or is a disvalue, as some environmentalists maintain, what specific policies of thought and action should the self practice? whether one is rational or passionately productive. o predatory o charitable proactive o passive proud o humble benevolent o aggressive o what not From the outset, assume that the above are options or options as a result of the above are self-interests mutually satisfying socially the pursuit of self-interest conflicts with the others or it does not affect others or there is a harmony in integrated sets of responses.
The questions above fall into three main categories: what I will call selfishness, altruism, and colloquial selfishness, for example, suppose one considers wealth to be one of one's interests. Egoism, in very common usage, is the position that one must intentionally pursue one's own interest in in this case, the acquisition of wealth, but one person's pursuit of wealth conflicts with the pursuit of wealth of others, so one must be aggressive against others to obtain wealth. An important form of altruism holds that the pursuit of wealth is in conflict with a higher value, the peace of other people. and stability, so one must sacrificially restrict one's interest in wealth for the sake of others.
Another way holds that others' need for basic wealth conflicts with one's desire for luxuries, so in principle one should sacrifice luxuries and act charitably. Selfishness is the position in which wealth is a value that must be produced, so one must commit to producing the wealth one needs, but being productive is also beneficial to others, since production creates value for a mutual trade. beneficial that generalizes from wealth as an example to politics for all values in life. Egoism holds that one must intentionally pursue one's own interest at the expense of others, altruism holds that one must intentionally selflessly pursue the interests of others at one's own expense, and egoism holds that one must intentionally pursue one's own interest, which has as a consequence the possibility of mutually beneficial transactions with others egoism and egoism agree on the sequence of moral intention self-interest but not as to the necessary means and consequences of moral action egoism and altruism agree on that self-interests are in zero-sum conflict but not as to which interests should have the highest score in the connection For Nietzsche and Rand it is this, they both agree that altruism is bad and Rand learned a lot from Nietzsche, but when one turns to his positive ethical theories, one finds almost complete opposition.
Nietzsche and Rand disagree about what the self is, what its primary interests are, whether self-interests are mutually socially satisfying what primary policies of action are moral, and even whether self-interest is the highest moral value. Anichian Sketch God is dead for thousands of years humans have been religious, but in the modern world religion has become a shadow of its former Nietzsche's dramatic phrase, God is dead, aims to capture the personal and striking quality From this revelation to those raised religiously, religion personalized the world, gave them a sense that the world had a purpose and that they were part of a larger plan.
It gave them the consolation that, despite appearances, we are all equal and cared for and that when we die, instead of a cold grave, a happy ending awaits us forever, but in the modern world we find it difficult to believe that we have already seen the drama. rise of science that has offered less comfortable answers to questions on which religion traditionally had a monopoly we have freed ourselves from the chains of feudalism with its unconditional acceptance of authority and knowing our place we are more individualistic and naturalistic in our thinking, but in historical time all This has happened very quickly in the span of a few centuries.
For millennia we have been religious, but come the 19th century, even the average man has heard that religion may have reached the end of its journey for most of us, even the suggestion of this hints at a crisis. Imagine a 13-year-old boy. that he was woken up in the middle of the night and told by strangers that his parents had died. Suddenly he is an orphan, for as long as he can remember, his mother and father have been presences in his life taking care of him. he guides you sometimes firmly but always with benevolent protection and support in a world he is not yet able to handle on his own Now that they are gone and ready or not, he is thrown into that world alone, how does he handle the young adolescent that sudden transition?
Culturally, Nietzsche says we are like that young teenager for as long as we can remember, our society has depended on God the Father to care for us and be a benevolent and sometimes stern guiding force through a difficult world, but now, suddenly, we are left orphans and we wake up. a morning to discover deep in our hearts that our naive childhood religious beliefs have withered, so now, whether we like it or not, the question comes to mind of how to face the prospect of a world without god or religion in the 19th century, says Nietzsche. most people do not deal with that question well the symptoms of nihilism most people avoid the topic feeling that even raising it would be entering dangerous territory they feel that the game could be for religion but out of fear they close their minds and force themselves to They themselves believe that God is still out there somewhere, life without religion is too terrifying to contemplate, so they retreat to a safe zone of belief and nervously repeat the formulas they have learned about faith.
Now Nietzsche says. It is one thing for a medieval peasant to have a simple life. Open-minded faith, but for us moderns, that faith has a tinge of dishonesty. A little better than Nietzsche, but there are not many socialists of the 19th century. Socialism is on the rise and many socialists have abandoned the religion of their youth, but only halfway. Socialists accept that God is dead, but then they are very concerned about the State taking God's place and taking care of them. The powerful State will provide for us and tell us what to do and protect us against the bad people of the world.
Think about it this way. Judeo-Christian tradition says that this is a world of sin in which the weak suffer at the hands of the strong, that we should all be selfless and serve God and others, especially the sick and defenseless, and that in a ideal future world, heaven the lion will lie down with the lamb and the inescapable power of god will bring salvation to the meek and judgment to the wicked socialist tradition says that this is a world of evil exploitation in which the strong take advantage of the weak but we must all be selfless and sacrifice for the good of others, especially those in need, from each according to his ability, to each according to his need and the forces of history, will necessarily produce an ideal future world that will end against all tough competition, empowering the oppressed and eliminating evil exploiters. religion and socialism thus glorify weakness and need both recoil from the world because it is hard unequal hard both flee to an imaginary future realm where they can feel safe both claim to be a good boy be a good girl share feel sorry for the little people and They are both desperately searching for someone to care for them, be it God or the State, so where does Nietzsche ask?
They are the brave men who are willing to stare into the abyss, who can stand alone on the frozen mountaintop, who can look a tiger in the eye without flinching. Such men exist, each generation occasionally produces magnificent men, brilliant and vital men who easily accept that life is hard, unequal, unfair and who appreciate affirming their strength to face the challenge; those who have inflexible wills against anything the world can throw at them, but such magnificent men seem to have been few and far between in the 19th century and Nietzsche wonders why and looks back to past cultures where magnificent men dominated, the Strength was a prize and inequality was a fact of life, assertiveness and conquest were a source of pride, he names the Japanese feudal nobility. as an example, with their samurai code of honor, the Indian brahmanas who rose up and imposed their caste system, the Vikings who raided mercilessly along the European coast, the expansionist Arabs and, of course, the impressive Roman empire, What explains this marked contrast?
Why do some cultures arise? to greatness and brazenly impose their will on the world while other cultures seem to apologize and urge us to soft conformity two biopsychological types part of the answer says that Nietzsche is biological all organic nature is divided into two types of species those that are naturally herd animals and those that are naturally solitary those that are prey and those that are predators some animals are by nature sheep field mice or cows and some animals are by nature wolves hawks or lions psychologically and physically this division also runs through the human species some people are We are born fearful and inclined to join a pack and some of us are born fearless and inclined to seek solitary heights some of us are born sedentary and slow and some of us are born full of purpose and craving adventure some of us, to use Nietzsche's language, we are born to be masters and some are born slaves there is a continuum here but one cannot do anything about what type it is essentially there is a brute biological fact here our traits are evolutionarily instilled in us just as a sheep cannot help but be shy and a hawk cannot avoid being a hawk each of us inherits from our parents a long line of innate traits quote cannot be erased from a man's soul what his ancestors have done preferably and more constantly in quotes biological determinism is for Nietzsche a consequence of a more general metaphysical determinism quote the only the human being is a piece of fatam in front and behind one law plus one more necessity for everything that is to come and to be to say change yourself is to demand that everything be changed even retroactively without quotes the types masters live by force creativity independence assertiveness and related traits respect power courage boldness risk even recklessness it is natural for them to follow their own path no matter what they rebel against social pressure and conformity and on the contrary slave types live in conformity they tend toward passivity dependence meekness it is natural that they are held together by a sense of security as herd animals do psychology and morality nietzsche then turns to morality good and bad, good and evil for a long time we have been taught that morality is a matter of commandments set in stone thousands of years ago not like that says nietzsche what we consider moral depends on our biological nature and different biological natures dictate different moral codes think of it this way if you are a sheep then what will seem good to you like being a sheep able to graze peacefully being around others like you, being part of the pack and not straying from what will seem bad to you, wolves will seem bad to you and anything similar to a wolf, predatory or aggressive, but what if you were a wolf? , then forcing cruelty and contempt for sheep will be natural to you and will seem good to you.
There is nothing that the wolves of the sheep can agree on morally. Their natures are different, as are their needs and objectives. What makes them feel good, of course, would be good for the sheep. if they could convince wolves to be more like sheep, but no self-respecting wolf will fall for that, as Nietzsche says, amusingly quotes that the lamb's aversion to large birds of prey does not seem strange, it just gives no reason to reproach those birds of prey. to carry little lambs and if the lambs say among themselves that these birds of prey are bad and the one that looks less like a bird of prey but more like its opposite a lamb, wouldn't that be good?
There is no reason to criticize this institution of an ideal except perhaps that the birds of prey see it a little ironically and say that we do not dislike them inabsolute these good little lambs we even love them nothing is tastier than a tender lamb in quotes Nietzsche maintains that the same applies to humans The division between strong and weak, assertive and timid runs through the entire human species, consequently, the correct question about Morality is not whether this or that value is actually valuable, but rather what kind of person finds this value valuable. The moral code that Nietzsche upholds is a quote. decisive witness of who he is. in quotes of the innermost impulses of his nature. psychological makeup is a function of one's biological makeup biological language and examples show that biology is crucial to nucha's views on morality nietzsche was a precocious 15 years old when charles darwin's origin of species was published in 1859 much of the intellectual world was moving away from thinking of the world in terms of timeless absolutes to seeing it in terms of process and change and Nietzsche is among the first to apply evolutionary concepts to morality, moral codes are part of a life strategy of survival of biological types and the more we look at the history of morality evolutionary and biologically, the more we are surprised by the dramatic changes in moral codes over time and this is the key problem, Nietzsche argues when we consider altruistic moral codes and selfish, historical records show a disturbing reversal before we valued excellence above all. and power and we despised the humble and the humble, but now the meek, the humble and the common man are, in quotes, good, while the aggressive, the powerful, the strong, the proud, are, in quotes, evil , somehow the morality of the weak has become dominant and the morality of the strong has declined this moral inversion is dangerous the traits of strength and power which are what a noble man are now condemned and the traits of vulgarity and modesty which are what weaken man are praised morality consequently has become something bad or more paradoxically, morality has become immoral, as Nietzsche says, quote, so that precisely morality would be to blame if the maximum power and splendor really possible for the typical man would never be achieved, so that precisely morality was the danger of dangers, consequently, Nietzsche maintains quote we need a critique of moral values, first we must question the value of these values themselves and to That requires a knowledge of the conditions and circumstances in which they grew up, under which they evolved and changed, in quotes, the morality of the weak has become somehow dominant and the morality of the strong has declined.
How do you explain this? quite paradoxical state of affairs? Part of the story is biopsychological in terms of what morality resonates with what psychological type of person one is, but part of the story is cultural and here is a history lesson cites under what conditions man devised these value judgments of good and evil. evil and what value they themselves possess in quotes different moral codes develop under different moral circumstances so Nietzsche searches in history for the circumstances of survival that allowed and necessitated the development of the altruistic code of the slave in the West, Nietzsche finds the roots of slave morality in the Judeo-Christian tradition in a decisive set of events that occurred early in Jewish history before the time of Moses, the enslavement of the Jews in Egypt, the significant result of the enslavement of the Jews over a long time. time was the development and internalization of a moral code adequate to survive slavery suppose you are a slave how do you survive otherwise what actions will kill you what actions will increase your chances of staying alive and if you have children who are born in slavery?
What survival strategies will you teach them to survive? A slave must obey the master. This is not a natural thing, so the first lesson is that you must suppress your nature. Suppose your master hits you. The desire for revenge is natural, but you have to suppress it. the teacher tells you to expect being inactive is not something natural but you must suppress your desire for activity suppose the teacher tells you to do something you do not want to do you must override your desire to do what you want and obey by generalizing you must train you must control your impulses natural and internalize a humble, patient and obedient self.
You know you should do this because slaves who don't end up dead, consequently, Nietzsche claims that the virtues of slaves have survival value, obedience, humility, forgiveness and patience, they are good for slaves and those are the traits. The slaves will instill in their children if they want them to survive over time the virtues of the slaves become cultural values, so Nietzsche maintains that the values of the slaves became the internalized cultural values of the Jews and were precisely what It allowed them to survive their long slavery in each generation for many people. They are sheep-like and don't particularly care about being slaves, but it bothers others and they hear that the story Nietzsche tells gets darker.
Some of those slaves are living human beings with a human being's desire to live, grow, express who they are. one all humans have the will to power but what happens if they can't express it? So they must live in constant frustration in order to survive. They must direct their natural strength and assertiveness against the expression of their own strength and assertiveness. This naturally leads them to strongly resent the teacher, but they also begin to hate. themselves for doing what the teacher says and for their own role in suppressing themselves, but psychologically hating oneself causes unbearable pressure within the quote, the external discharge of instincts was inhibited and turned back against the man himself hostility cruelty joy in pursuing and attacking in change and destruction all this turns against the possessors of such an instinct that is the origin of bad conscience in quotes hatred towards strong self-hatred internal torment and fantasies of revenge to alleviate the pain become the psychological reality lived by such slaves make this psychological reality a matter of months and years and the results will be very ugly and poisonous.
More provocatively, Nietzsche argues that the slave individuals who feel the internal war most strongly become the social leaders of the slaves, that is, they become their priests. Priests are those individuals among the slaves who prove to have the greatest drive no matter how frustrated and cunning they may be. quote it is because of their impotence that hatred grows in them to monstrous and astonishing proportions the truly great enemies in world history have always been priests without quotes in their leadership role it is the priests who most strongly defend meekness, humility and obedience to their flock and condemn the aggressive force and pride of the masters.
Priests are in no position to use physical power against masters, and physically powerful masters consider it beneath their dignity to fight an unarmed entry. They are despicable enemies, however, the priests develop and use morality as a weapon of confrontation. The morality that allows them to survive as weak slaves is also useful as a weapon against the strong master, praising the meek and condemning the strong is both a strengthening tool for the weak and a debilitating tool against the strong turned into a code. explicit Judeo-Christian ethics quote has waged a war to the death against this superior type of person has banned the basic instincts of this type in quotes to maintain this incomplete outline Nietzsche maintains that Christianity is a strategy within Judaism and part of its long-term strategy In the long term, the decisive battle is not between Jews and Christians but between the servile morality common to both Jews and Christians and the dominant morality of those capable of living a fully human life.
The Judeo-Christian moral code becomes part of their strategy of revenge, their The goal is to allow the weakest to survive in a harsh world where they are often the ones who receive the big stick, but also to undermine the self-confidence of the master types and, ultimately, to subdue and tear down the weakest. teachers to exact spiritual revenge as evidence Nietzsche paraphrases standard Judeo-Christian rhetoric about how his kingdom will one day come and then God will unleash his wrath on the rich and powerful in a perfect capture. He cites the quote from Saint Thomas Aquinas so that the blessedness of the saints is more pleasant for them and they can give more thanks to God because they are given to see perfectly the punishment of the condemned in quotes so we have Nietzsche's opinions on morality of altruism is a twofold strategy of slave types one a survival code for the weak and two as revenge and a power play against the strong historically in Nietzsche's opinion there is no doubt who is winning the ancient battle between the weak and the strong, take Tertullian's question what does Athens have to do with Jerusalem and replace Rome with Athens Rome is the largest empire of the classical era Rome's values are therefore the antipode of Jerusalem as evidence of whether Jerome or Judea is winning invites us to consider to whom we kneel in Rome today, in the 19th century, everything is being visibly Judaized, Christianized, mobilized, and the main slave, who is the Pope, has long established his camp and planted his flag at the center of what was the greatest master empire the world had ever seen.
For Nietzsche, the modern world is in a moral crisis, the code of the slaves, which is altruism, is on the rise and the moral code of the masters is in decline, the code of the masters is the one that will best allow and encourage human development, but practically everyone believes in altruism. he pays it lip service or feels guilty for not living it comparing nietzsche and rand's criticisms of altruism for purposes of comparison nietzsche and rand let's distinguish five varieties of altruism in increasing orders of destructiveness an altruism has a policy of collectivism with the purpose of mutual self-support two altruism as a tactic of the weak to protect against the strong three altruism as a tactic of the weak to obtain support from the strong four altruism as a strategy of the week to gain power over the strong to govern them and five altruism as a strategy of the weak to destroy the strong out of envy, hatred or revenge Nietzsche and Rand both recognize type 1 altruism history provides many examples of monastic and religious communities that isolate themselves and live in community the key organizational concepts of such communities are collective assets solidarity and conformity both nietzsche and rand also recognize type 2 altruism nietzsche regularly invokes metaphors and examples of herd animals to illustrate the instinctive or strategic practice of seeking safety in numbers against a qualitatively superior enemy citing all the sick and infirm that instinctively they walk after a the organization of the flock as a means of shaking off the disgust and feeling of weakness of the adults, the ascetic priest guesses this and promotes it in quotes and illustrates type 2 in the source of the official philosophy that ellsworth tui uses when preaches to the masses, for example in his speech to the construction union strikers, the key concepts in tui's speech are unity, the aggression of the owners and the consequent role of the unions as a self-protecting agency to fight against type altruism. 3 appears in Nietzsche's writings as a danger to the strong and the weak and the poor use altruistic morality as a tool to make the stronger serve them, that is a danger to the strong, Nietzsche argues, because it will divert them from their adequate personal development.
The sick represent the greatest danger to the healthy, they are not the strongest. but the weaker spell disaster for the strong, in quotes, Nietzsche's reason for this is that, in quotes, what is to be feared, what has a more calamitous effect than any other calamity is that man must not inspire not a deep fear, but a deep nausea, and not a great fear, but a great pity. In quotes, compassion leads the strong to feel obligations of charity, compassion and to dedicate themselves to helping. A parallel version of type 3 altruism appears in Rand's atlas. He shrugs at the strategy Reardon's mother and brother follow to ensure he continues to support him.
They speak the language of obligation, pity, and pity, and, despite her inarticulate reservations and his feelings of disgust in Kuwait, Reardon accepts the implicit demands of him in the terms they present. Type 4 altruism is the altruism of power lust. Nietzsche maintains that all living beings embody and are driven. by a will to power but that the strategies followed by the weakest must necessarily be more astute citing the will of the weak to representsome form of superiority their instinct of devious paths towards tyranny over the healthy. Where can this will to power not be discovered? of the weakest in quotes but incapable of competing through physical vitality and vigor the weak must employ psychological weapons in quotes moral judgment in quotes is the means by which the weak and mediocre weaken and overthrow the strongest in quotes the Type 4 altruism is also prominent in Rand's two main novels.
A subplot of the spring is the battle between Gail Wynand and Tui Weinand. He follows the traditional master power strategy of physical wealth, including physically intimidating his business competitors and the benefits that wealth can bring. Tui's strategy is more subtle and cunning psychologically. The route to power. A rare moment of self-revelation occurs at the end of the novel when Tui explains her philosophy to a broken Peter Keating quote. It's just a matter of discovering the lever. If you learn to govern the soul of one man, you can achieve the rest. of humanity is the soul of Peter the soul not whips or swords or fire or guns that is why the Caesars the Attilas the Napoleons were fools and did not last we will do it the soul of Peter is that which cannot be governed must be broken in quotes the Tui's particular tactics to achieve the strategy are those that Nietzsche had outlined used slave morality to make the strong quote sick miserable malevolent against himself full of hatred against the springs of life full of suspicion against all that was still strong and happy without quotes tui elaborate in detail quote there are many here there is a way to make man feel small, make him feel guilty, kill his aspiration and his integrity, preach selflessness, tell man that he must live for others, tell him to man that altruism is the ideal, not a single one of them has achieved it and none has ever achieved it. all his living instincts scream against it, but don't you see what you achieve?
Man realizes that he is incapable of what he has accepted as the noblest virtue and that gives him a feeling of guilt for the sin of his own basic unworthiness. In quotes, the guilty individuals are. weakened and much easier to manipulate and govern at the beginning of the atlas rand introduces type 4 altruism in the exchange between riordan and francisco at reardon's anniversary party where francisco tries to warn riordan of the real battle he is fighting rudin responds with disdain quote a battle what a battle I have the hand of the whip I do not fight against the unarmed in quotes francisco responds quote they are they have a weapon against you it is their only weapon but it is terrible ask yourself what it is at some point in quotes type 5 altruism is the most disturbing and terminal of Altruism and both Nietzsche and Rand see it operative in many individuals and movements.
Type 4 altruism is about achieving power to rule, but the desire to rule is still a positive goal. Type 5 is about gaining power as a means purely to destroy good and The good thing is that this type of altruism, due to its sheer malevolence, gives many thoughtful and well-intentioned interpreters of Nietzsche and Rand pause and leads them to question if Nietzsche and Rand exaggerate the positions of their enemies. Nietzsche is an explicit quote. Moral judgments and condemnations constitute the favorite revenge of the spiritually limited against those less limited quote emphasis added and in its extreme form the anger of the weak and powerless explodes into nihilism quote when some men fail to achieve what they wish to do they exclaim angrily that the whole world perish thus The repulsive emotion is the pinnacle of envy, the implication of which is that if I cannot have something, no one can have anything, no one must be anything in quotes to bring the strong down to their level.
He argues that the weak used the language of altruistic ethics quote when would they achieve the ultimate sublime triumph of revenge, surely, if they managed to poison the consciences of the lucky ones with their own misery with all misery so that one day the lucky ones would begin to be ashamed of their good fortune and maybe they told each other it's shameful to be lucky there's too much misery in quotes the goal is not to use pain and misery to induce the strong to help solve the problems of those who suffer pain and misery the goal is to inflict the same pain and misery on the strong that is revenge to subject the enemy to the same torments in the religious uses of altruistic ethics in this Nichian interpretation the purpose of heaven and hell is not a relatively benevolent dual strategy of inspire goodness through the carrot of heaven and the stick of hell rather the purpose is to send the enemies to hell here again Nietzsche's quote to Saint Thomas Aquinas is relevant so that the blessedness of the saints is more pleasant for them and they can give more copious thanks to god for it they have been given to see perfectly the punishment of the damned in quotes in atlas rand provides many examples of type 5 altruism lillian reardon's treatment of hank is not a misguided attempt to attract attention or Repairing a failed marriage is a constant attack on Reardon's identity and the same goes for James Taggart's treatment of his wife Cheryl.
Her objective is to destroy it. The quote-unquote, childish and naive belief in the nobility of man. Taggart's strategy was only semi-explicit to himself for most of Atlas, but Rand makes Taggart realize the full extent of it. consciously import towards the end of the atlas during John Galt's torture knowing that torturing Galt further will kill him, thus destroying Galt's ability to help them Taggart exclaims quote I don't care I want to break it I want to hear him scream I want unquote Rand the narrator continues to explain the Taggart's nihilistic self-revelation quote: It was not his incommunicable soul nor his love for others nor his social duty nor any of the fraudulent sounds by which he had forged his self-esteem;
It was the desire to destroy whatever it was. i was living in quotes this subtheme in atlas is a continuation of rand's previous novel the spring tui further explains to keating the true strategic purpose behind his various community organizing power tactics his critique of individual creativity the promotion of mediocrities like keating and so on keating finally asks what do you want tui breaks howard roark's neck tui then makes a quote i don't want to kill him i want him in jail you understand in jail in a cell behind bars locked up detained tied up and alive without quotes tui isn't looking for any value positive only the destruction of an excellent human being tui is a fictional character of course, but it is worth remembering nietzsche's non-fictional quote from aquinas as mentioned above and that aquinas is in good company, so to speak Nine centuries earlier, Saint Augustine in the holy knowledge of the The punishment of the wicked had included the spectacle of hell as one of the visual pleasures for those in heaven.
Summon the good to go out to see the punishment of the wicked to witness the torments of the wicked in their bodily presence. Unquote, two centuries before, the church. Father Tertullian had exalted the destruction of the world and the torment of kings, philosophers, poets and athletes in hell, citing that last day of judgment with its eternal consequences, that unexpected day for nations, the theme of his mockery when the world rushes with age and with all its many products will be consumed in a great flame what vast spectacle then bursts before the eyes what excites my admiration what my derision what sight gives me joy what exalts me at the sight of so many illustrious monarchs whose reception in heaven was publicly announced groaning now in the lowest darkness with great labor himself and those two who bore witness to his exaltation governors of provinces also who persecuted the Christian name in fires fiercer than those in which in their days of arrogance they raged against the followers of Christ, what wise men in the world, besides the philosophers themselves, taught their followers that God did not care about the sublunary and wanted to assure them that either they did not have a soul or that they would never return to the bodies they When dying they had gone away now covered in shame before the poor deceived while a fire consumes them poets also trembling not before the tribunal of ratamonthus or minos but of the unexpected christ I will have a better chance than to listen to the tragics expressed in a louder voice high in one's own calamity is to see the actors of the play much more dissolute in the dissolving flame, to see the charioteer shining in his chariot of fire, to contemplate the fighters not in their gymnasiums, but throwing the bellows of fire in quotes and leaping forward five centuries after Aquinas, the great American. awakening leader jonathan edwards the one of sinners in the hands of an angry god delivered a 1739 sermon titled the eternity of the torments of hell with the following statement quote the site of the torments of hell will exalt the happiness of the saints forever in quotes and quote can the believing husband? in heaven be happy with his unbelieving wife in hell can the believing father be happy in heaven with his unbelieving children in hell can the loving wife be happy in heaven with her unbelieving husband in hell I tell you yes, such will be your sense of justice will increase rather than diminish your joy.
In quotes, the fact that many proponents of altruistic ethics are explicitly motivated by the desire to destroy is not just a matter of exaggeration or fiction. To summarize so far, it is clear that Rand has learned from Nietzsche's critique of altruism and agrees. In accordance with its general impulse, Rand's break with Nietzsche's criticism. If we follow Nichi's interpretation, then the great battle in history is the fight between the strong and the weak. Nietzsche's position is based on seeing the weak and the strong as essentially In a zero-sum situation situation from which there is no escape the strong are objectively a threat to the weak so the weak must treat them as such the weak are necessarily consumed by envy and resentment towards the strong so their best Satisfaction can only come from overthrowing the strong and Nietzsche's thesis can then be expressed apparently paradoxically altruism is the selfishness of the weak is their best weapon in the ongoing battle for survival against the morality of straw slaves writes Nietzsche in genealogy of morality is to quote prudence of the lowest order without quotes to change to rand In language the Nietzschean thesis is that the great battle is the battle between the gale winans of the world and the ellsworth tuis of the world.
Both Winand and Tui seek power, but by different means the Winans use the traditional tools of selfishness such as money and physical prowess, while the Tuis use the psychological tools of altruism, guilt and compassion, the great advancement of source is to show that the dichotomy is a false alternative here and strongly diverges from Nietzsche and is innovative in ethics. Altruism, according to her, is not the selfishness of the weak. Altruism is destructive to Howard Works's strategy, both weak and strong, is not to side with the Winans against the Tuis or the Tuis against the Winans. Rorke's strategy is independent creative production and trading with those who recognize his value as an independent creator and producer.
Maybe not everyone can do it. to be as creative and productive as a roar by rand the fact of inequalities of abilities does not change the moral facts involved the selfishness of the weak in contrast to nietzsche's thesis is to respect and admire the strong promote their freedom and be aware of the The overflowing benefits that will come to them from the forts the average person may not be able to design and build as well as him, but thousands of average people can, with productive effort, earn the money to live in one of the buildings of Rourke and thousands of others can get it. the aesthetic benefit of seeing construction buildings even if they can't live in them in the atlas shrugged Rand uses the example of a janitor who makes a decent living working in a factory the janitor did not create a factory, including his ability to pay his salary the janitor adds value to the company and thus earns his salary is a value for the creators of the factory at the same time the creators of the factory have added value to his life the opportunity to earn a living in that job the Skills and skill sets differ and there is a harmony of values that enables a win-win trade and that, according to Rand, is the fundamental truth about the relationship between the strongest and the weakest, properly conceived, can and should be mutually beneficial, Rand puts it this way in the quote from Gault's speech in proportion to the mental energy expended, the man who creates a new invention receives only a small percentage of its value in terms of material payment, regardless of the fortune he makes, no matter how many millions he earns, but the man who works as a janitor in the factory that produces that invention receives an enormous amount. payment in proportion to the mental effort which his work requires of him and the same applies to all men in alllevels of ambition and ability, the man at the top of the intellectual pyramid contributes more than all those below him, but gets nothing.
Except that his material payment receives no intellectual bonus from others who add the value of his time, the departed bottom man, who himself would starve in his desperate ineptitude, contributes nothing to those above him. , but you get the bonus of all your brains. nature of the quote-unquote competition between the strong and the weak of intellect, such as the quote-unquote pattern of exploitation by which the quote-unquote strong has been condemned by the janitor who hates his boss on principle or who sees the creators of the factory as their enemies. a mistake in a self-destructive misjudgment about his own interest in atlas shrugged his shoulders, for example, dagny taggart is not the enemy of eddie willers nor is eddie willers the enemy of pop harper the chief administrative officer nor is pop harper the enemy of a anonymous line worker far down in the underground terminal, nor are any of us enemies of the geniuses who believe in the business of music, technology, art, athletics or philosophy, the idea that those of us who have less skills in any of those areas should want to control or destroy those who are superior is stupidly self-destructive to the highest degree, yet Nietzsche's commitment to a fundamental zero-sum adversarial position commits him to the view that altruism it is for the self-interest of the weaker, which leads to the implication that if one is less musically talented then one's self-interest is that the beethovens and rachmaninoffs be destroyed remembering the fictional representation of antonio salieri in peter schaffer and milo's foremost amadeus that if one has less athletic talent than babe ruths and michael jordans become disabled remembering the pathetic real life example of tonya harding and nancy kerrigan that if one is a regular businessman, that john d rockefellers and bill gates will put on the brakes, recalling the language invoked in most antitrust debates about the dangers of unbridled competition, this is a striking and fundamental difference between Nietzsche and Rand's interpretations of altruism.
Rand also believes that the selfishness of the less talented is to respect themselves. themselves for their potential and for their commitment to achieving it, not everyone can be a Michael Jordan, but the measure of a good life is not primarily comparative, it is a matter of making your own independent decisions, forming your own character and interests, To make one's way in the world in the way that suits one best and to whatever degree one's energies and abilities allow, it is not the scale of one's abilities that is primarily morally significant, but the fact that one's abilities are the own abilities and that one is committed to using them to achieve one's life.
In that sense, being a moral giant is within the reach of any of us. Altruism, on the other hand, encourages the less talented to disrespect themselves to make comparative judgments. as something fundamental to their self-esteem and see themselves as relatively helpless or victims and conspire and act against the most talented in the first part of this essay we have concentrated on how negative the criticisms of Nietzsche and Rand's altruism are, now we will move on to their positive programs that is what they assume proper egoism implies
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