Der Baikalsee - Stille Wasser sind tief | Doku HD | ARTENov 25, 2022
see they are living beings the valuable reserves of fresh water life arises and decays in an amazing cycle of nature its still waters seem to lie in a deep sleep but are inhabited by a mysterious life see only patient observers reveal their essence accompanied by these people, The secret of the lakes is also revealed to us Lake Baikal, located in the heart of Siberia, is a lake of superlatives It is up to 1,637 meters deep and 636 kilometers long and contains almost 20 percent of the world's water reserves sweet Its waters are among the clearest on the planet Here there is an extreme climate with winter temperatures of up to minus 50 degrees Celsius but despite the ice and the cold winds of the seemingly endless winter, a unique flora could grow here who decides to live in this grandiose and hostile nature belongs to a special breed of people 1,500 kilometers north of Mongolia, in the heart of Asia, is found enters Lake Baikal and contains as much water as all the great American lakes put together the Russians reverently call it the great holy sea Sascha Yakovlev has been sailing across the lake for more than 20 years they are hard to beat Sascha were transported and for many residents of the lake is the only link to the outside world that knows when it can overcome these obstacles or when it is better to retreat because on Lake Baikal the ice always has the last word, even where the ice sheet of the lake is more than a meter thick , moves Due to enormous internal forces, huge ice floes collide and push the fragments into bizarrely shaped walls in these typical ice shelves on Lake Baikal.
Hills of hot-pressed ice form very easily as soon as the lake starts to freeze. The wind tears the ice sheet over and over again. and it pushes the ice floes forward in certain places the wind trumps the fragments so I form barriers like this this ice press tower is relatively small there are much more powerful ones you can't drive any further than the ice floes Stacked vertically they reach heights of up to 12 meters but that is not the only danger for travelers on the frozen lake, there are also kilometers of cracks in the ice that narrow or widen depending on the temperature and weather conditions and can be up to two meters long.
Wide. I've already gone through the ice that was there on April 26 last year I went over an old crevasse where the ice is thinner and melts much faster the car sank in the middle of Lake Baikal we didn't bother to get it out again by ourselves a few people live on the shores of the mighty Lake Baikal to the north it is the only small town with 20,000 inhabitants severe near Kalk in the south there are several small towns whose total population is no more than 50,000 souls between the two extremes there are hundreds of kilometers of coastline that are not developed by any roads and are practically uninhabited more than two thirds of the coastal region of Lake Baikal consists of virgin nature numerous animal and plant species live here, some of which are not found anywhere else on Earth occur.
How did this diversity develop? How do animals manage to survive here and what is their relationship to Lake Baikal? Numerous national parks have been created on Lake Baikal in recent decades. Here at the Biker Lena nature reserve, Sergej and Natascha Schaburov take care of the protection and research of this unique nature. Natascha is a biologist and briefly gave up a warm and safe lab job there to live with her husband in a 12-story cabin. square meters in the desert Sergej works as a ranger in the reserve based on the height and size of these scratch marks on the bark I am guessing they are from a four or five year old bear it comes from a medium sized bear so the most common mammal species in the nature reserve are deer, Siberian red deer, reindeer, elk, musk deer, all cloven-hoofed animals, brown bears, m
artens, wolves, lynx and, of course, foxes also. there on the hillside we see deer eating they will soon finish their breakfast and retire to rest until night on our bench there is a stock of about 300 cherries in an area 110 km long while Sergei wanders through the forest Natasha takes a number of daily samples that are examined in the biological laboratory of the reserve because the aquatic life in Lake Baikal is as diverse as that of the mainland although the lake water is very cold in winter it is home to a variety of species my job is to study the lake I studied zooplankton more closely and that for 20 years this area has been inhabited by Barely studied by hydrologists, it is to a certain extent Neuand the water of Lake Baikal is so clear thanks to these planktonic organisms, mainly thanks to small crustaceans such as Baikal amphipods, plankton ensures that Lake Baikal is practically cleaned only because sponges and amphipods filter the water very efficiently nte, the water of the lake Baikal has long been considered the clearest in the world.
Science has wondered how the lake manages to regenerate itself and remove impurities. Who wants to know the answer, must be ready to dive into the three degree cold waters. Visitors to Lake Baikal. and the inhabitants of it and its shores believe that there is not much life but it is enough to gently turn a stone to realize that it is full of life one of the most surprising endemic species of the lake is a strange creature called skupi that sees them sway in Today one might confuse them with aquatic plants, but in reality they revolve around primitive animal organisms without organs, whose deep green coloration of stored symbiotic self-support filters the water.
A sponge of two cubic centimeters is capable of filtering 20 liters of water per day. of the sponge retain matter in suspension such as remains of algae or other dead organisms that are deposited on the surface of the sponges and would clog the pores if it were not for the different species of organisms that live by keeping the body of the sponge clean: guppies have been in the lake for three million years and are a true biological treasure hidden in the depths of the lake There are other mysteries, some of which are known only to geologists who have plumbed the rocky soil that lies far below the frozen surface of the lake.
Jacuzzi area residents, for example. , enjoy the hot springs without realizing that their beneficial vapors are due to volcanic activity around here E The earth's crust is much thinner than normal because Lake Baikal lies on top of a tectonic fissure from a huge fissure in the Siberian soil which opened up 50 million years ago as a result of fault tectonics. At that time, tremendous telluric forces formed the entire Eurasian continent around towering mountains and created deep valleys in the process The Earth's mantle and a geological valley formed the so-called rift zone the geological process to which Lake Baikal owes its formation is still ongoing the shores of the lake are pulling apart at a rate of several millimeters per year, thus enlarging the rift more than 7 km deep in isolation numerous endemic species of animals and plants have developed over millions of years it is almost impossible to distinguish this seal from other seal species in the arctic this is a completely independent species the nerpa is one of the few species of freshwater seals in the world its origin is uncertain the seal is a magnificent animal an aquatic mammal it has become in the symbol of Lake Baikal in fact its business card is a very curious animal a theory says that the ancestors of these seals migrated upstream from the Arctic Ocean and have gradually adapted from life in salt water to life in brackish water and finally to the fresh water of Lake Baikal the evolution of the species, which has been separated from the sea seals for thousands of years, was different from that of their distant relatives, nerpass have a flatter snout, longer claws, larger eyes, and completely different hind limbs than sea seals.
Lake Baikal, rich in Indian breath like gutkies and mehrpas, represents a unique reservoir. world can match its biodiversity Lake Baikal also forms a true inland sea whose influence a Climate can be clearly felt scientists have been operating weather stations on the shores of Lake Baikal for more than 50 years are trying to understand the special influence of the lake on the weather Yuri youssow has been dealing with the topic for more than 20 years in winter, visitors are rarely only Sascha can be seen here regularly every three hours in summer and winter, Juri records the temperature, air pressure, humidity and all other essential data for weather forecasting.
The lowest temperatures are usually measured in January, when the average temperature here is between -30 and -35 ° C. Juri measures the temperature at 50 cm, as well as one and two meters above the ground, the data proves a surprising phenomenon. Lake Baikal takes longer to warm up and cool down than the rest of Siberia in May spring has just come a long time while we still have winter here on Lake Baikal it's very cold every year Temperatures drop below freezing at night in autumn it is exactly the opposite lake Baikal has warmed up during the summer its water is still relatively warm if it cools down for a bit we still have beautiful autumn days here on the lake lake Baikal acts as a great climate buffer thanks to its immense volume of water has a great thermal inertia that affects the climate in a radius of a few tens of kilometers around the lake, few people have adapted to this beautiful and hostile The environment, the cold, difficulties to take care of oneself and the remoteness have prevented the colonization of the coasts until now.
Poachers have benefited from this situation for a long time, so that the survival of many often rare animal species is threatened by rangers hunting national parks are the only defenders of endangered biodiversity only four people still spend the winter in Dafa, a village built in the 50s, two meteorologists, Jura, the ranger, and be The partner Irina, who also looks after the small animal museum of the nature reserve. The other scientists who used to live with their families year-round in this quiet town only come back here in the warm season so that Jura has the untouched nature that he has. a special relationship it maintains almost with itself the first nuthatch that got used to me always stayed close to me grabbed a seed that flew to hide it in my jacket or in my cap and grabbed the next one that the tits had watched finally picked it up they had also heard the calls of the nuthatches because when a bird has found an abundant source of food, it jostles with joy when it lays down here, a specimen of a small endangered species passed through here. traces of a sable came out of the forest looked at this hole and ran back because he found nothing interesting despite the absolute ban on hunting imposed at the beginning of the 20th century, Siberian sables remain a popular prey for poachers because of their fur on 1915, the species remained even shortly before extinction, so biologists set out to investigate the vast Siberian plains here at Lake Baikal and came across the last forests where sables had survived, if I'm not mistaken, about 2000 sables still lived. in all of Russia at that time there was no doubt that we had to put them under protection also in order to examine them better, that is why this nature reserve was created in the nature reserve, the sables were largely safe from hunters so that I was able to reclaim their stocks in dafschar, they are now even approaching Jura's home so the ranger can document their encounters with little M
arten if she is in one of the few living in lakeside villages or a lonely shack on the shore, the residents of Lake Baikal live mainly on fish in order to be able to fish also in winter, when a thick layer of ice covers the entire lake, they had to come up with something that Baikal fishermen have developed a sophisticated method of fishing as soon as the ice stabilizes place a rope under the layer of ice with which you can pull the net through the water at temperatures of -20°c it is not easy to pull a net that is heavy At over 100 kilos, the lake is home to more than 50 different species of fish, but anglers are just a few species interested in life on Lake Baikal.
Fish, such as grayling, whitefish, bother roach and perch, but we mainly caught umull, also omul is one. Of the many species endemic to Lake Baikal, the salmon family fish grows up to 50 cm long and weighs five kilos. It is nicknamed Baikal bread because it is the most important food produced by the lake. idyllic pictures are deceptive even when the ice sheet is stable winter hunting for silverfish is not without its dangers once two colleagues unfurled the net, one must pull the rope, the other stayedin the cabin, the guy pulled and pulled until the rope suddenly locked. he called to the hut about what was going on but got no answer so he went back to see what had happened but there was no one in the hut he sat all over the place until he finally saw his friend's head sticking out of the ice hole in which his foot was caught. the room from which he was dragged into the hole such things happen sometimes after six endless months of winter the landscape, which has been replaced by ice, awakens to a new life the ice cover breaks up and the ice drift releases the water of the lake again surrounded by mountains whose highest peaks rise almost 3000 meters into the sky collect in Lake Baikal the waters of a huge basin that is drained by more than 330 watercourses only in April it is possible to resume fishing now nature is making up for lost time in cedar and larch pines, rhododendrons and blueberries, countless species of mosses and lichens are finally freeing themselves from the snow cover and basking in the first rays of the sun now also begins for the Lake Baikal residents are running against the clock of time in just three months enough vegetables and fruits must ripen in the gardens to create supplies that must last until next year in dafca irina, the curators of the small museum of natural history, cultivate almost forgotten medicinal plant rose root it not only looks pretty and smells good much more important is that its roots contain a rhodioside compound this is a very stimulating active ingredient it is considered even more effective that ginseng we use rhodiola when we are tired or exhausted it has an invigorating and strengthening effect on dortscha there is another plant whose history is intertwined with that of Lake Baikal it has existed for millions of years it is one of the oldest flowering plants in history from the earth and experienced the last ice age this is kranios bermium subfillosum an endemic plant of Lake Baikal that already existed in the Tertiary It is very rare on our shore to find its holdings mainly in prepaikalien in the northeast of the lake it grows in small groups scattered in a square meter is nothing more than a plant it was given the name subwelosum due to the many hairs small ones that collect heat from the sun the plant sprouts just after the snow has melted the leaves only appear briefly then the first buds bloom very early with the end of the cold season the fauna comes back to life and goes in search of food for natascha chabouroff this is the ideal time to count the migratory birds that nest on the lake shore and incubating their eggs in this In the middle of the year another typical animal of the Baikal region often crosses their paths the brown bear with vibro in late March bears wake up from hibernation and leave their burrows in the spring cleanse your body of parasites by eating grass and roots Bears are omnivorous and eat a wide variety of foods eat ants and other insects eat plant roots or small animals that you can easily catch in the spring a curious insect reminiscent of a moth-butterfly hybrid is on the brown bear's menu caddisflies during the mating season countless females lay their eggs on the stones of the lake shore the stick of hatched larvae for the hungry bears after hibernation this is the ideal opportunity to eat their fill the stones are literally covered by caddisflies the bears just have to leave the stones so they can eat protein that is good for their health and find them They always have one or the other dead fish here now they are constantly on the shore looking for food The berries are not picky when the quiver flies disappear swarms of flies only attack anthills and as soon as as their eyes are dry again they can load up tasty berries for them to eat gradually gain strength later j be able to hunt young deer or reindeer fawns nature on Lake Baikal is bountiful more than a thousand species of animals live in and around the lake with the return of the warm season, the passage of nutrients again seeks the best three places on the sunny rocks the health of these animals is a good indicator of the lake's water quality the slightest impact on the fragile ecosystem of Lake Baikal would inevitably have consequences for the survival of these and dozens of other animal species the great lake seems to be little threatened by pollution but how far does the regenerative capacity of Lake Baikal go and how much filtration occurs in the long term to continue ensuring its excellent water quality for decades science has been interested in these questions Elvira alexandrowna and her husband are one of the first to deal with the subject at the bolschierkoti biological research station we have the values of all our research sat peichert we take samples every ten days we hatchaslav maximoff elvira sohn follows in the professional footsteps of her parents the expert in aquatic microbiology takes daily samples of lake water from the surface to a depth ity of more than 700 meters Lake Baikal is stable the proper term -cleanliness used to exist but my father finds it inappropriate because there is no such thing as Lake Baikal has remained untouched due to its geography and climate twice a year the water surface is renewed due to temperature fluctuations the water has its highest density at four degrees Celsius, so it sings when it gets hot or cold this temperature decreases and the deep water swirls so there is a complete mix thanks to this phenomenon which occurs twice a year the lake is permanently enriched with oxygen so paradoxically the deepest lake in the world contains much more oxygen than many much more superficial ones see, as is the case in the depths of the For a long time, diving at such extreme depths posed a great risk, but after the launch of the two research submarines, privileged scientists can finally in exploring the depths of the lake.
Our dive to the deepest point of Lake Baikal took us to a depth of more than 1,600 meters took us to almost 1,700 meters researchers have known for a long time that oil seeps into the bottom of the lake according to his calculations are almost four tons a year this permanent emission of hydrocarbons should actually pollute the eyes but that is not the case the oil seems to disappear without a trace what happens to it some previously unknown organisms have already been discovered, in particular several new nematodes, these little worms live in tar efflorescence at oil outlets how they manage to survive in dense type of liquids is still not clear to us, however we are trying to solve this puzzle after dozens of dives, the researchers eventually discovered that, in addition to nematodes, certain types of bacteria also play a role. important role in cleaning the lake, because these microorganisms feed on oil and accumulate it in the Siberian autumn as suddenly as it disappeared in the ice is back the course of the seasons with their extreme temperatures and their effects on the environment have always given shaped nature and people's way of life Findings show that hunters and gatherers lived on Lake Baikal as early as Neolithic times Reindeer, seals and fish hunted at Sagan Saba, south of the lake, a white, almost vertical cliff , testifies to their presence, drawings carved into the rock show them on horseback or hunting deer with bows and arrows -among the petroglyphs there are also strange images of shamans dancing with their arms raised and a reindeer horn on their heads the desert of the lake Baikal has been worshiped by Siberian shamans since prehistoric times its rites have been passed down to this day on the shore of the small round bay of ruschier on the island of Olkhon stands the most spectacular shaman sanctuary shamans have reverence for the endless expanse of lake and nature preserves and honors the countless nature spirits of the region here on Lake Baikal lives the goddess of the surface of the water avecatan and the god of the depths losotran next to them there are many protective spirits of fishermen and fishermen who help those who honor them the posts of death on the island of Olkhon, to whom thousands of ribbons sway in the wind and carry the intercessions of the residents of Lake Baikal to the world of nature spirits at the feet of arrows for millennia The unchanged 23-million-year-old lake that houses Siberian water resources and unique flora and fauna leaves lasting impressions on visitors and gives its residents a feeling of eternity when I was with Sergej for the first time on Lake Baikal, we were looking for a suitable place to a At first I thought that Lake Baikal was not for me, but when we crossed the reserve and arrived here, I felt a strong inner feeling that told me to stay, many think that it is difficult to live here, but that is not true, the feeling of freedom and the beauty of our environment is good for the soul today, however, the majestic pristine nature of Lake Baikal is threatened in the south of the lake, huge resorts will be built, which deeply disturbs local residents, not only they want this natural world heritage of humanity to be preserved
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