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Das geheimnisvolle Steinzeit-Dorf | Doku HD | ARTE

Jun 03, 2022
In the midst of a barren, mountainous landscape in Jordan, there is an inconspicuous little plateau that has been occupied by science for almost 40 years. we founded one of the first villages in the world 9000 years ago to change as is often the case in archaeology, it is the tombs that reveal the most to us and at the same time raise new questions. one of the biggest finds at this research center is the richly decorated tomb of a girl. the people who unearthed her remains affectionately call her jamila the beautiful 26 june 2018 excavations are coming to an end for this year archaeologists carefully recover find after find everything seems normal but then the team comes across the grave of the family who Immediately striking everyone holds their breath due to its degree of construction was extremely intricate and jamil us cable exceeds all expectations ic OMG this necklace is outstanding in every way.
das geheimnisvolle steinzeit dorf doku hd arte
A sensational collection. You immediately get goosebumps when you think about it, even compared to Petra's age. the pearls so that archeology can reconstruct the wonderful piece of jewelry in halle ala rashi and then return it to jordan, but then our modern world is brought to a standstill by a virus, life freezes and national borders are closed the excavation site in bar it is for scientists suddenly inaccessible distance because life also stops in jordan world-famous tourist attractions such as petra or what were marcos are deserted only in autumn 2021 scientists will be able to return from the ex-oriental research facilities of the free university of berlin sweeping in her luggage has the chain restored by jamila in the new petra museum not far from the stone age the artwork must have a special place archaeological finds can only leave jordan for examination purposes they are basically property of the country But before the restorers set up the chain for the exhibition, he left for Gaza along with the team.
das geheimnisvolle steinzeit dorf doku hd arte

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The archaeological team discovered the site in 1984. Hans Georg Kargl has been in charge of the excavations since Khaled said that Ali Faysal and Mohammad belong to the Am Marien estate. Some of them and their families have been helping with the excavation work for decades. they originally lived in the region around the neighboring rocky city of petra when tourism became more important there the government relocated them to the new village of al baker al baida is the base camp for the excavation team in one of the poorly equipped houses the necessary equipment is found only the most necessary things come with them the road to gaza is a true climbing tour it is a barren rocky landscape through which the vans at the entrance to the deep bosch gorge learn that the little green can only thrive with artificial irrigation these large trees have grown without human intervention reveal the beginning of a gorge formed by masses of water in arab ca from here you can only continue on foot luggage has to be carried on your shoulder canyoning in difficult conditions even with combined forces you can't do everything on the first ascent and yet the path is the easiest access to this hidden from there , it can be assumed that 9000-year-old people chose the same path, so it is not surprising that the first reference to the bazaar comes from a mountaineer more than 30 years ago. the austrian found himself by chance at the foot of one of these climbing walls stone age tool hans georg gebel found out about it and set out on the adventurous quest and had luck on his side back then gebel climbed the gorge without any tools today three of the ladders he brought with him remain standing in the gorge during the excavation sda the rest of the team need the hidden stone age location at the site then he saved his relics from grave robbers and probably also from further development once at the top, the gis widens and opens the way to that high plateau that archaeologists want to call marion benz and hans-georg ag based on the area here page andrea fischer may return to familiar ground and alice burg nonetheless entered the mysterious town for the first time the finding site of jamila and the pearls with which the two restorers have been busy for almost two years apart from the visit of some goatherds, this place has been intact for thousands of years the 9000-year-old village has already entered as the first excavation layer Days after the winter rains, the window has now collapsed, which means that we cannot continue immediately.
das geheimnisvolle steinzeit dorf doku hd arte
We have to get rape out of the way. First of all. I work yes, yes, yes, but we need at least one of the two workers here. It's a bare minimum archaeologists have to stick to materials that stone horn bone shells can survive for thousands of years based on scientific results and with her imagination, Jordanian archaeologist and art historian Serien as Schumag gives life to the village, the party of the show was already part of the excavation team in 2018 and has felt very connected to this place since archeology is a difficult and exhausting job to finally find bones vessels made from old car tires the so-called legs de vaca serve as a substitute meticulously workers are careful not to overlook any archaeological treasures in the sand and rubble marion benz is in warsaw for the fifth time together with aller allagui made the sensational discovery of 2018 d jamila's grave was discovered because for me it was like winning the lottery but in reality it was an arrival i was able to dig up many calves that they say a lot about the social structure and that is exactly my topic the transition from the mobile way of life to a sedentary way of life and what I have changed socially in baja one of the oldest discovered peoples in the world this transition took place about 9000 years ago years together with jericho a grid and other places bahr belongs to the mega-phenomenon of time along the jordanian rift around the 8th millennium BC settlements arose here that expanded more and more up to 16 hectares and then disappeared again aja is located halfway on the way between the red sea and the dead sea on the edge of wadi alaba for geologists and hydrologists the dead sea is an ideal climatic archive in the layers of deposits the climatic conditions of the past forum are read 12,000 years ago warm period 1 the glaciers are melted and sea level rose climate change ensured cool wet winters and hot summer months favorable climate for c ereals and legumes this change and the fertile land made it possible for people to settle down the villages got bigger and bigger the people grew crops and took their time for the beauty the landscape between amman and aqaba at that time resembled the north of present day beginning of jordan where reforestation is showing first successes it is not yet clear how the people of gaza were able to get water there there is no indication a source people used at that time la victoria as a water reservoir what this plateau looked like isolated life has changed a lot since that time today we have extremely high temperatures at that time there must have been a water resource here the tools used to crush the data speak for it there was a so the plants must have been green here the livelihood of the people of warsaw were agriculture and livestock, mainly legumes were grown, of which we have certainly covered peas s and otherwise sheep and goats took care of animal protein, we suspect the two then here from the direction of bab and above all things here they go east on the edge of the red Arabian plateau the great cities began at that time where today is desert the population grew rapidly due to the exuberant supply of carbohydrates compared to the previous life as hunters and gatherers women could no longer have a child every four or five years but every two years but because then people settled in such a limited space of all places also the soil for agriculture must have been scarce and then since now the water supply is one, I see that the challenge is that it is remote the territory was no longer in dispute even if there was a group up here, so the people who occupied the place here had to settle territorial disputes with themselves but not with others because there was very little space left for them. they had to build together layer by layer the workers struggle to return to the past the walls reach up to four meters deep this speaks of houses of at least two stories the rooms are tiny they have little or no natural light the findings show that they were used mainly for preparing and storing food so far no indications of roads or alleys between the houses were found, we can definitely say that the settlements were very densely populated because no matter where we open sections of the walls can come out, what is also clear now is that, especially in the early small phases, rooms were almost too small to live in and we actually go Let's assume that life on roofs took place in the wild, in contrast to life as hunters and gatherers, where a few people spread out over large areas of land, hundreds now crowded from wall to wall to ra Marion Benz, this life situation raises mainly social problems. problems that people have lived here house to house for at least 500 years and it's apparently relatively conflict free I really have to mention that the neighbor is not 500 meters or kilometers away but he really lives next door to me and that's a huge challenge you don't know how people were organized, the rules of coexistence and in which family constellations the houses were occupied or managed to obtain information on family relationships, age and cause of death, the doctor julia cresci from the german el archaeological institute examines the bone and finds that unfortunately the bones don't preserve that well so these are very brittle when you brush them off you can still see them pretty well and when you take them out they break so we have to examine them in the lab and Unfortunately, we can't say as much as we could say otherwise. -preserved skeletons a trained eye still recognizes some things at first glance this is child's play the skull is looking in my direction and is still stuck in the ground under the wall partly unfortunately so there are at least two individuals an adult a child maybe more children the dead were not buried far from the villages but right in the middle under the floors of the interiors so i think our funeral rites today were just as fun for people back then as they were they were for us back then. , so we try to keep death as far as possible, we have the cemeteries outside our houses anyway and if possible also somewhere further outside and try. they rarely come in contact with death and that was probably completely impolite for the conditions at the time maybe and contrary to what you thought the family was also buried under the floor of the house and a member of the living maybe we have to assume that death did not mean social death in our sense, but that it was a very long process until these people really left social life.
das geheimnisvolle steinzeit dorf doku hd arte
So far, the team has found mostly children's graves, and there are often multiple burials because you imagine dying without antibiotics, one simply has a means. ear infection and so it's also possible that all of these double burials are basically infectious diseases that very quickly led to the deaths of multiple children at the same time all the children were lovingly buried in the Neolithic period, but this is not new On the Danube today Austria found a 30,000 year old pair of twins In the Natural History Museum in Vienna you can see a reconstruction of the sensational find on the Wachtberg dating back to the time before people settled anthropologist Maria Teschler nicola was present at the dig and examined the twins in 2005 as part of this austrian academy of science research excavation this tomb was discovered last week and everyone on the team and we all knew it would be an amazing feeling if it was already clear that it is something very special the tomb of the twins was discovered in its entirety with the surrounding soil salvaged and brought to vienna for further examination it turned out that they were identical twins that were buried at different times what is particularly special about the find is that it is a double burial of newborns, that is infants that were encrusted in robes also with attri buten were buried and we also found this tomb covered with a mammoth shoulder blade which also says something about this burial they obviously wanted to protect it from predators through chemical analysis of milk teeth that had already been created nicola teschler was able to determine that the twins lived for different lengths of time and that the older baby was breastfed and the younger had at least tried to breastfeed the older child apparently survived a few weeks was buried on a chain with ivory pendants also in the trousseaufuneral and how valuable children are treasured goods in society they must have held a high value by the hand of their society for the hunter-gatherer society of that time the loss of a child was just as painful 30,000 years ago as it was 9000 years ago years ago or today, lovingly designed graves and grave goods are an expression of grief and loss.
Also the layout of the tomb of Jamila immediately amazed scientists in 2018, so you have to imagine that the top layer was whitewashed as if the floor was made under it. came that mother-of-pearl shine in the final cool sun g Then came the big gravestone and lifting it up was, of course, a very moving moment. We lifted it up and then only sand came. Sand arrived and we painted and painted and painted. The team feared an empty grave and was about to cover it up again and then the close-ups came in, first we numbered them individually then just in groups and then we just took pictures and did little sketches and put out whole packs until there were actually 2500 guys out of 2500 accounts, that's the amount she never found. immediately where they come from and what they are putting there in spring 2009 10 precious pieces will be brought to stuttgart to the academy of fine arts for further determination they have specialized in the preservation of ancient cultural assets alice burkhardt from the academy of fine arts arts fine arts the department of archeology in halle ala is responsible for the restoration of individual rashi parts for the reconstruction of the entire work on the basis of traces of manufacture and use, ala rashi can draw conclusions about the use of the individual beads in a small back room on the third floor lies the treasure of basha, which probably no one knows as good as alice burkhardt was not at first so to see what the pearls of antiquity are like, what condition they are in, that was a wish, also a shows side, that you then have a full show at the end, but we have to judge that first, is it possible, depending on what conditions tion of pearls and how many are on display?
Alois Burkhardt holds each pearl in his hands examines the deposits winter damage is carefully removed under the microscope and, if necessary, subjects the fragile treasures to post-treatments with special synthetic resin solutions. The restorers preserve the pearls around them then m To Being able to use the original as much as possible for the total work of art, this treatment can also be reversed if later generations of women scientists have new technical possibilities at their disposal. -old gentlemen to haller al arabi at first we tried to record the position of the beads without immediately classifying them as parts of a necklace or a belt, we just wanted to understand the connection between the bones and the beads as we had found them during the excavation a large part of the beads were in the child's neck area after looking at the archaeological data we only focused on the beads and their original position a finding helped researchers a lot to understand the jewelry is a kind of heart from one of the first elements What we found was the ring because it was upright in the grave first we dug out the edge it was very brittle and we had to be careful after about three days we had uncovered the entire ring but of course it was chipped we discovered little pearls still stuck in those perforations from the beginning then we knew that the ring played a very important role for the necklace the mother-of-pearl ring r therefore provides information about the conception of the necklace this is where the threads come together this ring also tells us that it was carved from one piece of a shell large enough to understand the skill people had back then, the archaeologist wulff heim tries to reproduce the permut pendant as faithfully as possible to the original, although it is not a scientific experiment, it helps us understand what tools have been used 9000 years since gaga perrier i heard this appeals to me as an architect to find but of course to recreate it Using original Stone Age technology, I first had to create a large Talbot shell.
The contours of the small fashion ring are drawn with a stitch on the shell. This point was made with a directed blow with a flint blade. boot punch was successful this card here in front this is our work surface we will work with later stickl made of flint and at first it reads taunts in slow motion it is a game of patience until the ring comes out of the shell in the desired shape You have to be very careful when drilling you have to turn a lot and do little pressure which either breaks the bag or the shell breaks the real challenge but man its pretty good how the drill is currently making its way while the shell was an exotic good the gaza people found the raw material for the small red sandstone beads probably locally they were probably made the same way already known from other places i have tried several times again it takes a lot of patience and care and every fifth is broken if there the possibility of Vorwerk pressing these small disputes now become panels consists of grinding the side edges to give them the r desired roundness then follows a particularly tricky work step wulff carefully grinds a hole in the middle of the pearl with a flint drill so now that the hole is in we can finish grinding them all individually but there is also another way to to do so would be to put several piece stones through boats one after the other on a stick and now this whole column of stones against each other f the stone slab but i move the stick back and forth and so the pearls are lost and at the end it should be delivered you can see it's going pretty fast the big corners and edges are already working if i move for another half an hour then the pearls are all about the same size these pearls were unbelievably fine and small they must have been people with a lot of skill and very sensitive hands who made something like this from a child the necklace demonstrates the extraordinary craftsmanship of the first sedentary people and their sense of aesthetics In keeping with the world common cliché of primitive stone age people what not together the team named the girl's remains after this gem samina the beautiful must have been so important to this boy that they took this elaborate masterpiece and after after so much work, I simply buried it in the ground, this finding has many dimensions that we are only beginning to understand slowly beginning to understand each element of the chain tells several stories the story of the raw material there it makes the relationship with the complete work and something of the deceased girl herself the family will go down in history to the extent that it revises the image of the neolithic because the new stone age is often presented as plain and simple there, but if you look now at these jewels and this degree of farmer, you have to assume here from real specialists from other exchange networks, the turquoise you had in your coli came from sinai, the mussels from the red sea and the way they string it Aste, we really have to assume that it was something very special.
The amount of time people devoted to handmade luxury items at that time shows not only the filigree pendants found in other tombs, but also the mass production of rings. made of red sandstone from warsaw the remains of the base the excavation team found evidence that they were in the vicinity of each house they made the famous rings of barca sandstone they were made of rough writing that were more or less and then they were they hollowed them out in the sense of a groove created here that I then let out the middle part which the experimental archaeologist makes with this additional knowledge after removing the inner panel, there are two possibilities to further process this drink, or we take it with our teasing to the mountains or we grind the rulers to the appropriate size loop loop after loop that was the sound heard from afar as a neolithic settlement approached brittle rings remain a mystery to this day we don't know exactly how it was used we think it was a matter of preservation here meringer someone has the most prestige that he had my theory is that it was about acts of art coupons in the social exchange in e l gave to express gratitude and strengthen the social bond it is interesting that there were already pirated copies at that time, so these sandstones, which have such a characteristic red, were also made by amateurs and merkel lime is much more easy to work with much faster machining and then colored red and specimens made outside of the sandstone zone there has been everything since man produced pirates also made copies this demand for special goods and extensive trade relationships brought The increasing supply of raw materials and the markets for the sale of exotic raw materials to family towns bring risks to the existence of the people.
These are just one example of the demand for prestigious objects that b


r in exchange required. Another challenge for the people was to achieve peaceful coexistence in a confined space where no evidence of a hierarchical structure was found before modern studies Comparative studies have established us that from a group size of 150 people it becomes extremely difficult to verify that people do not conflict with each other, that is, conflict management is needed in the bar lived up to 500 people for the Neolithic a large settlement social conflicts can quickly take over in such a precarious situation in the end there were certainly many factors that caused the gazans to abandon their settlement around 6900 bc whether this development was actually a collapse or just change is difficult to say because possibly the later winners managed to differentiate themselves more, some went back to being completely mobile, they went to nomadism, others lived sedentary in smaller towns and perhaps that was the best way that was sustainable and socially viable.
Bearable due to remote location, much has been preserved for posterity in Baja Jamila's tomb and her chain, the most important find from the excavation to date, will now be given a special place in the new tetra museum before they archaeologists can get the original gravis stones from the recovery warehouse during the long months when life in europe and jordan stopped they were safely stored there each stone is well packed and has a number hussein al-sabah, director of the archaeological collection at the university in illmitz, had the stones with colleagues from zurich at the time salvaged on site and removed from the valley now they are moving to the new petra museum where the tomb of jamila will be recreated true to the original the rock city of petra, the most famous cultural monument in jordan, aside from local proximity, no relation to bulldozers hans georg gebel and his team work closely Collaboration with Jordanian institutions Together, it is not only a matter of respect to get the expertise of local scientists, but it is also indispensable from a professional point of view.
The export of Jordanian cultural goods is only possible with special permits and requires their return after the end of studies. ends up in the archives of the state museums edition jamil and his colleague, however, it will have a prominent place in the new museum building in the museum the entire history of the country is presented the boat is almost at the beginning the boat is also at the beginning of a development that has changed people's lives far more radically than industrialization in the 19th century or digitalization today cultures came and went settlements were abandoned people moved on but man never returned to his existence as a hunter and collector all this and much more tells the story of jamila's tomb, so it is even more important as apa to see that it is built as perfectly as possible w earth and every stone is put in the right place my task now is to rebuild the tomb in the museum i am in the process of rebuilding the well or in another room of the museum the big moment will come for the two restorers andrea fischer and alice burghardt as so that the 9,000-year-old jewel survives the journey undamaged, it was transported in individual parts from Germany to Jordan by detern hall specialist ala rashi.
Now the pearl necklaces are also returning to coli e that the grieving 9,000-year-old parents had put around their necks from his deceased daughter ala rashi has drawn a template that serves as a template for her, she really put a lot of thought into the design of the necklace, it was not only about the selection and arrangement of the beads, but also about the exact length of the individual cords, for what probably not only the beads were involved, but also the people who are involved in the production of the individual laces, probably the first forms of division of labor already existed, a kind of part-time specialization, it remains a mystery how gazans got the right raw materials if you want to work with exotic materials you should live better in a well located village life where you have a network and accumulated connections to have access to raw materials ofhigh quality, this village was almost hidden in the mountains considering the surroundings and the location of the village, that is very strange despite the remote location, gaza residents were well connected and had close contact with the It is not possible to say what the surrounding villages were like, but despite all the adversities they must have had their finger on the pulse of the times.While work is being done on the family chain in the valley, excavations are continuing in barscher the excavation time is almost over finished hans georg ibel is skeptical now that the whole area has been cleared i see the situation completely differently there is also the possibility that the slab is lying on the floor and there is no grave i don't know so the cumulus and the layer of ash of course i can talk about it being a grave but i cant be 100 percent sure either i would say i would clean it first then maybe use the spatula to lure martina ru pp of the year and see if there's a cavity underneath or not that's 90 percent then and that's a bunch of bones you're optimistic it sounds different from that of course it may be somewhere in a place and not in other places and take out horizontally if I know what the break is like, of course, use even more well the grave plate rises once again, the excitement begins for marion it means that it's ok the job is done again under the pressure of the time brushing brushing brush then work has to be interrupted it's evening hans-georg ag decides to spend the night on the plateau to save himself the laborious ascent and descent for me the location is more than just scientific for me the location is entire families that the personal relationships are here, the participation in the destinations that the people from b there and I have learned from them a different idea of ​​life and other ways of behaving that are based on respect and companionship and that is something that i don't want to miss it there radiates a very special flair it is a fascinating place despite all odds the team of archaeologists was rewarded with the discovery of jamila and her necklace for a lot of hard work and years of work the next day to find alle alle hastily andrea fischer and alice burkhard the highlight of this trip is just before the three of them put together jamila's necklace now the necklace is finally presented in its final place now it not only exists on paper but in real life in the museum it's fantastic you get goosebumps when you think about it even compared to petra's age you have to say jamila's necklace is great they found it about six and a half years 1000 years older than petra at a time when she was already mid he gives the sensitive parts to keep from the skeletal remains of jamila, on the other hand, not much can be read so far nothing was found on the large stone slab, but the doctor julia gre tzky had discovered a child's skull in room 17 which she has since discovered a second is still in the excavation profile here was probably the children's skull and now there are the retaining ropes the ribs all in situ the upper arm also hangs there it should just be and around the neck there is a pearl necklace with small grains and a red and green stone so beautiful you are and everything on the last page has to be there the situation reminds 2018 back then halle arashi had to drop all the rest of the job to keep jamila's sensational necklace and now 2021 maybe the seeker julia cresci has to catch her flight halle takes over the rescue of the pearls as if the basa tombs wanted to tell the team that check back here next year there is much more to discover haller ala rashi collected the pearls and tagged them she will stay in al baida for now and look at the new ones treasures up close piece by piece what will you say about life 9000 years ago barca has had in recent decades they helped to see the people of the new stone age with different eyes, they could invest time in jewelry and aesthetic equipment because food was assured , but at that time the desire for luxury items began, and therefore conflicts were inevitable and have survived to this day.
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