Como cambiar circuitos integrados de montaje superficial con simple truco!Jul 18, 2023
As you can see, the circuit came unstuck. Hello, how is everything? Welcome to my channel on electronics practices. Well, today, as you can see, I am going to teach you how to desolder and solder surface mount components or SMD components and you will also learn how to solder and solder surface mount integrated circuits and that is a surface mount component, good as the word says, they are components that are on the board and do not pass through the board. When placed there with the solder, for example, this element that is here is a capacitor and it is just above the plate, it does not have legs that pass to the other side.
Unlike the through-hole elements like this capacitor that is here, the legs of this element pass to the other side towards the other end here below. So The surface mount elements or surface mount components are soldered right on top of the board and do not pass to the other side towards the bottom side. Anyway, I am going to show you a table showing all the packages or packages. Of the surface mount elements that exist in this video, I am going to teach you how to remove and place surface mount elements with both the heat station and the soldering iron.
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como cambiar circuitos integrados de montaje superficial con simple truco...
But before we start, let me show you what we are going to use in this video, as you can see. Here we are going to use 0.5 millimeter tin 0.8 millimeter diameter tin we are going to use a tin that is already liquid that is here solder paste we are going to use flux I am going to explain how each of them is used in the process of soldering and soldering the components we are also going to use a small toothbrush to clean we are going to use fine-tipped tweezers any of these can be used cotton swabs like these to clean the area isopropyl alcohol and mesh for extraction of tin later I will show you how to use the other thing that we are going to use obviously the heat station only the hot air generation part that this part that is here we are not going to use the soldering iron part because for that we are going to use a soldering iron common and ordinary But let it be 40 watts we are also going to use a sponge to clean the soldering iron Well then we are going to start teaching you How to use the heat station to remove a component But before that I want to tell you that those who are new to using the station of heat, they should know that when it is turned on back here it will be releasing heat and they should be careful what they place here because it will burn everything that is back here, especially if it is plastic, something else that must be taken into account when using The heat station is in the part where they are going to place the plate that they are going to remove components or are going to solder or solder components.
They must place a base, if possible, made of wood more than a centimeter thick so that it does not burn the part that they are using. is below Or the table since the heat it produces is quite large and heats the board and can heat any surface that is under the board as well Well then how do we adjust the heat station to start desoldering some components that are on this board So Look, the first thing is to turn on the station. I already have it set to 350 degrees Celsius and as you can see here, its tip is one size.
If you need to use different tips, then that will depend on the component that you are going to remove or solder, so that tip that you have is the one that I am going to use basically because I am going to teach you the technique regardless of the tip that they have, otherwise the amount of air that is going to be used must also be regulated because I am also going to explain something else. desolder Well then we are going to start desoldering some components of this board So we are going to start with this capacitor that is here Here I have the tip of the heat station and what we do is place it as vertically as possible and turn it around around and simply wait for the component to loosen the air speed of the air flow must be moderate so that it does not remove components that are adjacent or close to the component that we want to remove as you can see the component The capacitor has already come out Well here I go with another component like the cell phone to record better and I'm going with the component, this resistance that you see.
Come here and so that you can see how it is done this way, look as vertically as possible and as close as possible and simply with the temperature greater than 350. component will be soldered in a short time, I can use 350 degrees to 400 degrees, so what we do is that we verify and notice how quickly the component is removed and here we have the resistance that I just removed and so I could remove any other component, let's go with A technique when we are going to remove several components at the same time, here we have these two capacitors.
If you want to remove these two elements at the same time, what you have to do is just surround them with the tip of the heat station. Then the heat is going to be applied to them. both And since they are close then they will come out at the same time when one comes out the other will surely come out too so what you have to be aware of is when one loosens and that's it here this one has already come out therefore this one too so look we take out two capacitors in one go now we are going to take out a transistor like this one here Remember that transistors have three legs And then we do the same thing, the tip of the heat station on the component we surround it in this case we can simply leave it there for a while because The tip is large enough and the heat will cover the entire component.
Remember if the air you regulate is very high, not only will they remove this component but they will also remove components that are around. In this case, we already see that the tin is melting but It still doesn't come out so we simply apply more heat and that's it as you can see it already came out as you can see here I took out the transistor OK now let's go with an integrated circuit like this one here and it's done Exactly the same but the component is surrounded as you can see It has quite a few legs and what you have to do is surround it with the hot season.
What generally begins to happen is that the tin begins to melt. And you notice it because it begins to change color. You have to get quite close to it. I also want to tell you that with With this technique, the card gets quite hot. Generally, not only the component is heated, but the card around it is heated, so you should be careful if you touch any part here, it will be very hot, in fact, this method heats up other parts that should not heat. Ok then. Look how it came off. As you can see, it is quite easy to remove any component from a surface mount board.
Another thing I want to tell you is when you turn off the heating station, if you are not going to continue using it even though it turns off here, you You will notice that it does not turn off internally because what happens is that the internal resistance remained hot and must continue to ventilate, so if you pay it here, air continues to come out because it has to expel the hot air from the internal resistance of the heat station. obviously it produces heat internally so don't think about unplugging it but what you should do is turn it off and leave it that way until it turns off by itself, for safety reasons and so that the internal resistance is not damaged because a lot of heat would accumulate internally.
Remember that 350 or 400 degrees is a fairly high temperature so it will stay there until the temperature reaches 0 or very close to zero and there it will pay you really well at this moment you may be wondering why I haven't even used the flux neither liquid tin nor normal tin and the reason is that it is not necessary the heat station has the ability to remove any surface mount component without having to use any of these elements good And for integrated circuits of the squares that have a leg in all Its contours also proceed in the same way.
So for the moment I am going to take out this little one that is here, we are going to turn on the station and I am going to proceed to take out this one so that you can see. Well then, in the same way we place the tip of this station. around the integrated circuit so what we are doing is a circle, we are surrounding it like the other cases and we are simply going to go around it and touch the component to see if it has already loosened to the extent that the circuit has more pins or more legs. integrated, it will take a little longer to take off, well, as you can see, here it took off and here we have it, the time in which it is taken out is important since later I am going to explain the technique with the soldering iron and you will realize that with the soldering iron it can even be faster but with the proper technique with the soldering iron I am going to teach you a technique that I have not seen that has been applied anywhere and I have always applied it and it is very efficient with any type of assembly component surface Including surface-mount integrated circuits with many legs, another thing that should be taken into account in the case of removing components with the heat station is that with this method the pads where the integrated circuit went are left quite clean.
In any case, it must be finished to clean it and later I'm going to show you how to do it. Well, yes. We could also take out that big one in the middle and any integrated circuit that you want. So that's how the heat station is used to take out surface mount integrated circuits basically. Well So here I am going to do a demonstration by dropping a surface mount diode on this pack. Although it is not the exact pack, it will still be useful for us to do the demonstration. So the first thing we are going to do is place the liquid tin on the pads.
It matters so much if you go a little to the other side because in this method the hot air helps to distribute the solder well. So now with the same method that we have been using, simply notice how the component is going to automatically settle and the remains of tin are going to disperse and they are going to join together in a very symmetrical way, so let's look at how it was closer, as you can see, the tin joined together and dispersed in a very symmetrical way, making a very precise solder, it is actually quite easy if They already have experience soldering with a heat station Well now let's go with the soldering iron technique and the secret Here it is to use two soldering irons that is what I always use and I assure you that the soldering or soldering process is going to be quite fast with This technique is quite easy Let's start with the demonstrations we are going to start with the smaller components take into account the following at least one of the two soldering irons must be 40 watts and the other can be 30 watts or 40 watts Well then Let's start with here here as you can see we have several smaller components here we have surface mount resistors and capacitors so with the two tips of the two soldering irons very hot we simply do this perhaps we have to suddenly exercise the left hand or both hands a little since As you can see, both hands are required, but with some practice you will take advantage of this method.
So look, I go with the next component. Observe how fast I do it or what happens. This thing, it desolders is quite fast. Let's go with another element, if it is smaller. The faster it comes out Perhaps the most difficult thing in this method is the precision for each element. We continue here so that you can see and there the next one has already come out. We can continue taking out here. This method has the advantage that it sectors the temperature at a single point or at the extremes. of one component and therefore it does not heat the entire card.
As if the heating station does it, then it is a great advantage. We could also do this method with a single soldering iron. Note that if I do this I can also remove components using a 40 watt soldering iron. I could also do it without any problem but look at all the time it took me to do it and notice that it took me quite a while I would have to add more tin but if I do it with the two soldering irons with the method that I am teaching you I immediately take it out. So this method It is really very effective Well then now we are going with a dip-type integrated circuit that is one of those that has Pins on one side and Pins on the other and the first thing to do is the following with tin point 8 millimeters in diameter we are going to place quite a bit on it. abundant tin on one side and then on the other The idea is that it makes contact on all the Pins or on most of them Ok then what we are going to do is with the two soldering irons, one on each side, we are going to simply try to make contact with that tin in the greatest number of Pins each contact the greatest number of Pins and as you can see the component has already come out Ok so now we are going with a slightly larger component it is of the same type so Likewise with 0.8 millimeter tin we are going to place it one side as much tin as possible and we do the same on the opposite side.
In this case it is important to have the plate level so that the tin does not run only on one side. So if we had it done with this method but with only one soldering iron we should be doing something like this I don't want to say that it doesn't work because Obviously it does work but it takes much longer So we go here with the two soldering irons one on each side basically We try to touch as many Pins as possible that is the technique as you can see It is already moving, we just leave it for a moment longer and it will finish, take off all the Pins and that's it, here we take out the component, as you can see, it comes out.Pretty clean, in the end we are going to re-solder one of these components so that you can also see with this method how it is done.
But before that we are going to take out a much larger component like this one that has pins all around it, so maybe you It may seem like it is a little difficult but using this method it is not difficult at all. What we must do is have the plate well leveled so that the tin stays there around us. Well then we proceed in the same way, tin all around the integrated circuit. With this method you can remove any type of dye integrated circuit. Note that this is one of the largest and we are going to remove it with the same technique, a lot of tin everywhere, the greatest amount of tin that you can put in it, do not underestimate it. the amount of tin Ok after placing the tin then here we are going to do it this way two sides two sides here Then we do like this and we exchange this side with this and this side with this at the end at some point the heat is so great that is going to take it off, the only thing we have to do is this gentle movement because we do not want to damage the integrated circuit and at any moment the circuit is going to take off, you just have to continue applying this heat with this technique and at any time the circuit will simply It is going to come off, as you can see, the circuit came off.
So we already took it out and just applying this technique. Remember that I am also making this video for technicians who do repairs and have to take out some surface mount components so that you have all the techniques. in your hands How to apply it and how to do it then Well you already saw How is the method to remove an integrated circuit with a soldering iron or any electronic component Well then now we are going to solder an integrated circuit from what we have already removed to explain how it is soldered to the board and How to clean the board How to prepare and How to clean the integrated circuit Imagine that you are replacing an integrated circuit or you simply took out the integrated circuit, it proved that it was not the integrated circuit and you have to put it back then Let me explain to you How to do it with a soldering iron to The case of soldering here only requires a single 40 watt soldering iron How to clean the area where it is going to be soldered Well, the first thing to do is like in this case I am going to solder this type integrated circuit and the first thing I am going to do is place flux because I am going to place flux because I am going to pass the soldering iron over it So that the tracks, if any are joined, let's say like this, or some Pins are joined, they come apart, so we simply do this, this is all we are going to do.
If we see that there is something of tin We left it there, we are not going to take it out And I am going to tell you why Because that tin is going to be used to solder our circuit Now let's go with the integrated circuit We are going to clean it Here we have the integrated circuit that we are going to solder to the integrated circuit we are also going to put flux on it to remove the excess tin that it has or that was left on it. Remember that we put a lot of tin on it and most of the tin came here.
So we are going to place the flux on top of it. To be able to remove that tin, then what we are going to do is The thing to do is to place it this way, we hold it and with the same soldering iron we are going to remove the flux and we are going to clean the tip of the soldering iron and that's it. What we are going to do, we are going to do it very carefully not to press the legs of the soldering iron. integrated circuits so that it does not bend, we are going to go over everything, that whole part is reviewed, as you can see, we already removed the tin on this side.
So now we are going to turn it over, it has quite a bit of tin. You could also stick surface mount components there because sometimes it happens. Well then we are simply removing the tin with the soldering iron this way outwards we are doing it just like this outwards Well in the end we supervise it well we look at it well we observe that no pin is touching this one with the other and then we place it in place where we are going to solder it, which in this case is here is another thing I want to tell you, notice that the integrated circuits, whether surface mounted or not, have a little part like a wrist on the left side of that wrist is pin 1 and here on the board It also shows the grimace and here it says pin 1.
If you realize then you have to take it into account when you take out an integrated circuit. What is pin 1? So in this part here what you have to take into account is that all the Pins match but initially we are only going to solder the corner pins. That is enough and in fact the first thing to do so that everything is perfect when the corner pins are well located then we continue soldering the other pins then what we are going to do is we are going to hold the integrated circuit with a clamp or something to press it and leave it there.
Then it should not move while you are soldering. It should not move. So we are going to press the integrated circuit if we consider that it is in the correct position and we are going to solder the Pins in the corners and after those Pins are soldered we go back to check that it is in the correct position and then what we are going to do is also press it a little bit. We are not going to do this much And so we are going to help the tin to distribute on all the Pins at least on one side then we go with the opposite side we hold the same without pressing too hard and we do the same and in this way we have soldered this integrated circuit again and obviously it is not going to move because it is soldered and we can verify pin by pin with a fine tip multimeter that would be the verification that would be missing But if visually you already see that everything is well separated you can also notice that the Pins look soldered you can see that the tin made contact with each pack with each pin So it means that the soldering went well.
Well then now let's go with the next integrated circuit that we are going to place, which is this one here that has Pins on all sides and Here we are going to make the previous case different Here we are going to remove all the tin What's left of that, we're going to do it with this mesh that's here, I'm going to show you how and we're going to clean that entire area well. Then we're going to clean the integrated circuit that goes there. We're going to identify which pin 1 of this integrated circuit is. Let's go. Let's identify which pin 1 of this base is and we're going to solder it.
And I'm going to tell you how we're going to do it. Ok, with the 40 watt soldering iron at maximum temperature, we're going to introduce the mesh into the paste that I already mentioned before and then From that we are going to pass it through here in this way, simply let the mesh take the excess since it is a lot of tin that it is going to take. So when the mesh is already full, we simply cut the piece, introduce it into the paste and continue removing the excess, which What happens with the mesh is that the tin that is there is going to stick everything in this mesh basically it is like collecting the leftover tin that is what is being done Since in this case there was a lot of tin left and if you look it is already being quite clean Also good and the next thing we are going to do now is clean the chip as well as the integrated circuit that we took out from there, which also had a lot of tin around it, so here we are going to do the same with the mesh, we are going to remove the excess tin.
In this way you have to do it gently and slowly as if it were to stick naturally to avoid bending the Pins. Here we are simply letting the excess come towards the part of the copper mesh and in this way the integrated circuit Well, we must do this procedure with all sides, we simply let the mesh do its job, which is to extract the tin. Excess when the mesh is hot, it works more efficiently, that is, after a moment when the mesh is already heating up, you go. You will notice that it will extract the tin much faster and more efficiently, that is, it will remove almost everything at once.
Notice how in a moment all this part of tin was removed. Well then, as you can see, here I already have the integrated circuit. completely clean, in any case, you should check it if possible with a magnifying glass to see that no pin has been connected and that no pin has been twisted. Also, once it is clean, we are going to proceed to locate it and solder it. Before locating it and soldering it, we must To know that this type of chip has to be located with pin 1, then right here where I am holding it, here is a mark, this little ball that is here to the left of this mark, that is, it would be something like this, to the left of this mark, where the little ball is.
On the left, this pin here would be 1 and on the board, notice how it tells me, here it says, if you look carefully, one and here it says 80, it means that this integrated circuit starts here the pads come here and then come 24 25 40 41 64 65 80 and here is 1 So the integrated circuit is going to be here, the little ball that has its mark marked is here and to the left is pin 1 That is the way to locate one of these surface mount chips in this way So more or less he would go here, here is the mark that the little circle has and to the left is pin 1.
So just as we did for the previous case, we are going to very carefully locate the chip to make at least two solders to start, then we will do it. What we must do is locate the chip suddenly. This is the most complicated part to solder this type of integrated circuit, which is to place it in the correct position. Well, there is the correct position. I have it pressed with my hand with my finger to solder just two pins with two Pins that I soldered From end to end I will have it stabilized, let's say like this, then we are going to solder one here we are going to solder another one here and here we begin to review some Pins and there it is soldered on that side Now we come to the side of here we press a little and we are going to apply the same thing we are going to start letting the soldering iron do its job also in this way the little bit of tin that was left on the board is going to be the pins to connect And that's how we do it now with everything but before To continue, what we are going to do is we are going to put flux all around.
So we are going to put the flux here, flux here. You know that the flux has tin. It already has small particles of tin. They are very small particles, but nevertheless they are enough to first to add a little more tin and secondly the flux prevents the tin from agglomerating what the flux does is that it distributes the tin in a very uniform way, let's say the tin on the part of each leg. So this way is that an integrated circuit of Surface mounting, regardless of the number of legs that this part has that is here in the corner, you have to be careful when you are soldering with the soldering iron.
Because if you put the soldering iron here and then pass it over here, you could take a lot of tin from here. and cause too much tin to accumulate here. So if that happens to you, by chance this gets filled with tin, then what you have to do is simply with the integrated circuit placed here with the tin mesh. Well then, here as you can see We released two integrated circuits that we had already removed previously and they turned out Perfect Well then the video has already turned out to be a bit long, this topic is a lot, maybe I can make a second part of this video but for the moment let's leave it here I hope I have helped you on this topic to desolder and solder surface mount or SMD electronic components both with the heat station and with the soldering iron technique, but in my case I taught you the technique of desoldering with two soldering irons, so well, if you liked the video, give it a like and share it.
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