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Baby Care Basics

Baby Care Basics
welcome to

baby

care

basics

this is kiva fontanelle i'm a registered nurse at st tammany parish hospital and i've been here since 1999. i have always worked in mother

baby

areas in every area and currently work the maternal fetal medicine clinic today we're going to talk about your amazing

baby

we're going to talk about what they look like how they act and how to best

care

for them hi my name is kiva fontanelle i'm a registered nurse here at st tammany health systems i have been here since 1999 always have worked in the mother

baby

area doing all the different jobs and currently i am the nurse at the maternal fetal medicine clinic that st tammany partners with oshner and we see high-risk pregnancy patients so i may have seen some of you throughout your pregnancy welcome to

baby

care

basics

today we're going to be talking about your amazing new

baby

we will talk specifically about the newborn phase when you're in the hospital and we will also talk about the first days and weeks after you get home we will talk about how your

baby

will look what to expect some normal things some things that are very common and how to treat those things and just some basic

baby

care

so let's go ahead and get started your amazing

baby

at birth your amazing

baby

will have distinctive physical characteristics that are common among newborns in this course we will be talking about the first days and weeks following delivery in the first moments hours and days of your...
baby care basics

baby

's life they will change in their appearance at first your

baby

's head may appear long pointy or misshapen look too large for the body have a lot of hair or a little hair or none at all you may notice two soft spots on your

baby

's head one in the front and another a little bit further towards the back these soft spots are places where the bones on the skull have not finished growing and fusing together it allows the head to change shape as needed to be able to safely exit the body during the labor process over time these soft spots will disappear as the bones continue to grow and fuse together but in the meantime just be

care

ful with those spots and protect them while caring for your

baby

if your

baby

's head is misshapen because of the delivery process no worries it all works out and evens out in the first hours and days and resolves in the meantime we'll be happy to issue you an adorable hat to cover it up you may notice your

baby

's head may appear long pointy or misshapen it may look too large for the body have a lot of hair a little hair or no hair at all you may also notice two soft spots on your

baby

's head one on the top and one closer to the back these are soft spaces where the bones on the skull have not finished growing and fusing together these spaces allow the skull to have room to move and mold so that they can go through the birth canal your

baby

's eyes may look moist from eye drops or ointment placed in them at birth they may...
baby care basics
appear swollen unfocused or even crossed and all of that is normal i would like to point out that we do delay putting a small ribbon of antibiotic ointment on their lower lashes this coats the eye and helps prevent any eye infection as the babies have gone through the birth canal in the birthing process it's not uncommon for them to maybe pick up a little bit of bacteria and this prevents them from getting an eye infection but we do delay that until after the first hour of life we typically like to promote as much bonding as possible in that first hour and included in that is their ability to see you as clearly as possible so we do do that but we typically delay it just a little bit this slide always gives me a laugh because i love to look at the faces of our participants a lot of times with these pictures uh we get all kind of strange faces yes all of these things are normal and your

baby

may have some of them all of them or none of them so some things that are normal about newborn

baby

skin initially after delivery you may notice that they may have some vernix the vernix the best that i can describe it is that it almost looks like cottage cheese yes it is usually accumulated in the creases especially in the crease of the arm near the elbow in the folds of the neck and that sort of thing it is an organic natural coating that coats the

baby

as they're in utero they have been suspended in water for quite some time and this keeps them from getting waterlogged do you...
baby care basics
ever think about why they don't come out waterlogged after they've been suspended in fluid for such a long time this is their natural coating that does uh protect their skin once they're born it absorbs into the skin it's it's just like a natural lotion almost and we wipe some of it off in the process of drying them but the remainder of it will absorb and it's just a natural thing nothing wrong with that and then also some of your babies may have wrinkled red or peeling skin typically as you know humans are sloughing skin cells all the time we're always getting new cells and replacing the old ones as the babies have been in utero you typically will see wrinkled or peeling skin on babies that are past their due date because their skin is ready to slough off and make new skin cells because they're big now and they've um they've used it so you will typically see that with babies that might be a little bit past due don't pick at it you don't have to do anything with it we do have small bottles of lotion you can lotion it it will wear off in the right amount of time and then also it's really common for a

baby

's complexion to appear very blotchy they have been through quite a process and it is no wonder that their skin tone may be a little blotchy and within the first two days all of that really resolves so that's some of the normal things that you may see and you may not see any of it but if you do it's all normal i...
realized that i likened the vernix to cottage cheese i'm wrong not cottage cheese i meant to say cream cheese yes it looks like cream cheese so sorry about that but it does look like cream cheese on their skin you also may notice a couple of things maybe cradle cap or lanugo cradle cap is where the scalp looks scaly it's really an excess buildup of skin cells and oil and that sort of thing and then the soft smooth little fine hairs that you'll see on your newborn that's called lenugo a lot of times it's on their back shoulders cheeks and forehead some babies are hairy when they're born and some are not usually it wears off and they don't stay with that with the cradle cap if you notice that you can go to one of the local pharmacies whichever you prefer and they typically have a lotion that you can ask the pharmacist for it should be on the shelf and you just put that on there let it sit you comb it out and the cradle cap comes out with it easy fix final attempt on

baby

's genitals and breasts as we started from the top we're moving our way all the way down to the bottom your

baby

's genitals and breasts will most likely appear swollen immediately following delivery honestly pretty much everything about a newborn appears to be swollen their eyes their little hands seem puffy they do retain some fluid and they will lose weight in the first days of life that is very common sometimes you may notice if you're changing your daughter's...
diaper that you may notice a little bit of a pink tinged discharge at her bottom it's nothing to be concerned about through the delivery process sometimes a small dose of mom's hormones transfer to

baby

her body is just metabolizing that out getting rid of it but in the meantime you may notice a little bit of that pink tinge at any time if you notice anything with the

baby

that's concerning to you or you just quite don't remember if that's normal or not don't ever hesitate to call the nurse and ask them to take a look and reassure you sorry an umbilical cord typically has two arteries and one vein and if we did not clamp it it would bleed so we clamp it with a plastic clamp and the outside of that touches the air and it dries up and it seals itself together before they go home we'll take that clamp off and it'll be left with a little dried stump almost of the umbilical cord we're going to tell you how to take

care

of that as you're home and what to expect all right let's talk about

baby

reflexes this is what babies do they don't have to be taught they're just born knowing how to do these things for instance they know how to suck and swallow this is a natural reflex it occurs when the lips are touched or when the

baby

is hungry sometimes you'll notice babies have been sucking on their hands or their arm in utero they'll suck on their fingers just various things and typically this is something that a term

baby

will...
know how to do pre-term babies that are a little early and born early have to still master this so they may not be very good with this but term babies definitely the rooting reflex is another reflex that occurs when an object is touched to the cheek or corner of mouth or when they're hungry this i always like into like a

baby

bird trying to get the worm from the mom they're shaking their head from side to side just going left and right trying to get that food that is what newborn babies will do when they're very hungry another one is called the morrow or startle reflex so the

baby

can be lying there quietly and then all of a sudden and usually in response to loud sounds or sudden movements they'll have this sudden jerky flinging out of their arms and legs it's kind of startling for the parent because you think what just happened but their is your

baby

's breathing as a newborn is going to be irregular it's not going to be irregular in one way it will be irregular in pretty much every way my best advice is do not stare at your

baby

breathing as long as your

baby

's lips and gums and tongue are pink they're getting enough oxygen and they are fine if for some reason you ever notice that your

baby

's lips are blue or gray or purple rub the bottom of their feet aggravate them make them cry they'll get plenty of oxygen in and pink right up but as long as your

baby

's lips are pink no need to worry you will notice however with your...
newborn that their breathing is irregular in depth rate and rhythm they breathe rapidly and then progressively deeper breaths they breathe twice as fast as we do 30 to 60 breaths per minute and they often pause between some of their breaths which can be really nerve wracking this is all normal newborn breathing babies have spontaneous behaviors that they're born naturally doing some of these are coughing and sneezing spitting up passing gas quivering their lower lip and chin yawning and getting hiccups often we're concerned about coughing and sneezing associating that with sickness however with a newborn they have not yet learned to clear their throat when there is mucus in the back of the throat or blow their nose so their body naturally induces a sneeze to clear the air passages or a cough to clear the throat naturally they also spit up small amounts very normal always make sure that you have something on your shoulder a cloth diaper a cloth a towel something covering your shoulder if you're holding your

baby

up because at some point they will dribble and spit on you very normal very natural however it's easy just to take that little claw throw it in the washing machine you're not having to change clothes and change shirts passing gas quivering of the lower lip and chin they can do these things on cue as they grow up but as a newborn it's just things they do naturally yawning and hiccups hiccups can look very disturbing for a newborn because...
they're so small it really shakes their whole body but it doesn't seem to bother them at all and they will go away on their own you will notice that they have hiccups often you may even notice that they have hiccups often in utero and you're feeling them now with the hiccups at st tammany health systems we are very very conscious of bonding we want families mothers and babies fathers and babies to bond as quickly and as strongly as possible we find that research shows us that long-term stability and healthy families begin in those first moments so we encourage that in a lot of different ways that you'll notice as you are a patient here at st tammany the benefits of bonding for your

baby

bonding is the process of falling in love with your

baby

and notice that word process bonding creates trust in you in the environment and in others bonding builds self-assurance this is very important for babies proper growth and development in the process of taking

care

of your

baby

's everyday needs you will notice the bond that you have with your

baby

to strengthen to strengthen that bond respond quickly to your

baby

's cries learn to accurately read your

baby

's unique facial expressions body movements and sounds their cues as you learn your

baby

you will begin to learn the different body language that they have to express themselves to let you know that they're starting to get hungry or starting to get tired or they're wet or dirty babies eventually will...
cry to communicate a need not to manipulate and you cannot spoil a newborn

baby

if you remember back over the first days and weeks of a new relationship with your significant other or someone else that you love you may remember learning that person's body language and cues even now we can laugh at when we notice that our significant other begins to get angry because they distinctively have some cues that let us know same thing with your

baby

you will learn their cues their body language their change in behavior that cues what they're trying to communicate in the first moments hours days of life we begin observing and learning our newborns we allow 24-hour rooming in and this gives

baby

and mom the opportunity to be together with as little separation as possible that time allows her mom and

baby

to get to know each other if the

baby

cries mom or

care

giver is able to quickly respond building and cementing that trust mom learns to recognize her

baby

's early hunger cues she's right there able to observe some early hunger cues that you may observe are sucking motions with their mouths sticking out their tongues puckering their lips moving their hands to their mouth moving their bodies and opening their mouth and moving their head side to side the rooting reflex these are all some of the things that you may notice that they begin to do cueing you that they're starting to get hungry you may notice that your

baby

's been resting contently and quietly and then...
starting to get a little wiggly and starting to move around somewhat bringing their hands to their mouth sucking on things these can let you know that the

baby

is starting to get hungry we bond with our babies also by interacting with them we can hold them as often as possible we can cradle our babies chest to chest skin to skin and let our babies touch and feel our faces we make eye contact with them we use our face as a toy making lots of different big expressions we can talk to them and sing to them crying is part of the normal newborn experience we will experience them crying throughout this stage what do you do when you have a crying

baby

well of course we try to soothe them the best that we know we can place them skin to skin in the early weeks we can swaddle them rock them play background noise like a recording of the ocean or some other monotonous sound electric fans vacuum cleaners holding your

baby

is a delightful job you will spend a lot of time holding your

baby

you need to feed them comfort them play with them bond with them you'll be carrying them and just for fun newborns are not able to get from point a to point b obviously so we will be holding them a great deal especially in the beginning it is very important that we always remember to wash our hands before handling our

baby

we also can encourage our guests and visitors and friends to wash their hands thoroughly before handling the

baby

washing between the fingers on the back of the hands on the palm of...
the hands with warm soapy water long enough to sing the happy birthday song twice that's an effective way and an effective length of time to wash our hands to rid them of germs when lifting your

baby

you always want to support their neck and their head put one hand behind their neck and head and the other under their bottom when you're holding your

baby

keep a hand behind the

baby

's neck because they do not yet have strong enough neck muscles to hold their head up on their own so for the first few weeks it will be our job to hold their neck and their head for them you want to use smooth movements when lifting and putting them down you want to keep a firm but gentle grip and never shake your

baby

this is the point in the presentation where i ask my class and look at everyone and ask them at some point do you think that you may feel like you want to shake your

baby

and most people stare at me blankly but the truth is throughout children's lifetime at some point yes you may feel like you want to shake your

baby

and that's okay but do not shake your

baby

if you feel frustrated and overwhelmed sometimes you just need to take a break setting them in their crib and walking away is perfectly fine they're safe there after we've washed them and changed them and bathed them and tried to suit them sometimes we just don't know what else to do and we need to take a breath and take a break if you have a friend or someone that you can call to take a break...
sometimes that would be great sometimes you have to put the

baby

in the stroller and walk around the block but pre-think what are some good ideas in those times when you're tired and frustrated and maybe a little overwhelmed and you just don't have patience for the moment the most common way that we hold our babies is the cradle hold it's the most common hold for safety and comfort we hold the

baby

on the forearm close to our bodies we use our forearm to support the

baby

's back and they nestle their head and the crook of our arm we use our hand to secure their bottom as well the football hold is a very popular way to hold your

baby

when you're trying to accomplish something else and you need a free hand when they're small enough you can do this hold by using your dominant arm if you're predominantly right handed then use your right hand if you're predominantly left-handed use your left place a hand under the

baby

's head use your other hand to lift their bottom closely to your body and tuck them their body and their legs under your arm you can use your forearm to support the body if you notice in the picture how the lady is holding her

baby

she is able to have a free hand to do something else it's very similar to tucking a football under your arm when you place your

baby

over your shoulder to hold them notice in the picture how the lady is holding her

baby

's head and supporting its head and neck place your

baby

high against your...
chest with the head over your shoulder support their head and neck with one hand and support their bottom securely with the other hand in the early weeks when they're still small they enjoy being swaddled if you think about it they've been in utero kind of in a very confined space and i think they feel secure that way swaddling is most helpful during the first four to six weeks of life discontinue swaddling as the

baby

becomes more active if the

baby

becomes overheated or if they just don't like to be swaddled and they will let you know over time they'll start sticking a foot out and just getting out of the swaddle and getting irritated with it that lets you know they do not want to be swaddled anymore this is the point in the presentation that you can pause it and if you have a lightweight

baby

blanket go retrieve it and you can practice while we talk about it then you'll bring the bottom point up and you don't want it to cover the

baby

's face so you can fold it under or fold it back to where it's not too tall this slide recommends that you tuck it behind the

baby

i usually put it on the

baby

's belly and just fold it down so it doesn't cover the

baby

's face and then you'll want to tuck the other arm into the blanket when you pull the right point across and tuck it behind your

baby

and again the more firmly you can pull and tuck that right side around your

baby

to swaddle them the better they like to feel nice and secure as...
we've mentioned using a lightweight breathable cotton material is best make sure the blanket is tucked away from the

baby

's face and always check your

baby

for overheating colic some of you may have been told that you were a colicky

baby

colic is when a

baby

has uncontrollable crying that can last for hours

baby

is tense the fists are clenched the legs are drawn up the cause is unknown but usually this diminishes by three to four months of age remain calm remember to never shake your

baby

if i had to guess as to what is going on with the

baby

it appears that the

baby

has a stomachache there are little drops that you can buy i think they're called milo con drops you can go to your pharmacy they're little drops that you can put in the

baby

's mouth and it helps dissolve any extra uncomfortable air bubbles you can try that but sometimes you do everything you know to do you change them you rock them swaddle them feed them bathe them all the things and they're still just not settled these are the times that we need to do those things that we've already thought through it's very trying to have a

baby

crying for hours for three to possibly four months at a time dr harvey carp has come up with the cuddle cure he thinks that there are five s's that can help the

baby

get settled swaddle them stomach or side in your arms only not in the bed shushing swinging and letting them suck on something we already know how to swaddle them once they're...
swaddled you can hold them stomach to stomach on you or you can lay them on their stomach or on their side when they're in your arms shushing if you realize they are hearing your heartbeat swishing constantly as they are in utero it's a very familiar sound to them when they're born swinging they like motion i think it distracts them a little bit and sucking on things if a

baby

's crying they have to be able to close their mouths and stop crying to be able to suck on a pacifier on their thumb on the breast on a bottle something it says at the bottom this must be done in this order well if you can remember to try any of them congratulations but he recommends swaddling holding them on their stomach or side shushing swinging and sucking if you remember i told you earlier that we would explain to you how to take

care

of the umbilical cord we do clamp the cord we take that clamp off before you go home and it's left with a little dried stump that looks like a little pumpkin stem the umbilical cord will fall off on its own within one to four weeks in its own time some doctors recommend using alcohol on the stump and some do not we used to always swab where the skin meets the cord to keep it clean and we thought that it would make it dry up and fall off faster however research shows that there's no difference in the timing but if you want to do that you feel like you're keeping it clean you're more than welcome it will not harm follow your doctor's...
instructions

care

fully on whatever it is they tell you to do this slide of this umbilical cord is actually not pretty not very typical the skin around the umbilical cord on the

baby

's belly is usually not peely and all of that it's just like regular skin to help the cord fall off as quickly as possible we need to keep the area dry at all times so that means no submerging the

baby

belly or the umbilical cord in water you don't want the the cord to get wet it's drying out and if you get it wet it will absorb the water like a wick and it will get mushy and stinky and nasty so you don't want that keep the cord area dry expose it to air as much as possible so you're going to want to keep the top of their diapers folded down so it's exposed to the air and then of course you don't want any tight clothing that could rub the cord excessively and possibly cause it to come off too soon after you leave the hospital you will expect to have to do a follow-up visit with your pediatrician this is done no later than the first week of life for the

baby

and it's a checkup they're going to check the

baby

's weight and measurements see how feeding is going and another thing that they will do is to check the

baby

's umbilical cord most doctors recommend sponge bathing only until the cord has fallen off again so that it doesn't get wet and it can can continue to dry out allow the cord to drop off on its own do not pull the cord and again on your...
checkup the doctor will check it for you when the umbilical cord falls off you may see a drop or two of occasional bleeding from irritation there and that's normal but if the bleeding continues if you see more than just one or two drops of bright red blood if the cord area appears red and swollen meaning the skin around the cord the skin should just be normal skin like all the rest of the skin on the body it should not be puffy warm red raised nothing of the sort if the cord oozes pus or is foul smelling or if the

baby

develops fever please let the doctor know if you're having a boy

baby

you might opt to have him circumcised this is something for you to read about and consider and talk over and decide we have paperwork that you would sign to give permission if you want your

baby

circumcised most of the time the physicians the obs will do the circumcisions in the hospital on the second day of life after the

baby

is 24 hours old they numb the area prior to the procedure and we let you know when they're going to have it done and we'll give you all the instructions at the bedside and demonstrate for you how to take

care

of your son's circumcision a circumcision is the removal of the foreskin that covers the tip of the penis the tip of the penis will look slightly red afterwards and swollen for a few days as it heals you'll notice a wet scab it's going to be yellowish and a crusty material that may develop around the tip you do not have to wipe that off...
the penis will heal in about 10 to 14 days in the meantime you just be very gentle with the area and clean it with as little rubbing or irritation as possible so again always wash your hands thoroughly before handling the

baby

and before taking

care

of your

baby

's circumcision keep the area clean and dry you don't want them to sit in urine or stool for any length of time it's very irritating to that freshly exposed skin with each diaper change rinse with plain clean water by dripping it from a saturated washcloth no rubbing involved just try to flush it with the warm water on a washcloth cover the tip of the penis with petroleum jelly we are going to give you a tube of petroleum jelly its easiest to aim and put it get it in the right spot or you can put a dollop in the front of the diaper and then just aim well to where the tip of the penis will get into the vaseline we do that because that new fresh layer of skin is moist is making a scab and healing and we don't want it to stick to the diaper and then as we change the diapers we're pulling it and causing discomfort when to call the doctor call your

baby

's doctor if you have any concerns or questions call if you notice any of the following new or increased swelling or redness new bleeding that does not stop a foul odor drainage from circumcision or if your

baby

can't urinate i've been a nurse here at st tammany as you know for 20 plus years and we have not had a

baby

to my knowledge not do...
well with their circumcision

care

for it well look for any signs and symptoms of infection can always call your physician if you have any questions or concerns they usually do very very well if you opt not to circumcise your

baby

just clean your sun with soap and water when bathing or as needed do not try to pull the foreskin back allow the foreskin to retract on its own jaundice is the yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes it's very common for newborns to have a yellowish tinge to them especially around day three or four of life this is something that is part of their daily assessment it's something that we check on and look at every day in the nursery billy rubin is built up in the bloodstream and it causes a yellowish coloring bilirubin is the waste products of our red blood cells our body naturally removes them through bowel movements indirect sunlight and our livers also work on getting rid of the excess bowel movements for newborns will progressively change over the first days of life into the next weeks of life it's very normal but if you haven't been around newborns or babies you wouldn't know the first stools of a newborn are black and sticky they are very much like tar by day three or four the stools become a little more frequent and they get a little lighter in color and they often look dark green by the fifth to seventh day the stools are more frequent about three to six times per day and they start to change color the stools appear...
soft and yellowish tan in color and they have small curds they look seedy and then by four to six weeks the number of stools may decrease in frequency and start to have more of a routine so just know that the stools are normally black and sticky at first over the first days up to the first week and into the first month they're going to continue to progressively change in color and consistency and then about a month and a little over a month old it'll get a little bit more regular and routine voiding newborns may urinate every one to three hours that is a lot of diaper changes by the first week there should be four to six wet diapers in 24 hours urine should be nearly clear just like ours should be nearly clear because that lets us know we're hydrated well enough call the doctor if the urine is dark or rust colored these may be signs of dehydration i want you to note that in the first days of life we have very reasonable goals for their voiding and stooling for the first 24 hours of life we only expect one wet diaper so on day one we expect one wet diaper on day two we will expect two wet diapers on day three and so forth as your milk comes in if you're breastfeeding you will notice their hydration increases and their frequency of urination will also increase but for the first day of life we only expect one wet diaper and two on the second when you come to the hospital we're going to give you a chart and we'll leave it with you in the room so that when...
the

baby

's with you whenever they void or stool you can write it down there's a little graph write down the time and whether they voided or stooled this lets us know how well hydrated they are and if you're a breastfeeding mom of course we can't see the volume that's going into the

baby

as they're drinking but exactly what they're avoiding is what they're taking in so that helps us know how well they're being nourished so as you've probably gathered so far there will be a lot of diaper changing diaper changing can seem complicated but with a little practice you're going to become a pro not hard we do encourage you to change each diaper as soon as it becomes wet or soiled if you can help it a newborn may use 10 to 12 diapers a day a

baby

will use 2500 to 2700 diapers a year when getting ready to change your

baby

's diaper preparation is key we encourage you to gather all your supplies before beginning to change a diaper we would not want you to be tempted to leave the

baby

alone to go grab one more supply that you may have forgotten so try to collect everything together before you begin you're going to want a clean disposable or cloth diaper whichever you choose to use clean wet washcloth or an alcohol free

baby

wipe does not need to be scented preferred not scented a changing pad something to put under their bottom so when you're changing if they leak anywhere it won't soil the carpet or the bedding or whatever...
they're on fasteners if you're using cloth diapers ointment and no

baby

powder

baby

powder has very fine dust particles that can coat the lining of the lungs and cause the

baby

to not be able to get enough oxygen so just to be safe we say no

baby

powder again washing your hands with warm soapy water is key before and after changing your

baby

you're going to want to use safety straps if you have them on a changing table keep one hand on the

baby

at all times if there's a shelf below the table and you need to lean down to get something put your hand on the

baby

's belly and then lean down and get what you need never walk away or turn your back not even for a second babies learn to roll over but you don't know when that will be they start to move their legs one leg crosses over the body they get used to doing that and then before you know it flip they're able to flip over you wouldn't want that to be on a day that you weren't uh holding on to them or had them strapped in safely on the changing table when changing your

baby

removed the soiled diaper when you unattach the two tabs on the side or unpin the cloth diaper you can use the front of the diaper to remove some of the stool as shown in the picture use a damp washcloth or

baby

wipe to clean the area thoroughly wipe from front to back using clean area of the cloth for each wipe you want to make sure you get in all the creases of the female

baby

and all the creases of the boy

baby

for...
especially for female babies if stool gets to the urethra where the opening is that the urine comes out of it is very easy for that bacteria to travel a short distance to get to the bladder and cause a urinary tract infection the pathway to the bladder for boys is a longer distance and they're not as likely to get a uti so especially with little girls it's important to teach them as they're growing to always wipe from front to back and not allow that stool to get to the urethra when the babies are small it's easy to hold both of their feet in one of your hands and be able to gently lift them to put the clean diaper underneath their bottom after the back of the diaper is about hip level you can pull the front of the diaper up and between the legs align the top edge of the diaper with the belly button fold the top of the diaper down and away from the cord like we talked about before and then you're going to fasten on either side remember that the side of the diaper that is going to be lying on the surface behind the

baby

is the one with the tabs for disposable diapers you're going to pull the self stick tabs diagonally over the top of the corners across basically the hip bones for cloth diapers you're going to secure

care

fully with safety pins for cloth diaper wraps secure using velcro or snaps over the course of the diaper years you may come across diaper rash diaper rash is caused from prolonged contact with urine and stool along with the friction...
of the diaper and it can cause a bright red rash diaper rash can be prevented or minimized at least by changing soiled diapers right away cleaning the bottom and genital area very well using unscented wipes or plain water and exposing the bottom to fresh air on a regular basis skin that has moisture on it over long periods of time is more prone to breaking down and getting irritated especially with stool or urine so we want to make sure those diapers stay clean and that after you've cleaned them that they are dry dry dry before you put on the next diaper a good barrier cream i recommend boudreau's butt paste but there are other brands out there it's a preventable as well as a treatment after you clean the

baby

and the

baby

is very very dry you can always put a thin layer of diaper rash cream on their bottom to prevent that urine and stool from sitting directly on the skin it's kind of like a little barrier so if you'd like to do that you can no matter how diligent you are your

baby

may still get diaper rash if the

baby

does do not rub the sore area wash the area well with clean warm water if you have to use a bulb syringe which we'll talk about how to use it later you can use that to rinse it with warm water so that you don't have to rub them clean pat the area dry with a soft cloth to remove moisture let the area air dry when possible and use diaper ointments you can always call your doctor or speak with the nurse at the doctor's office...
regarding this if you have concerns sometimes a diaper rash can be compounded with a yeast infection as well on the bottom this is extremely painful and extremely sore you may notice white patches or rays whelps on the skin as well as redness if you are at all concerned about your

baby

's skin your

baby

's bottom by all means feel free to call the physician or speak to the nurse anytime you have any concerns sudden infant death syndrome or sids is the sudden death of a healthy infant less than one year of age putting infants to sleep on their backs we found reduces the risk of sids there are other steps that can reduce the risk of sids and keep your

baby

safe in the definition of sids you'll notice the words healthy infant these infants as far as we can tell don't have any other risk factors or problems that would cause them to pass prior to the first year of age what we can do is research each individual situation and find some common denominators eliminate those common denominators thus reducing the risk of sids to reduce the risk of sids we can place our

baby

on his or her back for all naps and at bedtimes we can have the

baby

sleep in a bed near the parents bed not smoking during pregnancy reduces the risk of sids not exposing the

baby

to second hand smoke also reduces the risk of sids breastfeeding one month exclusively reduces the risk of sids by 50 percent avoiding overheating providing the

baby

with supervised tummy time making sure all

care

givers know...
to place the

baby

on their backs to sleep i want to speak about tummy time tummy time is important we very much push back to sleep put the babies on their back to sleep but tummy time is also very important it helps them to learn to push up hold their heads up and develop muscles in their back and in their bodies and skills that they need so putting a blanket on the floor putting the

baby

on their tummy with supervision is also an important part it can be fun as we get close to delivery to think about what pieces of furniture that we want to use for the

baby

or just collect the things that we will use part of these things include cribs purchase a crib that meets all the safety standards purchase a firm mattress that fits securely in the crib use sheets that fit tightly on the mattress and remove all soft items and loose bedding from the crib all of this reduces the opportunity for any of these things to get stuffed by the

baby

's face to occlude their breathing or even for the

baby

to get trapped between the mattress and the bars of the crib or the backboard of the crib so we just need everything to fit as it's supposed to and minimize what's inside of the crib i would like to also point out that some of the older vintage cribs have larger spacing in the bars than is safe so you may want to look at what the safety recommendation is if you plan to use a vintage crib and make sure that it meets the safety requirements that the

baby

's head cannot get stuck in the...
bars you may have considered buying pacifiers or been gifted some pacifiers thus far studies have shown that offering a pacifier can reduce the risk of sids the american academy of pediatric recommends delaying pacifier introduction until one month of age to ensure that breastfeeding is firmly established a pacifier should only be offered at nap time and at bedtime sucking on a pacifier is easier in a different motion than drinking from the breast so to introduce two different methods of sucking can be confusing it's easier to establish that breastfeeding well first and then introduce the pacifier bath time bath time is a special time to bond with your

baby

preparation for bath time just like diaper changing is very important gather all your supplies and have them within reach before you begin set your water heater below 120 degrees fahrenheit to prevent scalding gather all supplies needed and have them within reach bathe in a warm draft free room test the bath water temperature it should be about 100 degrees keep one hand on your

baby

at all times and never place a cotton swab or any pointy sharp object in your

baby

's ears eyes or nose never leave your

baby

to answer the phone or the door or to retrieve an item not even for one second if you remember we talked about not bathing the

baby

fully submerging into water until after the umbilical cord has fallen off in the meantime we'll do a sponge bath a sponge bath is when you fill a small basin with warm water...
you're going to test the water with your elbow to make sure that it is not too hot or too cold you're going to lay your

baby

on a soft towel or a blanket undress your

baby

down to the diaper and to keep the

baby

covered during bath time is the best way to keep them warm just expose one body part at a time so you can cover them lightly or even leave the diaper on and take the rest everything else off cut cover the

baby

lightly with a little blanket or towel expose one arm bubble up and wipe off that arm rinse it dry it cover that arm uncover the next arm do that arm wash rinse dry cover that arm and go to each body part in that fashion avoid the umbilical cord clean around the umbilical cord on the abdomen and do the rest of the

baby

to clean the

baby

's eyes dip a corner of a washcloth in warm water squeeze out the excess water and wipe the eyes from the inside away from the nose use a clean corner of the cloth for the other eye you'll want to use a clean damp washcloth to wipe one side of the face at a time next clean the ear and neck area make sure that you get the folds in the

baby

's neck and right behind the

baby

's ear of course do not cover your

baby

's face with the washcloth when you wash their body uncover only a small area of the body at a time use a mild soap for washing wash and rinse the chest the arms and the hands first the upper body next you'll wash their limbs wash their legs their thighs and their feet remember to clean under...
their arms in the creases of their elbows behind their knees between their fingers and toes and lastly we'll wash the genital area their bottoms really shouldn't be that dirty you've been cleaning them throughout the day remove the diaper and clean the bottom and genital area wipe from the front to the back clean in all the folds and wrap the

baby

in a clean dry towel now that they're wrapped in a nice warm dry towel you can wash their hair hold the babies securely in the football hold wet their hair by squeezing clean warm water from the washcloth or you can even put it under the faucet if you're by the kitchen sink or a place where that's convenient apply a small amount of tearless shampoo to the scalp and rub briskly but gently into a lather you can use a washcloth or you can use your hands of course keep the shampoo out of their eyes rinse with clean warm water towel dry and gently brush their hair with a

baby

brush regular shampooing and gentle brushing of the scalp with a soft brush may help prevent cradle cap once the umbilical cord falls off and the circumcision is fully healed infants can be tub bathed since infants do not get dirty tub baths two or three times a week with spot cleaning of the face neck and bottom are sufficient you'll notice that your

baby

's fingernails grow quickly and they can be sharp you may even notice that they appear to be long and sharp on the day of delivery to prevent injuries to babies eyes and face keep...
their nails trimmed and smooth because skin grows under the fingernail the safest tool for trimming and smoothing is an emery board as we said earlier it's not if your

baby

spits up it's when your

baby

spits up spitting up and bulb suctioning your

baby

may spit up small amounts from their mouth and their nose bulb suctioning helps to remove this take the bulb suction in your hand squeeze first insert the bulb syringe into the

baby

's mouth between the cheek and the gums and then release i emphasized squeeze first if you take a bulb syringe and you squeeze it toward yourself you will feel a puff of air come out you don't want to blow a puff of air down your child's throat or up their nose they will not appreciate it so squeeze the bulb suction first place it slide it on the inside of their cheek toward the back of their mouth between the gum and the cheek not in the middle because it will trigger their gag reflex along the side and then let it re-inflate as it re-inflates it will draw in anything that is there squeeze and insert the bulb syringe into each nostril and release so again you're gonna squeeze the bulb syringe then put it right in the tip of the

baby

's nostril and gently let it reinflate pulling out any mucus or anything that would be there if you wonder whether you should do their nose or their mouth first it's in alphabetical order l-m-n-o-p m-n mouth first then the nose always suction the

baby

's mouth before the nose if...
secretions or milk is present in both before i became a nurse i thought that breastfeeding and bottle feeding were the same just different but now i've learned that they are very different it's important for parents to research and learn about both methods of feeding and decide what's best for your family the american academy of pediatrics and the world health organization strongly advise breastfeeding as the sole form of nutrition for infants under six months of age and to continue breastfeeding until at least one year of age or two years the benefits of breastfeeding for

baby

are that the longer you breastfeed the more your

baby

's immune system can benefit from breast milk the first milk that comes in is called colostrum and if you were to express it and look at it you would notice that it is a bright sun flowery yellow color we call it liquid gold it's a yellowish fluid produced by the breasts in the first few days of life this colostrum is high in carbs protein and antibodies antibodies build the

baby

's immune system it has a mild laxative effect for the first bowel movements it's made by you just for your

baby

's needs no substitute is exactly the same the benefits of breastfeeding for mom one is that nursing burns extra calories up to 500 extra calories a day which can help you shed pregnancy pounds so while you're just being mom and producing milk without trying you're burning about 500 extra calories a day it also releases...
oxytocin this returns your uterus to the normal size and decreases bleeding it can save time and money you don't have anything to purchase measure or mix there are no bottles or nipples to sterilize breast milk is sterile it is known to prevent cancer for the breast ovarian cancer and osteoporosis and of course it's a good opportunity for bonding bonding bonding as you're taking that time with your

baby

every

baby

is going to have his or her own feeding pattern let your

baby

breastfeed as much as he or she wants especially in those first days no certain amount of time to feed from the breast some people are fast eaters some people are slow eaters let the

baby

nurse until releases the breast or falls asleep you may offer the other breast if the

baby

is still hungry after the first breast your

baby

should be breastfed eight or more times in a 24-hour period feeding patterns may differ from one day to the next when babies are going through growth spurts of course they want to eat more some feedings may be clustered close together or a few hours apart do not expect your

baby

to sleep through the night during the first few weeks or months of life this is normal for all babies breast milk digests easily and quickly around 72 hours after birth the milk will change in color and in the amount so within the first few days of life you'll notice that your breasts will get more full and more volume of fluid the

baby

's stomach size will also increase at birth their...
stomach is only about the size of a walnut they can't hold very much and they use it up quickly that's why they eat so often as your

baby

needs more your body will make more it's a supply and demand as we wind down our presentation we wanted to take a minute and answer a couple of questions that you may have regarding the experience and what to expect when you go to the hospital we often get asked who can be in the delivery room we allow one support person family member significant other with you you can also expect a nurse for you the mom a nurse for the

baby

your doctor that will deliver and a helper for the doctor a scrub tech who will hand him his supplies or her her supplies and whatever that they need for the delivery in a vaginal delivery that team is in the room we deliver in the room our rooms are ldrp rooms so you go through the labor process you deliver you recover and you have your postpartum time all in the same room you don't move rooms throughout your experience the room that you check into is the room that you check out of in a c-section we do the same thing you check into a room we get you ready for your c-section you go to the c-section area your

baby

's delivered we give you that time together with your

baby

that first magical hour which is the same that we do in a vaginal delivery we bring you back to your room where you recover and you stay until it's time for you to go home we do encourage you to breastfeed within that first hour...
after delivery you can initiate that on your own or we are happy to help you with that we'll be right there with you so long as you're okay with it we do encourage what we call kangaroo

care

or skin to skin for that first hour or until the completion of the first breastfeeding we do allow you to room in so you don't have to be separated from your

baby

if your

baby

goes to the nicu our priority is to have you and

baby

together as quickly and as soon as possible sometimes babies go to the nicu the neonatal intensive

care

unit for observation for a short period of time or for treatment if necessary but in either circumstance we make it our business to very frequently communicate with you to let you know what is going on and to allow you to be at the bedside with your

baby

as much as possible during your

baby

stay you may wonder what are some of the things that i can expect to be done for my

baby

while i'm at st tammany the

baby

will immediately be assessed by a nurse and a pediatrician we typically give injections of vitamin k and hepatitis b they get a ribbon of erythromycin eye ointment on the lower lashes we will do a newborn screening which is a blood test they prick the heel and get a drop of blood for what's called the pku we'll do a hearing screening to ensure that all of the parts of the ear work properly if you have a boy and you desire for him to be circumcised we'll do that we take pictures professional pictures the photographer will come...
to your room and ask you if you would like to have family pictures done we will check your

baby

's oxygen level every day which we call pulse ox tests and we will fill out a form with

baby

footprints and their identity bracelet to ensure that you're bringing home the right

baby

i'd like you to note that all procedures such as vitamin k and hepatitis b injections the pku hearing screening circumcisions all of these things are done with consent when you arrive at the hospital we go through each of these things and let you sign for understanding on each of these individual tasks if at any time you would not like your

baby

to have one of these things done you absolutely can let the staff know becoming a new parent is exciting but it's also exhausting the labor process can bring hours of not sleeping or discomfort and after the

baby

is delivered it is really important that mom and support person rests so each day we have quiet time from 1 30 to 3 30. this is the time of the day where we discourage visitors from coming we encourage you to plan around this time plan to rest plan to take a nap plan to watch a movie just be still and recuperate having visitors is a blessing but it can also be exhausting when you're recuperating from delivery so expect quiet time from 1 30 to 3 30 pm daily mom

baby

and champion who is your support person rests and bond in the mother's room undisturbed visitors are asked to not come at this time staff interruptions are limited...
other helpful information is that you may notice on our name badges there's a pink stripe across our name that means that we work on this unit our unit is a locked unit to ensure safety for mom and

baby

the all doors are locked and only those with a pink stripe across their badge are able to swipe and enter the unit we do not have nurses from other units working on our unit and we don't go to other units and come back to work on hours in other places of the hospital the patients are sick and that is why they're here on new family center our moms aren't sick they're just having a

baby

we don't want to bring those germs and cross-contaminate so those that work on our unit stay on our unit only approved personnel have the pink stripe across their badge to

care

for you and your

baby

we do have certified lactation consultants on staff available 24 hours a day if you are a breastfeeding mom they will come by your room and ensure that you are comfortable with feeding your

baby

before you go home the birth certificate worksheet will be filled out while you're here it will be applied for and you can expect the birth certificate and the social security card for your new

baby

to arrive at the address that you put probably your home within the next few months choose a pediatrician in advance ask for suggestions from friends and loved ones interview them set up a meeting with them if you like prior to coming to the hospital it's important that you know...
which pediatrician that you would like the

baby

to see afterwards because you will be going for a one week checkup to check

baby

's weight how their feeding circumcision umbilical cord all of these things st tammany health systems does have the parenting center to support you throughout your

baby

and child's lifetime we have support groups we have play groups we have breastfeeding groups we have all kinds of things to support you so look that up the parenting center for st tammany parish hospital you will need a car seat to bring the

baby

home and if you have any questions we are happy to answer them thank you for joining us for the online

baby

care

basics

presentation i hope it's been informative i hope you've learned something new we're excited for you as you look forward to your upcoming arrival of your amazing

baby

if you have any questions please email the women and children's services clinical director d giovingo stph.org o dgiov i n g o at stph.org and she will forward your email to the appropriate instructor