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ATP & Respiration: Crash Course Biology #7

Apr 01, 2022
And the girls of today. NAD+ and FAD are like giant batteries that capture hydrogen and the excited electrons of pyruvate, increasing their energy. Adding hydrogen converts them to NADH and FADH2, respectively. Each pyruvate molecule produces three NADH molecules and one FADH2 molecule in a ring, and since glucose is catabolized into two pyruvate molecules, each glucose molecule produces six NADH molecules and two FADH2 molecules. The main goal of the Krebs cycle is to produce these two energy-rich molecules for the final stage, the electron transport chain. And you say, "For the sake of pyruvate, Hank! Aren't we supposed to build ATP?
atp respiration crash course biology 7
Come on champ! Why the delay?" Your patience has paid off my friends, because when it comes to ATP production, the electron transport chain is the real source of it. In a highly efficient cell, you can make 34 delicious ATP molecules. Remember the NADH and FADH2 molecules produced by the Krebs cycle? Its electrons will supply the energy needed to act as a pump for a chain of transporter proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane where the Krebs cycle occurred. These proteins will exchange electrons to send hydrogen protons from the center of the mitochondrion and through its inner membrane to the outer component of the mitochondrion.
atp respiration crash course biology 7

More Interesting Facts About,

atp respiration crash course biology 7...

But as soon as the protons come out, they want to go back to the other side of the inner membrane, because of the large number of protons outside, and as we learned, nature tries to create a balance on both sides of the membrane. Then these restless protons can come back thanks to an enzyme called ATP synthase. The energy from the proton rush drives a crazy mechanism that combines ADP with phosphate to form ATP. So the electrons in the 10 NADH molecules created by the Krebs cycle have enough energy to make about 4 ATP. And let's not forget our two friends, FADH2, as they both produce ATP.
atp respiration crash course biology 7
Here we are! This is how animal cells around the world make ATP through cellular

respiration

. Just to be sure, let's count the ATP molecules that one glucose molecule can make. Again: 2 ATP molecules were produced from each pyruvate molecule via glycolysis, 2 molecules in the Krebs cycle, and 34 molecules in the electron transport chain. And this is from a glucose molecule. Imagine how much energy your body produces and uses each day. Don't spend all your energy on one thing! You can go back and watch any part of this episode that you didn't understand. I really want to finish this quick because I'm so tired.
atp respiration crash course biology 7
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