AP Human Geography: 6.2 Cities Across the World
hi welcome to ap
Geographyfor the second lesson my name is Kristen Brandt and I am so excited that you are joining us today my you notices lovely headset my um I've earned some street cred with my own children as I look like a gamer didn't even know what that was until until all of this started but I really do thank you for joining us for our second day I'm going to go ahead and share my screen so we can get going and here we go today we are going to focus on
worldI know that there's some trepidation of why are we learning about
citieswhen it's not going to be assessed on the college board exam I'm going to explain it all we're gonna connect it but we're gonna keep the learning moving forward and that's our ultimate goal as I said my name is Kristen Brandt I'm from Glenbard West High School I live in Glen Ellyn Illinois and I'm gonna show you a little bit later crazy through maps where I live but just a smidge about myself I'm a mom of three kids I've been teaching ap
humangeo I think close to ten years with a wonderful team of teachers here at Glenbard West in district 87 and so I'm super excited and thrilled to be sharing some of our experiences with all of you as well so as a warm up yesterday you met with many of you met with my colleague and Linsley and miss Linsley left you with these 5fr cues to think about now part of the homework then was to think about these different tasks that we...
might ask on the frq and i'm sure there's a little bit of anxiety with the new frq format please make sure you turn in to our last two lessons because miss Linsley is going to lead you through some frq review tips because she actually helped lead teachers through this process last summer and over the last year so she's an expert and you're in great hands couple things to think about here so identifying what types of government services are needed to need to be provided anytime you see the word identify we're probably thinking a one to two-sentence this is usually where my students are going yes I've got this I guess for this question I would definitely think about maybe here such as our Medicare services and how that can help provide services for an increasing old age dependency ratio identifying how urbanization changes traditional cultural practices again I would say one to two sentences here you're really just looking at I would say probably the difficulties of holding on to your traditional cultural practices in an ever-changing
worldwhen you're met with a lot of different people number three describing the relationship of market gardening to large urban areas so anytime three and four when you see the word describe really this is where we need you to expand and give lots of details and if you're anything like my students this is where I continuously am struggling to get them to give me more what my students want to do is they just...
well you know what I mean mrs. Brant you've got this but if you don't connect the dots for the readers we don't know what you're saying so the big thing here that we would want to look at you know if you're looking for market describe the relationship between market gardening to large urban areas the short answer that you would need to expand upon though is that relationship to the central market and so we would talk about transportation costs the perishable foods you would want to make sure that that's why we needed to be close to the market because of those things describing one positive or one negative effect of the rural to urban and one negative sorry and effect of rural to urban migration you would want to focus on I guess some positives access to stable food sources access to better healthcare access to better education would be some examples but don't just say that explain why that access is to those things is a positive if you're gonna say a negative is this housing issue in this rural to urban migration which we're going to talk a little bit more about today that's part of it but you haven't described it what's happening why is that going on so think three four or five sentences as you describe and then explain for some reason we do a little better with explain than describe with my students explain why the site and situation of a place influences its role in a globalized
worldI know that miss Linsley really hit site...
and situation pretty hard yesterday think of this idea of using because so if you were going to say the site and so we talked about ports okay because so the city you know we talk about the globalized
citiesthat develop along ports they're important because so make sure you're continuing to develop that so again highly recommend tune in the last couple days to make sure that you're able of our review sessions with miss Lindsay as she goes into more details about how to answer if our cues so what are we gonna do today today we are gonna look at
worldultimately what I want to do you can read this I'm not gonna read it to you but ultimately what we want to do is we want to look at why there and then where are they you know crazy geographers we like maps and so we're gonna look at tons of maps so I thought I'd actually start a little bit with scale and looking at me so and I forgot that this slide was there next so we are going to connect to maps and so we definitely want to look at the clustering we want to look at those spatial relations we also want to look at scales so I'm going to show you what I mean by definitely we're going to talk a little bit mostly global and national and then we want to talk about some of the consequences that come from that as well so you're going to see that this is pulling from Chapter one and from Chapter two you're sorry unit 1 in unit 2 okay so where in the
worldam i from...
and I know that I've already spilled it but I still think we could use maps to do this when we talk about looking at
citieshere we're looking at
citiesurban population according to the UN in 2018 fifty-five percent of the
world's population was living in an urban area so you would look at this in your got well clearly she's probably and one of the good possibility she's in one of those
citiesand then you're listening to my accent or watching my hand gestures or you're listening to me and you're going okay how do can we even narrow it down further you're gonna say well she's probably in the United States so when we look at this map we see major metropolitan areas we can look at definitely this proportional sized map and we can see where people are located and I did tell you that I was in Illinois in Glen Ellyn Illinois which probably doesn't mean a lot to you but here's what I'll tell you 80% of the population the United States roughly lives in an urban area okay so we'll keep narrowing it down well the good state of Illinois and so 75% of the population in Illinois actually lives within the Chicago metro area and so we can keep zooming in and we can zoom in even further we can start looking at
citiesyou'll notice Glen Ellyn is not marked on there if you look along the line between I'm really close to Wheaton and I will take a look at transportation systems the role that that plays but part of why we...
ended up there is because of those transportation lines because of the school since we're gonna fit all of that into our story today so I'm also a little bit a little bit country and so I can't wait to do our agriculture reviews with you I grew up in a small town in Wisconsin thousand people I now teach in a school that has 2,400 students so how could i en't go from a town of a thousand to living in twenty eight thousand school that's 2,400 people part of that has to do with types of jobs that we do things that we're looking for for our children my husband builds high-rises and at the end of the day probably weren't going to build a lot of high-rises in rural northern Wisconsin now is it a place I love to go vacation absolutely but if we're going to talk about raising our kids and we talk about things that might my husband's career this is what offers more for our family so then a lot of change over the last 100 and some years when we talk about urban growth so there's a few vocab words that we want to make sure that you're exposed to so we talk about urban sprawl that unrestricted growth housing commercial development roads over a large expanse of land and so when we look at Chicago for example we can see in 1900 you can definitely see it clustered along the lakeshore so you're gonna some of you are probably sitting here like why do I need to know about Chicago Chicago is not gonna be on the test so Chicago mirrors a lot of the...
things that other
citiesare experiencing or have experienced and so this is what I know from firsthand experience and I want to just be able to share that story with you when we take a look at Chicago we see it developing along the lakeshore we're looking for those patterns and I know miss Linsley talked a lot about that yesterday we take a look at I could probably even find some if I'm watch where real lines actually are developing today major highways in how we can move people this is 1900 and we start to see people moving closer to the city but then also then pushing out and part of that has to do with we can only hold so many and we look at take a look at here in 2005 and so then we also start looking at is where are these people going and why are they going there why not stay in the city if the city has everything to offer well part is land cost part is people want space and part is people want other opportunities and so what we started to see is this development of suburbanization so what we saw is the upper middle class people moving from the urban core to the surrounding outskirts today what we'll probably see you'll see some trends here this was actually some Chicago trend analysis that we tend to see a decrease in people move leaving the city of Chicago but an increase in to the inner suburbs so different rings and then the outer suburbs and we'll talk about the exurbs in just a little bit but those outer suburbs you know this is where people...
are really looking for space they're looking for space they're looking for schools they're looking for in their mind more a decrease probably in in crime they're looking for more of a community feel and so one of those things though at what cost so this is an aerial shot and you can see definitely the development of those neighborhoods you can see though where there's some farmland and part of that the draw here too is that open space but the more that move out there we end up losing a lot of that farmland I'm hoping if my students are listening right now that they see those grid systems that they've tried to that are starting to disappear but if we kept flying they might remember that phrase township and range and how we how the land was divided up as we moved westward I kind of like I love Google Earth if you ever get an opportunity to play around on Google Earth I highly recommend it so one of our largest suburbs in the Chicagoland area's Naperville little shoutout if you guys are listening and Naperville is a highly respected community you'll see the interstate I 88 here centered around a downtown and so that idea of having a small downtown and trying to really create that small-town feel you'll see parks you'll see places for Pete you'll see schools if we zoom in even a little bit further Naperville is pretty interesting too you'll find community elementary schools you'll find suburbs or subdivisions that are...
typically centered around a little Clubhouse or a pool trying to kind of bring those communities together we zoom in even closer this one you can see is centered around a golf course if you've never done this it's a really fascinating zoom in to pick them any major city in the
worldand zoom in and try and find their golf course when we talk about globalization when we talk about growth you're gonna typically find a golf course in major
citiesit's a place for business it's a place for for relaxation and entertainment but it's interesting on how different areas will let their homes and their housing developments be developed around there so I mentioned this idea at the exurbs and those exurbs what we're taking a look at are those prosperous residential districts beyond the burbs so this is kind of a I would say a newer term that we're starting to track a little bit more we've seen this I mean you can see here they started tracking in 1900 and it hasn't you know stayed pretty small for quite a while but part of that is because when we take a look at transportation spur tation connectivity I mean the fact that you're even watching online right now I mean as part of that where we see some of the fastest X herb growth is actually in Los Angeles New York City these are people that typically are wanting not even I'm just going to show you not even this type of of neighborhood they're wanting even more space and so what allows them...
to do that variety of transportation options and that ability to telecommute ok so what do you need to take away from all this because here's this crazy lady talking at me urban sprawl isn't just happening in Chicago urban sprawl is happening across the globe but what we're really talking about is happening in MDC's so the difference here is B 2 urbanization so that rural to urban movement we are seeing global we're going to come back to that urban sprawl what we're talking about here is that once we've established it then that choice of moving outward so for example take a look at the most sprawling metropolitan areas in the United States it's a pretty good chance or possibility that some of you that are listening live in one of these regions have you ever driven through some of these you're like yeah it just feels like it's city upon city upon city I was doing a little bit of reading about the Riverside San Bernardino San Bernardino sorry metropolitan region what's interesting about that one is that you could be over close to 200 miles away from that urban core that to me is interesting from the standpoint you wouldn't consider that your home base so at what cost you know we're taking away all of this land but then what else has to develop as we're moving throughout this area my dog apparently decided to come and join us so I apologize so one of the things that we take a look at though is how do you keep up like think...
how big that Riverside metropolitan region is how do you keep up and so what's happening are these boom burbs so these are rapidly growing suburban
citiesthat represent a new metropolitan form so take a look at this list so as you're writing down a definition as you're listening to this where do you notice that most of these
citiesare Phoenix LA San Diego San Francisco where we see the largest boom burbs taking place we see them in that southwest region now you're gonna say crazy lady what about Chicago what about Seattle so it's happening in other places but we're seeing a lot in that southwest region and part of why we're seeing it is that climate is a big draw business is a big draw but we can't keep up with the building so in the core what we're finding with these boom ba herbs is that they're lacking the Central City so the as they're developing its kind of just like housing developments upon housing developments then there's going to be strip malls there's going to be people about people so the resources will be there but what's not gonna be there is necessarily that small town community feel I like in my in my suburb I walk about four blocks and I'm in downtown Glen Ellyn and I can go to the Starbucks when it's open and it can crab I like white hot chocolate so I can grab a drink with my friends I can then go walk we've got a little cute theater or I can just walk through the downtown but typically...
I'm saying hi to a lot of people in the boom Birds burbs it's gonna you're not gonna feel that same walkability you're gonna drive do a lot of those things we also see with boom burbs ton of traffic congestion we see more urban sprawl so taking over of the of that farmland in that open space the access to resources still have to be there and so how do we accommodate and oftentimes what we see develop our edge
citiesso what's an edge city whoa crazy it's an economic Center on the fringe of a city extensive amount of office and retail space typically near a major Road that's the key I need you to know edge
citiesare gonna develop along those major interstates so I'm gonna use one that's near and dear close partly because I've been there many times and it's Rosemont Illinois so on this you can see our major interstates here's 90 here's 294 here's 190 this is O'Hare Airport is gonna be over here so I Drive by this area when I'm going to drop people off at the airport or if I'm gonna go on a trip not now obviously but hopefully again in the future but right now when I Drive by and I Drive by this this area that's been built up in Rosemont it has a lot of the same things that I would find in downtown Chicago a lot of the restaurants activities the prime outlets so I can do some shopping for our sport fans there's the Big Ten headquarters are located right there but it's that idea of easy on easy off...
access and so they don't have to go all the way into the city that a lot of those resources are right there so that idea of the edge city again on the fringe we're gonna find office and retail space near major roads so how does that connect to other things that we've learned when we start talking about development and we start talking about interconnectivity how do we maintain that interconnectivity as we're moving outside of our norm okay so it's a lot of talk about Chicago a lot of talk about the United States so we do need to probably talk a little bit about what's happening around the
worldso as I mentioned there's a ton of rural to urban movement across the globe why if you said in your head that's where the jobs are the resources are located there not making it on the farms those are that is those are the right answers you're pulling people into these
citiesbut what happens when they get there so we're going to see different things at different locations in different countries so the first thing that I want to do is talk about some definitions and I apologize that my face is covering some of the definitions here I will work on that for future presentations so mega
citieswere talking more than ten million residents medicine
citieswere talking over 20 million at the end of the day these are huge
citiesbut they didn't just spring up over time so I'm gonna pause for a second and I'm gonna if you can get...
access to a blank map or you want to just create a list that's fine as well and practice mapping later I'm kind of stalling if you wanted to do that but I would say that having the blank map and practicing some mapping skills is going to be helpful for this next a little bit I need to work out some music so if you were able to find a map because I'm sure all of your teachers have them handy for you because we asked you to map all the time what we're gonna do is we're gonna go through a series of the ten most populous
citieswe're gonna look at three different time periods so part of why we're looking at 1975 is because I was born in 1975 that's where you're all supposed to laugh or groan but ahead of all seriousness it is one of our times when we're checking doubling time over the course of history this is when we hit one of those markers and so it is one of those those time periods where some of you are probably saying this is around my age my parents that this is kind of we're gonna see some rapid growth the doubling time is starting to pick up so this is this is why we were using that out of all seriousness so these were the top 10
citiesin 1975 now notice I did not put their countries after each city why because you need to start to be able to mental map you need to be able to look at Tokyo and go Japan what do I know about Japan New York City the United States what do I know about the United States so what we're gonna do...
is we're gonna actually I did this on notability and I went through and I labeled them and I labeled them three different times so I'm gonna walk you through it we're gonna do a kind of what do you see what are some trends because what I'm about the end of the course of the three of these series of maps what I want you to be able to see is how things have changed drastically from 1975 to the PERT project and projected numbers that we're going to look at in 2030 so 1975 I am using this lovely pink color so as we said we marked by my cheat sheet here we did Tokyo first and so when we look at Tokyo Japan we talked about New York City and then also Shanghai looking at China now when you look at all three of those if you're able to zoom and you would see that they're on the coast yesterday when you're attacking with miss Linsley you were talking about site why the coast ok so what's there I always find it interesting when I go to the fourth and you go to Mexico City it's located inland why what problems could that present yet at the same time why is it ranked fourth in 1975 we go back to the coasts we look at South Paulo Brazil Osaka now if your worst in my class you probably mrs. Brandt you've never talked about Osaka but in 1975 one of the top ten largest
citiesin the United States or in the
worldsorry in the
worldBuenos Aires Argentina another coastal study gotta bring LA in there Paris France and Beijing China just take a minute...
to look at this map take a look at kind of where they're situated across the globe take a look at are they in MDC's are they in LD seas okay let's see what happens so we are going to jump to the year 2025 years later and you should notice some changes take a look Mexico City jumped from four to one Tokyo down to three Sao Paulo wait a second in 25 years we've added Kolkata Mumbai and Delhi your flag should be going off going wait a second they're in the same country New York
citiesstill remain Seoul how did that end up in there Shanghai Rio de Janeiro so let's take a look at our map and it'll talk just a little bit as we're going through this so take a look at what came off the list okay came off the list la Paris Beijing Osaka - series so why what's going on well part in Mexico City we take a look at higher birth rates we take a look at people moving to their center point that this is where their government is centered we take a look at South Paulo you know continues to grow on that coastline we'll look at some problems here in just a second with that Tokyo and you might be going how did Osaka move off the list Osaka is still one of the largest
worldI will say it gets difficult sometimes on when you were in your political unit of where are those lines and those boundaries depending on how we're defining at the time that are they kind of a continuous area but we would say it's still ranked extremely high it just...
as clearly not at the same level as Delhi take a look here at India we're gonna put in Delhi Mumbai Calcutta New York City stayed Seoul Shanghai we had Rio de Janeiro just north of South Paulo and Delhi okay now you should see for those of you that are that are looking you're probably going mrs. Brandt for those BRICS countries are kind of dominating look at there we've got Brazil we've got India we've got China and so when we're really looking as far as where is that development occurring they are occurring think about your stages of development you know these are your countries that are shifting to stage three and really trying to move to stage four along that demographic transition model so let's take a look at some projections and so when I look at some projections this comes from the
WorldEconomic Forum I'm not gonna lie when I was researching this you find different projections all the time and I guess that's just it remember when we talk about data collection and we talk about projections there's some statistical margin of error there's no way that we and count every single person although I please tell me this is a little PSA for all of you in the United States that it is the census time make sure your families are completing there so we can have as accurate as count as possible but out of all seriousness there are sometimes some full fault sorry some flaws in our calculations but again projection most had all these
on every time I was looking at different sources so it jumps back up there is Tokyo I'm sure your teachers have talked about the density of Tokyo talked about the my students love the people pushers do that image of the Train and we're putting people on the train trying to move to and from they also love like the little kind of tubes that people are staying in because of the long hours that they're the hotels but take a look at Delhi Mumbai that really that growth just continues in India hopefully you talked about population strategies when you were looking at India when we review population in a couple weeks we'll talk more about that but you know that idea of education that idea so how do we slow that growth Shanghai continues to be a major port and that's going to pull people into to those areas when we talk about but you're gonna see we added Dhaka Karachi Cairo Lagos so let's take a look and we'll talk when we look at the map here so you'll notice that the United States came off the list you're noticing that even look at South America came off the list if you notice I wish you could see my fingers like go across the band but it just seems like we're really staying along that that tropic of cancer region of of our
citiesand so Tokyo remains on the list and that is it's become that technological hub it's going to move goods in and out and if you're a mover and shaker in Japan it's where you're gonna live we...
look at you know Shanghai and Delhi you know again Shanghai we talked about the port Delhi that that Center for India Mumbai is a cultural hub it's a port as well my students would be like talking about the entertainment industry of Mumbai as well Beijing you know the government the political center we added in Dhaka in Bangladesh and so we'll talk more about when we get to development talk more about some of the poverty issues some of the the struggles within Bangladesh we add in Pakistan and Karachi we add in Cairo along the Nile River we add in Lagos in Nigeria and so I wait to talk a lot about Nigeria and creating those islands of development creating these these center points for for business for people to come to you but transnational corporations to come in and move their goods in and out and Mexico City stays on the list Maxo KO city continues to grow at really high rates and one of the problems that it's dealing with our people is pollution and when we're taking a look at it kind of gets trapped by the mountains and so how do we how does it continue to develop it also deal with some of those environmental concerns and that's actually a pretty good segue to when we start looking at some of the problems that are going to occur why do we look at that you know this comes from the United Nations and we start talking about the distribution of the
world's urban population you know we take a look at just look at how many people are moving to
lot of good things that can come from moving to
citieswhen we take a look at access to to health care to food to jobs we know that if we're going to help lift up a country from being from the periphery from that those less developed countries that really this is where you need to be as far as kind of advancing and giving people opportunities but it does it comes at a cost so even in core areas it comes at a cost it comes at a cost of losing our farmland it comes at a cost of congestion I don't know how many of your parents maybe spend hours and hours commuting it comes at a cost of rent prices those of you living in California or New York City I know that you hear a lot about this you know we talk you know why is California housing so on a for unaffordable so you can see a list here but how do we make this so that people can continue to to work and live in those areas so the United States or in MDC's we're pretty fortunate we're trying to build better transportation systems those edge
citiesare developing where we've got systems in place we've got government structures where eminent domain where sometimes we're take it's not easy but if this is that where we're gonna help the greater good taking over some of that land in the semi-periphery this is in Brazil I'm going to take a look at that center point around you know that we'll see the city of that urban center but then growing out here they're going to grow into the...
mountains and so if you remember the Olympics and Rio what you saw was a lot of looking at the favelas and looking at moving up into the mountains and how this housing upon housing and so really that lack of space was occurring one of the things that we also take a look at is crime rates in those really crowded areas the living conditions in the semi-periphery so in that I might say those BRICS countries that it's really creating they're obviously in a better position than when we get to when I show you the periphery next but they're still going to struggle with that rapid growth how do you keep up and that's where we really see in the periphery and then what we see in the periphery is this huge contrast between the haves versus have-nots you know take a look in the background of this urban area and then trying to build build your home just about anything so that you can just have access to that city access to those resources well there's other places that clearly are doing okay and it's frustrating you know take a look at the streets take a look at how crowded they are if you've ever if you if you can spend some time later today and look at the inner
citiesor look at the
citiesI love looking at India and looking at Mumbai and Kolkata and looking at the growth looking at the slums but also the beautiful culture that's developing within there but the struggles of how do we have access to clean water how do we have access to our sanitation how...
do we have that infrastructure is not in place I did I did a mission trip about 10 15 years ago and I I will just say I did that but I served in an area where they did not have access to clean water and so the trucks would bring the water and it became very difficult to to function if you don't have access to those those those resources and so things that a lot of us take for granted the fact we're sitting here on your phone your iPad your computer and you're watching this the difficulties that other people are having when when they're talking about just the access to those those basic necessities makes it a little bit difficult to how do we develop them and because you've got to take care of those basic needs first so ultimately we need you to be able to explain the similarities and differences among different locations or at different scales and so hopefully you'd be able to talk about transportation and so when you talk about transportation maybe if you're talking about within the mass transportation some trains buses things within MDC's that help move people in and out of
citieshighways where were the difficulties of transportation in part of in the periphery it could be the congestion but the infrastructure the roads are not set up for mass transit you could take a look at housing production the fact that the demand cannot keep up so the demand is greater than the product in the periphery so they cannot keep up and so people are building...
homes out of just about anything or if I take a look at in the united states the cost the height the closer yard of the city that bid-rent theory that how expensive it's gonna get and how do I maintain that landscape preferences being near the city and be having easy access or do you want that really correct or do you want that open space and then the social and demographic trends for example a lot of our urban areas here tend to be younger 20 you know 30 something's and what we find is when they have kids then they shift out to the suburbs do we find that in other places as well so we are near the end couple things that I would want you to do while you're not going to be tested on the vocab it is an opportunity for you to kind of practice some of it it doesn't hurt to know the vocab especially as we see a lot of these ideas that develop throughout our other our other units so you're probably not gonna have to define a boom verb that rapidly growing suburban city but in the population your unit you better know that that's people are moving to those areas those in edge
citieswell then where do we offer those services it's along the interstates it's giving them people that experience without having to go into the city then we got those prosperous areas those areas that why can we do that that telecommuting think about your space-time compression that you learned about earlier in the year mega
citiesat the end of the day...
you're gonna have to know where things are located because you have to be able to draw some conclusions and then ultimately we see that urban sprawl happening okay that that mass of unrestricted growth so as Miss Lindsay left you yesterday with some exam practice we pulled four different of our cues for you to think about so the relationship between population and the growth of mega
citiesmust develop countries explain how cultural enclaves develop an edge
citiesand suburbs that connects back to your culture unit explain why urban areas and nations on the periphery are growing at rapid rates think about the demographic transition model at number four describe all urbanization can impact a country's transition to stage three or four of the demographic transition model everything we talked about today maybe not necessarily the vocab word but those concepts all relate back to things that you you've been exposed to and we're going to continue to challenge you to think about those linkages as we move forward forward if you experienced or you know people that do not have access to internet or a device please take a look and help your friends help those that are looking into to get connected because college board does want to help I hope you really enjoyed today not gonna lie I was really nervous about spending time with you apparently because it's a long time to talk with nobody talking back to us I really hope you'll join miss Lindsay tomorrow as we finish...
up our discussion with our