Andromeda: Das Tor der Menschheit zum UniversumJun 12, 2022
a look at the starry sky tells us a lot at once a large part of the firmament is covered by stars about half of them consist of double stars like sirius a and b and two fifths of triple stars like alpha centauri a and b and proxima centauri very few are single stars , so our sun is an exception here, the closest star to the solo proxima centauri from Latin for the closest at only about 4 light-years away The most distant stars are, for example, the red supergiant betelgeuse or that of a million years old and the most massive known star r136a1 at a distance of 165.1000 light-years in the large magellanic cloud of a galaxy accompanying the milky way, another part of the starry sky is dominated by celestial bodies formerly known as stars wandering and that are nothing more than the planets of the solar system with the naked eye you can see planets like Venus Mars or Jupiter will not open a spectacular view acular to the human observer, but at least in the case of Mars, the planet's red exterior can be magnified, while Venus is known as the evening or morning star.
They are known, among other things, as the god of war Mars or Venus the goddess of beauty. Sometimes there are also smaller celestial bodies such as asteroids or comets, the latter in particular can be seen spectacularly in the sky, although they are not nor close to the earth thanks to their magnificent comet tails, which are often many millions of kilometers long, they can cover distances of many tens of millions of kilometers although these ice and dry dust shine wonderfully their diameter, that is, the comet nucleus, it is often only a few kilometers or 100 meters, so such celestial bodies, of course, cannot be seen directly, but melt and favor ice when it is in when we approach the sun, to sometimes we can find even smaller structures in the night sky 1800 beloved satellites of the american space company spacex can be seen in the sky, to the chagrin of astronomers, for true, since they sometimes pollute the night sky with a lot of light. all these objects are located at distances of a few hundred to millions of kilometers from earth or, in the case of stars, even many light-years away, they can be seen mainly by reflection of incident sunlight or their own luminosity, but wait a minute, doesn't that suggest a class of celestial bodies we've hitherto ignored? xien with some of you probably often know of many hundreds of billions of stars if they are as big as the milky way then they should not be seen by the thousands in the night sky and dwarf all the stars in the milky way ok that sounds logical at first, so let's first think about large or small magellanic clouds, small laxey companions in the milky way, which are also known as dwarf galaxies, you can see them with the naked eye on a very clear and light-polluted small night in the earth's southern hemisphere but if you look closer the night sky is a hazy and diffuse dark point visible a point called the little cloud by the persian astronomer al soofi in the 10th century AD and observed 700 years later with a telescope by the german the astronomer and mathematician simon marius, who called it the
andromedanebula as we know with certainty today
andromedais not a nebula like, for example, the orion or eagle nebula, but a star and the milky way but that was as the name suggests the andromeda nebula not always that different plus discovery and description over the centuries not only has something to do with our understanding of galaxies but also with how we humans perceive the universe and now we perceive that this galaxy is much more than just a neighbor of the milky way it can be said without exaggeration that our modern cosmological worldview would be completely different without andromeda how did that other one arise more there the acquisition of knowledge in astronomy so enriched and what secrets this galaxy holds that we will discover in this documentation we will make a very close visit to the largest neighboring galaxy of the milky way and we will realize that andromeda is much more than a galaxy because, as we will see at the end from the video, it also means our, for example future, but enough of the preamble, it starts with the discovery of the galaxy and why means the gateway to the universe for humanity and gastronomy, let's explore this wonderful galaxy in this documentary, of course, it is difficult to say exactly how long Andromeda has been known.
People, we can assume that high cultures already had a name for it thousands of years ago, however, since many earlier civilizations had no writing or the names of celestial objects were not passed down, the earliest mention of the galaxy is only 964 ad christ in a book by al soofi a prominent Persian astronomer of the middle ages is the first to go into the slightly nebulous nature of andromeda sign that can be seen in the sky with the naked eye the idea of andromeda as a kind of nebula and the above description of the galaxy stayed with humanity for several centuries received it took about 650 years for sic h completely disconnected from al soofi in a completely different region since 1612 german scientists also studied the galaxy but could not add anything new the galaxy continued Being proverbially nebulous in the minds of astronomers, it was only in 1750 that Immanuel Kant devised one after studying the starry sky. or innovative idea thought that there could be other stellar islands like the milky way and understood andromeda as an island universe these islands are infinitely larger than a solar system and with the proper viewing direction it can be seen that the elliptical shape of a distant system disk-shaped stellar structure results in a structure like the Milky Way.
However, as of the mid-18th century, such a claim is pure conjecture in the absence of scientific evidence, but predates Andromeda's true nature by 179 years, just 14 years later. that kant, charles messier suspected the andromeda nebula the brightness of millions of stars is that there is no connection between the milky way and andromeda he also got on the track of true nature a drama that without having concrete evidence for his statements but although messi he had no evidence for his claims he did astronomy a disservice he listed 103 nebulae cut galaxies up to the 1700's 80's in a catalog still used under his name and without which one cannot imagine astronomical cataloging 40 nebulae were discovered by himself and seven posthumously in the twentieth aggregate to this day in his catalog the galaxies are referred to by their name andromeda since then known as m31 object 31 in his catalog that the heir named with kant and messi concern for the galaxy The Milky Way's largest neighbor was in full swing in 1785.
William Herschel discovered a faint reddish hue in the middle of the galaxy. , described Andromeda as one of the closest large nebulae and estimated that the galaxy was 2,000 times too far away, that is, about 18,000 short years or 5.5 kilo paszek with the advent of photography also for objects in the sky , the Welsh engineer and businessman Isaf Roberts attached an image of the galaxy to a very accurate photograph for the time, which impressively shows not only the spiral structure of the galaxy, but also a smaller companion galaxy that can be located as m 110 in the upper left corner. half of the image and which was also taken by charles messier some very typical properties of andromeda were discovered were the well-known bright nucleus that appeared reddish in visible light as well as its spiral structure and the individual galaxies that accompany it, however, roberts misinterpreted its appearance thought it was ralf some sea of fog they called emerging star systems 19 12 for the vestas, using spectroscopy, that is, the observation of the individual color components of light, provides measurements of the radial velocity of the galaxy in relation to the milky way through which he arrived at a result of 300 kilometers per second, a value that is well above what astronomers have calculated today.
Humanity's understanding of the cosmos and its place in it was to be upended in the time following centuries of observation, but let us return once more to the original description of the cosmos and the view that it was a nebula until in the 1970s. from the 1920s galaxies were suspected to be nebulae within the milky way this was also believed to be the case although andromeda was photographed and clearly its spiral structure was shared by iceberg rovers but then the tide turned and the levers came in In the scenario that the American astronomer suspected for others, Omeda was a galaxy after he discovered a nova in 1917 and after looking at other more novel photographs in it, he saw that these magnets from Norway and Ten were weaker than those that occurred on the way. lactea and calculated a distance of at least 500,000 light years to andromeda his operations became a keen supporter of the so-called inci universe hypothesis, which we know from kant, for example, according to which the spiral nebulae are actually independent of the milky way galaxies were simply a kind of separate cosmos in the form of taking into account the stars, was a monstrous claim for the time at the beginning of the 20th century, most he still believed that the entire universe would only have the dimensions of the milky way.
Curtis started what became known as the great debate in the history of cosmology. discussed with well-known astronomer hello airplay about the nature of the nebel spiral milky way and therefore also about the dimensions of the universe as proof of this curtis cited that there are darker areas in andromeda that look very similar to the clouds of gas and dust from our own galaxy, i.e. the milky way, had just the summer after android historical recording the doppler effect on it also suggesting that it must be a single galaxy together with airplay participated in the great debate at the national academy of sciences in washington dc schäuble defended the classical view that spiral nebulae represent formations within the milky way that i heard arose at a time when only a few people think so.
The great debate finally took place in Europe as well. The Belgian priest Georges Lemaitre postulated in June 1927 the expansion of the universe according to Einstein's general theory of relativity. Just two years later. Hubble Proved extragalactic positions by means of the redshift of galaxies. the spiral nebula, which should no longer be mentioned as such in this video, however, unlike le maitre, he did not conclude that the universe is expanding, but instead suspected a different physical effect behind the redshift of galaxies, so lemaitre is actually the discoverer of the expansion of the universe and does not have an error that only a few know to this day schäuble also contradicted habel at first and described his claim as scientific garbage after he told him he sent a letter showing the light curve of some celestial objects shipley said more or less analogously here is the letter of my destroyed universe he was referring to the idea that the universe not only includes the milky way but is unimaginably large than there must be other galaxies besides the milky way and that their scientific worldview of the universe is based on those within the milky way is no longer the former as a true hundred The scientist who supported Kepler had planned to measure the extragalactic positions in many spiral galaxies, but what exactly happened here could have been tracking something really big that expanded the dimensions of the universe for many millions and billions of years. light by postulating that there must be other galaxies besides the milky way, they took people out of their own insular galactic universe of the milky way, so to speak, and placed them in a vast and endless cosmos that stretched out in all directions at once. almost infinitely extended together they created modern cosmology, that is, the science of the development and basic structure of the cosmos and the universe as a whole andromeda was the vehicle with the help of which the true shape of these ancient spiral nebulae now called galaxies spirals were discovered the red versc To all this was even added cutting with the help of light from superns extragalactic eggs.
It was found that most of the salmon are moving away from us. Its light is examined using an emission spectrum. It was shifted towards the red, that is, the frequency of the wavelengths. of light is stretched and compressed as an object approaches the observer's point of view, only one interesting exception appeared, andromeda was apparently one of the few galaxies whose light was redshifted, if not blueshifted, which must mean that there was a drama about the movement of the milky way and that is perhaps a meeting of the galaxies would come to an event that will be covered in more detail later in this docu-series to the core, but let me go back to le maitre evers and the discoveries of hubble created the modern understanding of cosmologyof an accelerating expansion universe knew that the cosmos was very big how big it really was shown by the first operations that were carried out decades later, astronomers with ever better telescopes already knew that the universe must probably be a few billion years old. light-years in size, yet astronomers only realized the true dimensions of the cosmos when they took a picture with the H Bubble Space Telescope that literally opened their eyes to the telescope that focused on a region of the sky that with their hand extended was perhaps as big as a thumbnail was a really very small region of the sky hubble observed this region with very long distance exposures when astronomers examined data collected by the space telescope they were shown thousands and thousands and tens of thousands of galaxies, most of them more than 10 billion light-years from the Milky Way, the image shows young, highly amorphous developing galaxies associated with light many billions of years old for us were still in a very early stage of development this image shows the universe in its early stages the image known as the hubble ultra deep field shows to scientists the true dimensions of the universe with enough observation time in every corner of the university versus some ray of light waiting to be discovered there are no words at our disposal that can describe the scope the meaning of this image for our cosmological vision of the world is so now we come back to andromeda andromeda so that we can describe andromeda as the catalyst for this understanding because through the exploration of the galaxy, scientists got the first insight that the universe not only consists of the milky way, but also it is necessary for the exploration of the universe that one look at the so-called reality from different perspectives.
Perspective perspectives that a normal person cannot see with the naked eye Andromeda has always been considered as a nebula throughout the centuries. Before the advent of photography, there were very abstract representations of the galaxy, incomprehensible to the modern eye if we think both in retrospect and we look at that strange image of a person and an andromeda fish is said to be from a small group of points in the mouth of the fish represent representations of the constellation of stars as animals, people or objects that we know from other cultures, for example, as signs of the zodiac, which Wanda and the seafarers have been using for many centuries to find their way around, but only with the discovery that light does not come only from the sun, but that almost all celestial objects in the universe and even living beings always emit some form of electromagnetic radiation, the idea arose to also look for other forms of radiation that are invisible to humans. year.
Be careful, the word radiation here does not mean anything more than photons at a certain wavelength or frequency. earth is locked up otherwise you would destroy life on earth because you damage or destroy DNA via ionization energetically it gets even more blatant if you switch to very brief x-rays or even gamma radiation which is so powerful that a person taking a high dose for a short time is exposed to permanent irreversible damage in their body to their genetic material or even dies very quickly, so it is not surprising that astronomers can also observe galaxies in all possible spectrums, since in them there are all possible processes that cause different types of radiation that we want other tenants to look at from different perspectives and see what secrets our neighbor hides in the electromagnetic spectrum.
Andromeda recordings in so-called visible light reveal bright, yellowish-brown galaxies. the spiral structure and the brightness the bright nucleus of the galaxy is very clear as in all the images e to see the latter by the way you can see it very clearly in all the images we are looking at here if you look at this recorded android sub-area by hubble with 1.5 billion pixels you can see more than 100 million stars and thousands of open and spherical star clusters are particularly spectacular the brown areas of the galactic disk gigantic clumps of cold and tenuous gas and dust that can eventually become stars once spiral filled with stellar gas and dust appropriately extends around the entire image and surrounds the inner region of the galaxy other more distant galaxies may be in this wealth of detail a look through the ultraviolet lens of the galaxy evolution explorer is not included below Alex for brief shows rings with what is called seven stars a blue-white while the orange center ado-white shows predominantly cooler and older stars of course they are not cold in the ice cold sense but colder than their huge counterparts in these are a dream with the spiral arms to see very clearly and you can see that the star formation is taking place especially in these areas while the center is forming fewer new stars but a very close look at hubble lights the most other core that tells us something about this area of the galaxy we see a disk of blue stars and red stars in elliptical orbit that closely orbit the supermassive black hole blue stars are likely to be extremely hot and within a few years millions will disappear while red stars tend to be older and cooler are the black hole at the center of dreams that it should be orbited by millions and millions of stars we take a different look at the whole galaxy with chandler in e l correct spectrum you can see many very high energy sources probably black holes neutron stars giant stars or gagfah sa less near the edges of the g galaxies are at its core, but very densely packed, a planet in the galaxy's core would not have it easy and it is unlikely that sensitivity could be developed given the high energy output here, but hubble also moved towards the center of the galaxy once again In 2013 it was discovered because the galaxy's double nucleus appears to be two huge black holes orbiting each other or the large amount of dust in the center gives the impression that it is two black holes where maybe there is only one, there should be two. black holes orbiting each other, some astronomers believe that the smallest one could be the remnant of another galaxy that was crushed and absorbed by andromeda a few hundred thousand years from now, for what is a brief moment measured by the temporal dimensions of the universe and the galaxy development of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer NASA captured this stunning image of another interior in the infrared spectrum the spiral structures of the galaxy can be seen very clearly the blue in the image represents giant stars while the yellow and red represent newborn massive stars s hot gas and dust s Andromeda appears in this However, the image is much thinner than in other images because we can see many areas in the infrared that would otherwise remain hidden in visible light .
Infrared is not absorbed by clouds of gas and dust. Another image of the galaxy, also taken in the infrared. the galaxy seen here as a pinwheel has become very famous and also recorded in the infrared by spitzer shows even more impressively the extensive spiral structure that was taken by the telescope in 14,000 individual recordings and then put together as a composite that we can hardly see where the spiral arms of In any case, the asymmetrical shape of the galaxy is becoming clearer. The stars seem to be fighting back, especially in the spiral. There are smaller individual extensions of the spiral arms in and out.
As you move towards the core of the galaxy the matter becomes denser and the more heat and energy is produced it could be overcome as we have seen andromeda has many invisible faces that we cannot see with the naked eye this begs the question With all the ambiguous elements in visible light, how can we determine weight and size? of the galaxy, astronomers have to be somewhat creative when they want to figure out how matter exists in the universe one can't just put a galaxy on a scale with the title of this chapter perhaps suggesting it and thus determine its mass if one goes from according to newton you would have to include the gravitation of the earth to find out its mass completely, it doesn't matter, just measure it with a tape measure, both ways require indirect methods to determine the mass and Mars of a galaxy and both, let's see them now, let's start with the weight of a galaxy in a way known as the Newtonian or classical shape.
To determine the mass of a celestial object such as the moon, a planet or a star is to consider its gravitational interaction with other objects by combining Newton's law of gravity with the law of motion of the planets, that is, the relationships between the velocities orbitals of the planets and their distance from each other or from the sun now do you think it would certainly be very easy to relate these two laws to galaxies, after all, scientists have observed using redshifts and blueshifts how spiral galaxies spin in particular, we cannot observe this rotation directly because it only becomes relevant over millions of years, but let's start small the sun orbits the galactic center every 230 million years at a distance of about 28,000 light-years from the galactic nucleus and at a speed of 800 28 000 kilometers per hour if the sun could be explored around the core of the milky way then it would certainly also be possible with the movement of the milky way or the andromeda galaxy as a whole or based on the laws of newton and kepler, it was only necessary to calculate the movement of the spiral arms of the galaxy in relation to each other and to its nucleus look so that one in this way , when astronomers applied this calculation to galaxies by measuring the orbital velocities of stars, they got strange results.
It seemed that most of the mass should be concentrated in the center of galaxies, so that stars close to the core, the Milky Way, should rotate faster and those further away in the spiral arms or on the edge. of the galaxy let's briefly try our planets as a comparison of the known planets mercury has the highest speed with 172,000 kilometers per hour while the outer planet neptune with 19,500 48 kilometers per hour pluto has the highest speed with 19,500 48 kilometers per hour la slower orbit speed, except for which we count here as a dwarf planet, this has to do with the fact that 99.9 percent of the mass of our solar system is concentrated in the sun, a mere 0.01 percent corresponds to planets where Jupiter claims quite a lot because it contains more than twice the mass all the planets in our solar system joined in the 1970s astronomers studied and they know the andromeda galaxy they discovered something absolutely monstrous and extremely mysterious stars on the edge of andromeda that were moving almost as fast as those in the center were moving so fast that their momentum should actually tear the galaxy apart, but instead of laying their rest observation, they went on to think that there should be matter distributed at the edges of the galaxy that cannot be seen.
This dark matter was called differently from bionic or luminous matter. it could be observed due to its interaction with the electromagnetic rays that prevail in the universe invisible matter which could only interact with the environment through its gravity according to robin and ford could never be observed because it does not interact with any form of radiation robbin and ford's discovery in the 1970s of let astronomers and their methods had to fine-tune this in recent years to come to terms with dark matter that appears to be located in galaxies, a dromedary as for them. milky way and all the other galaxies in the cosmos this is where the young actor astronomer patel comes in a doctoral student at the university of arizona his goal was to determine the mass of Marian and dark matter for andromeda and the milky way rather than stars at the edge of the Milky Way or to observe Andromeda, the interaction of the galaxies with each other could be observed and achieved, above all, in the accompanying galaxies of men or mass of the two largest, namely the large or small Magellanic cloud accompanying the Milky Way galaxy or m 110 an accompanying Andromeda galaxy that these become qualitatively influenced by their larger counterparts so that they are torn apart by their powerful forces tidal merge with the larger galaxies or orbit like stars around the galactic nucleus or the planets are said to orbit about 50 smaller galaxies are qualitatively tied to the milky way based on their motion, patel can now determine the mass and its distribution more precisely both in the milky way and later in andromeda, however, its speed in the sky is extremely slow, patel is like measuring the speed at which a human hair grows for the distance between the earth and the moon no telescope on earth can observe this, butfortunately the peter habel and andré space telescopes were available with this level of precision hotel and his team used the space telescope to measure the movement of the accompanying new laws in the milky bed combined the data obtained from this with simulations of the development of the milky way and its satellite galaxies estimated the mass of the milky way at 0.96 million solar masses ionic and dark matter together according to patel the milky way was almost a trillion solar masses and therefore had to have more matter darker than luminous matter in the Andromeda galaxy related, astronomers even calculated a mass of more than a million solar masses, for many years it was considered the heaviest of the galaxies in the so-called local group in which the Milky Way is located , some astronomers estimate that the mass of Andromeda is twice that of the Milky Way, that is, around 1.6 is 1.8 million solar masses, however , the most recent measurements of 2019 contradict Patel and his team, a group led by astronomer Freibad Eifel International Center for Radio Astronomy Research at Webster University of Australia, developed a new method to determine the mass of andromeda in the milky way 1 su The research was based on publicly available data from the William Herschel Telescope's Keppeler Planetary Spectrograph on the Canary Island of La Palma. they calculated the speed it would take to leave the Andromeda galaxy when launching a rocket, you must travel at least eleven kilometers to reach a second to leave behind the gravitational pull of the earth, so kefer our home galaxy, the milky way, is many billions and trillions of times heavier than our little heir planet, so we and its benevolent gravitational pull would have to have a speed of 550 kilometers. per second with very similar considerations we also determined the mass of the andromeda galaxy this method warned of both the milky way and andromeda and lo and behold the original results were completely inverted the mass of mario mischer and combined dark matter weighed the milky way nu n about 1.5 million solar masses, while other weights were corrected to 800 billion solar masses, according to their results, the Milky Way was almost twice as heavy as Andromeda and therefore would certainly be the main partner in the merger of the two galaxies that will occur. will take place in a few billion years let's not underestimate andromeda 800 billion solar masses no joke of course it might be possible that with new methods to determine the mass of galaxies the numbers will change again other research groups want knowing, for example, that the milky way and andromeda have almost the same mass in view of the many 100 billion stars in andromeda and the galaxy doesn't seem to matter a few billion solar masses or so by weighing a galaxy by methods indirect is one thing but what about determining its size?
We have been simulating since the 10th century. christ discovers that observing a true godsend for humanity no galaxy is as observable as it allows scientists to observe the galaxy as a whole and assess its size let's take a look at a previous video of the size of me from andromeda scientists hello to gas and dust that almost all galaxies and are the so-called effect galactic medium, that is, an area that is outside a galaxy in qualitative terms but still belongs to it. It shortens that with cgm the cgm is extremely diffuse and almost invisible to conventional telescopes because it shines so dimly, but gas and dust in the halo of galaxies are thought by many scientists to be an important source of star formation and supply matter to the galaxy, so to speak.
They used the hubble space telescope which worked in different spectral ranges and they found that hair was that the andromeda galaxy if ma Add your salute would be much larger the halo would be much larger it would extend from the center of the drum and would now reach 1.3 million light-years, reaching more than half of the Milky Way, which by the way is only two million light-years from Andromeda in some other directions, the halo of the Andromeda galaxy even it reaches up to two million light-years into space if you now assume that the milky way also has such a large halo that these two galaxies already mix with each other. you could say that the coalition of andromeda and the milky way which really should only happen in a few billion years would already happen if you could see the andromeda galaxy in the night sky with the halo it would be much bigger than the full moon and probably the largest object in the sky, the gas would be extremely diffuse, but you could see the stars behind it however, the andromeda halo only appears as a cigar-shaped object in the night sky, astronomers discovered that the halo consists of an inner layer and an outer layer, according to them, the inner layer tends to be more dynamic while the outer one is hotter and more flexible, the inner layer, according to the researchers, would receive a permanent prince of particles from the supernova and, therefore it would constantly change the inner shell only according to astronomers it extends more than 500 1000 light years away from andromeda the outer shell is naturally connected to this inner shell and e s from about 700,000 to 15 and 2 million light-years thick astronomers can say CGM and dreams barely observe themselves because they mimic very little radiation, therefore they used 43 quasars that lie behind Andromeda, extremely powerful light sources to be able to observe the galaxy's CGM because these are located at different points in the sky they could see the halo in different studies and observed measurements is how ultraviolet radiation from quasars was absorbed by the cgm and identified, among other things, carbon, silicon and oxygen, that is, elements that are bred in stars, they also measured the speed of the gas, which moved at different speeds inside the inner shell, while the outer shell, that is, material in the outer shell only has one velocity, they also recognized that the outer shell is qualitatively linked to andromeda due to its lattices, the milky way, andromeda is the only galaxy whose cd m or hello can be observed in such detail that one cannot observe from the milky way because here one cannot basically see the forest for the trees, but by observing the andromeda hall one can also draw conclusions about the milky way and imagine how your living room looks like us I just saw that the size of a galaxy is not only determined by its directly visible elements It characterizes that the betting galactic milieu will also play a role in the next chapter when it comes to the fusion of the two galaxies, whether Andromeda is huge, medium, or small, it should be crucial that it have the ability to produce new stars, just as our milky way stars that are on planets have life that could exist on evolve to the point of balancing and anticipating galaxies the two galaxies will merge and form a whole new galaxy let's now see what convergence implies ence of andromeda and the milky way and what the final product might look like in this chapter of the video we will delve into the upcoming merger of andromeda and the milky way we know that andromeda is 2.5 million light years away from us and it is certainly getting closer to the milky way but that means converging or actually approaching exactly and how do you determine the speed or direction of a galaxy's motion in the first place, future forecasts of a galaxy's motion are not much of a problem over years of calculating and very sophisticated algorithms They generally take on the task of existing information such as mass, distance, and initial velocity and the approximate duration of a to calculate the approximation, although the mass data for the Milky Way and its neighboring galaxies changed relatively frequently over time.
The basic statement that the two galaxies are inevitably shooting towards each other hasn't changed over the years, but what What exactly is important about the movement of the Milky Way from Andromeda, astronomers talk about the fact that the so-called radial component of velocity is decisive, but more on that later, there is also the relative velocity, which describes whether Andromeda is moving. moving towards us or away from us, let's talk briefly about vectors, a term of n we can know from the more or less simplified math class, a reader describes a speed and therefore has a certain value if we now observe galaxies that are several million to billion light-years distant from the Milky Way, the wavelength of light increases and the spectral lines of light shift toward short red, the frequency of the incoming density decreases, and the galaxy shrinks. away from us, you could also say that the light waves from a galaxy that then move away from us are stretched here we are talking about the redshift of galaxies and director is greater than zero is the vector on the other hand, less than 0, the wavelength of the light is reduced, the frequency of the incident light changes to blue, the frequency of the incident light increases, and the galaxy moves toward us and Surely you already have it for types in which the spectrum of light coming from the Andromeda galaxy has been thoroughly and precisely examined. e it has been found that the director of radial velocity points out that in relation to the milky way it is negative that the incoming light is blueshifted and therefore the galaxy is moving towards us 110 to 120 kilometers per second is the radial velocity of Andromeda in relation to the Milky Way and this value comes to us every second, only the so-called tangential part of the movement is missing, by this we mean the speed perpendicular to the line of sight of an object, the tangential speed of the Andromeda galaxy would now be greater than the radial velocity if the galaxy passed through the milky way because the line of sight yes the line in which andromeda is moving towards us a higher tangential velocity would mean that andromeda would move away and therefore miss the milky way, for so to speak, studies from the year 2001 brought to light a speed that tends to a maximum of 200 kilometers per second dadur ch, a collision was not confirmed but it was not ruled out either.
In 2015, some scientists published a relatively high tangential velocity Andromeda in a paper, which means that both galaxies may even miss each other by 1.7 93 million light-years. More recent research should show in the future whether a robot really merged with the milky way the closer the two stellar islands get, the faster they move towards each other, however, as soon as the galaxies slowly merge and the millions of solar masses of both stellar islands are mixed, both become slower the two black holes of the milky way of andromeda only turn each other in the process in circles of elliptical orbit and probably at some point the scientists of the merger estimate that the approximation of the milky way and andromeda will take about five billion years in total, the impression is that the creatures on earth even no longer exist or the sun has gone there, its activity has increased a lot and the earth it has become a furnace that no longer allows the hearing cells to live as we currently know them and in general we talk about it in this video as if the fusion is happening of the galaxies is a dream of the future and somehow the merging of galaxies has already begun when the extensive harmless gas and dust of the Milky Way and Andromeda are considered to be already thermally a mixture that began many hundreds of millions of years ago. so you have to say that the merger of the galaxies would take place in about five billion years, so always look at something critically, as we will see that one should not speak of a collision in the real sense, but of a merger, mixture or meeting of the stars. therefore, the question arises as to how the actual process of merging of both galactic disks begins.
Galaxies, of course, are not static or liquid structures, but clumps of stars, dust and gas nebulae and supernova remnants, black holes, burnt-out stars, giant stars. and red dwarfs that have their own individual motions in the respective galaxy exhibit but due to their own motion are not rigid in the galaxy every object in the milky way and in andromeda yes every atom is inevitably at the mercy of the gravitation of larger masses the galaxies appear more like a big jumble of different objects and materials under the yoke of gravitation than an order to each other the process of fusion of stars, planets and other celestial objects in the andromeda galactic disks of the milky way will likely appear very complex and will change to other galactic collisions that we have dealt with in the second part of james webb's toko and that I will explain in the description of the video and linked here on the top right, but how does it start?
Many hundreds of millions ofyears before the commission, galaxies will exchange their first stars and their first gas from a great distance Entire star systems will be snatched from the milky way or andromeda and either thrown across the expanses of the intergalactic medium or added to another galaxy soon little by little the disk of one will bend under the gravitation of the other galaxy the material on the stellar islands that is probably already mixing will turn into a gigantic compound of gas and dust in and connect the two galaxies through the view of proper telescopes over hundreds of thousands of matter bridges light-years long at the same time more and more stars will break away from the main disks and a war will rest the exodus from lara begins gigantic streams of stars thousands of light-years thick from where we are Thus we arrive at a point in this intergalactic encounter where it will be difficult to determine the original appearance of the respective galaxies. bios that are happening here are too deep and far reaching but the coalition will fall for billions of years it is at this time entire civilizations appear and die and die again and voyager probes explore the depths of galaxies if they have not have already been destroyed by radiation-induced decay this collision is not a coalition but a merger due to the immense distance between the stars a direct collision of these appears impossible that is why the last question in this chapter and in this video something will collide with each other Let's imagine a galaxy on a different scale, regardless of whether it's the Milky Way or Andromeda, the Sun in this example is a golf ball on a golf course this represents the Milky Way and has a diameter of several million kilometers hundreds of billions of other golf balls are scattered across the course we can see them from a distance but they are so far apart that a trip to them s on foot or by golf it wants to take a lot of time now this golf course will merge with another one that also contains hundreds of billions of golf balls when the golf courses merge, the golf balls also migrate into each other and mix These two million kilometer golf courses have many golf balls, but they are tiny proportionally to the size of the courses.
We can only see these golf balls when they are stars as they make themselves felt through their radiation. Now it happens that these extremely separate golf balls barely touch each other in the migration of the two golf courses they like each other through their gravitation remember the golf balls are influencing the suns in this example and one or the other star max will capture a extragalactic counterpart but a collision of billions of golf balls or suns, let alone a coalition of planets, won't happen because that's what it's all about. If they're too far apart, the golf courses come into contact and their upper structure destroys, but the merger of the galaxies, as shown, is a mixture of two existing systems.
It could also be said that galaxies glide past each other without ever touching. this notion is also too frivolous because the mixing causes great chaos in many areas of the respective galaxy, only the gigantic black holes with a mass beyond our imagination will perhaps merge with each other after all this merging also means our own future the new of these two resulting home galaxies was named by astronomer milk drum da image ramme da will be a so-called elliptical galaxy one that has lost all shape and structure and has almost completely stopped in star formation these are lippi galaxies ultimate result of collisions Galactic stars are so named because their shape is often an ellipse and they don't have concrete structures like spiral arms.
The stars will gradually cool over billions of years with Milk Dromedary years many times the age of the universe, plenty of time to devote to even more exciting topics. about the universe thank you very much for your attention we will see what the exploration of and will bring romeda in the future especially the james webb space telescope already in orbit located around l2 might find a lot of new information and things worth knowing about andromeda but it will take a while till then and we also need to be patient because if it is realized the current research on andromeda, it will certainly take a few months or even several years then the observed in the form of an article or maybe even a book for the public, so we have to be patient a little longer, but we can't wait to see what things New ones await us with all the new telescopes currently being built.
The James Webb Space Telescope is not the only one and while many other telescopes are still being planned, either in space or on Earth or under construction, it will still be a while before better telescopes than the Space Telescope are launched. James Webb or the current Picture Space Telescope. space right now we can deal with many other aspects of the universe would be interested at this point in which particular telescope would you like a documentation on this channel there are already two documentaries on the james webb space telescope and one on the lt the extremely large telescope there are many others telescopes to which I have a document which future telescope or which existing telescopes you would be interested in write your opinion in the comments I look forward to it at this time I would also like to say goodbye I wish you a good week or a good weekend depending on when I show up this video has done you well and live long and make up
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