AIR RESCUE - How Airbus Helicopters Are Made | Full DocumentaryJan 26, 2022
when you are saving lives and every second counts is when the time has come
helicoptersin extreme situations the helicopter and its team help save lives without our artificial respiration the patient would not survive saving lives in the smallest of spaces the
rescuehelicopter h 145 is a flying intensive care unit equipped with the latest technology helicopter mechanics are very demanding with material and equipment we have to really concentrate there are 20 kilometers of cable here after three months a new helicopter is ready to go and taking off for the first time, the crew has to perform seamlessly: air rescue personnel receive special training a constant stream of retraining deployments and hundreds of hours in a flight simulator prepare crews for their missions that often are life threatening I think Boston you're staying there 50 feet in the air re mistakes can be deadly we are on our way when the alarm goes off and there is a man and an emergency machine It has to run like clockwork in the Bavarian town of Dona Barratt there is a huge helicopter factory around 7,000 people work here building different types of
helicoptersfor the police the Air Force and the Alpine Rescue Service the h 145 rescue helicopter is also built there the h 145 has incredible maneuverability it is 13 meters long and
fully equipped weighs 2.3 tons - 825 engines horsepower drives the mane and tail rotor systems a top speed of 250 km/h cruising altitude 5,500 meters the price depending on the equipment up to 8 million euros this This is how the production of the H 145 begins.
Computer-operated performance cuts fiberglass and carbon fiber sheets with pinpoint precision in a complicated process. These materials are combined to create what is technically known as a carbon composite. This ultralight and very resistant material. gives the helicopter excellent flight characteristics 200 employees work in the production of these carbon composite parts the st The fouling material is applied to a large mold layer by layer this material is woven from carbon fiber individual fibers embedded in a resin matrix traditionally aluminum was used in aircraft construction but today the trend is increasingly towards the use of carbon fibers carbon is a very light material and of course the resulting helicopter is also lighter as it can remain in the air for longer.
This steel mold is used to create one of the doors of the H 145. The doors are
madeentirely of ultralight glass and carbon fiber material. First an employee places the sticky fiber material into the steel mold the side door negative this first layer of fiberglass is followed by eight layers of carbon fiber cloth to create the extremely strong carbon composite the bags of air has to be removed between the various layers air pockets would make the material porous and unstable a silicone cover creates a tight seal so a vacuum can be created in the steel mold hose are attached s that draw air out underneath of the cover and also the air between the glass and carbon fiber layers after vacuuming a cover closes the mold then it is placed in a special oven called an autoclave the factory has five of these giant autoclaves and they are in operation 24 hours a day day the largest has a diameter of four meters and is 15 meters long in autoclaves the composite parts are subjected to heat and pressure a domestic pressure cooker Standard stica works on the same principle and is in principle a small autoclave the 700 kilos steel form with the side door is waiting to be processed along with other parts is now being led into the huge pressure chamber an employee connects the hoses air pressure drawing the air out of the steel mold finally a giant the lid seals the chamber inside the autoclave there is now a pressure of seven bar and a temperature of around 180 degrees celsius the side doors subject to these conditions for 10 hours and then the composite the part is finished since the 1990s helicopter companies are increasingly using composites instead of lightweight metals such as aluminum carbon is extremely flexible and stable and above all very light this door is only one of the nineties and four thousand carbon composite components that the factory produces each year employees remove the part from the steel mold the door The side is now finished it's so light you can lift it with one finger you can see how light this carbon door is and the aluminum door would be noticeably heavier that's the real advantage of Composites A lot of the H 145 is
madeof composite materials, For example, the tail boom and cockpit frame is a very large item and if you take into account that it only weighs 11 kilos, which is extremely light, the final helicopter will weigh around 2,300 kilos.
That's one of the reasons why. which the H 145 is so extremely manoeuvrable and suitable for difficult flight operations, but the pilots must be well trained to handle it in bonn hangul ah 1000 air rescue helicopter pilots trained in special maneuvers with the h 145 every year there Hecht you are an experienced pilot with 5200 flight hours to your credit, just like all other helicopter pilots you must re-certify twice a year, also the exam on-board inator Antelias Schmidt begins the test Hecht starts the 1,650 horsepower engines the destination is a clearing in a nearby forest here they will simulate picking up a patient this helicopter can be switched to training mode at any time the examiner can do things like simulate an engine failure the pilot has to react correctly and show that he can fly the helicopter safely they arrived quickly at the landing site 30 by 30 meters clearing the pilot lands the helicopter there is only a few meters of space between the rotor blades and the trees the turbulence here is unpredictable a brief ground stop the patient would now be on board Hecht quickly leaves the danger zone the helicopter rises at a speed of five meters per second the maneuver was successful now return to base after 45 minutes Hector hey, prepare to land there are 320 tests like this per year only for the 160 pilot We from ADAC Air Rescue 1 our flight time costs around 2400 euros in this case the costs are paid by the Air Rescue Department of the German automobile club ADAC the exam is over what the evaluator has to say naturally egg door has passed his test verification flight upon successful completion of this rescue and emergency mission back to Bavaria the helicopter factory y don alvaro manufactures around 90 h 145 helicopters per year rotor blades are also produced here just under 50 employees produce around 400 blades per year by hand the four main rotor blades rotate at more than 380 rpm and have to withstand tractive forces of up to 20 tons a rotor blade has a length of more than 5 meters and weighs around 40 kilos the blades are made by hand using huge shapes the first layer is fiberglass then comes thre layers of carbon fiber in a resin matrix, the so-called blade root, is the part of the blade that is then attached to the rotor head.
During the flight, extremely strong forces act, which is why the specialists who check them put on 24 individual units. layers of the carbon fiber material here use especially long strands of fiberglass called rovings think of a roving as individual threats lying side by side coated with resin so they are extremely strong in the direction of the force of traction keep the entire rotor blade right where a roving is supposed to be could easily be used to pull a large truck it is certainly strong enough that the inside of the blade is filled with a lightweight rigid foam core this rotor blade half is now ready for further processing the steel shape is placed in a special press the upper half is already shaped the two halves are pressed together with a pressure of 200 bar at 135 degrees Celsius after 11 hours The p The process is finished and the carbon rotor blade is ready to go.
Visual inspection looks good. Now we take it to the crew work station and quality control. We will examine it more closely. The shovel has passed the first optical review, but how does it sound? two men take the 40kg sheet to a special test bench we tap the sheet to see if it shows the erosion protection you can see here the light part has bonded well with the compound in the worst case it could mean the erosion protection layer peels off the sheet and possibly hits the helicopter with corresponding force and resulting damage if it sounds good and
fullthen we are on the safe side.
It took three years for Christian Eisenhower to be able to discern the slight differences in sound, however only those blades are approved for flight operations that have gone through a final CT scan, the CT scanner was originally developed for medical use, takes numerous x-rays of the rotor blade from a variety of t and directions and puts them together in a multi-layer model this allows experts to trace even the smallest material defect we create individual images with 25 millimeter spacing and in the critical area we have representations of volume which means about 400 images spaced from 0.6 to 5 millimeters the path of the blade is particularly critical as it is subjected to extreme centrifugal forces during flight there is a tensile load of up to 20 tons radiologists order police are looking for the so-called delaminations delamination occurs when the fiberglass and layers of f carbon fiber in the blades start to separate something dangerous when you are flying that would mean the wicks come loose the pilot has an imbalance in the machine because the root of the blade is getting soft and he realizes that the rule for the pilot is The unbalance you notice in the stake means that the ground is an additional critical area that is just before the root of the blade, but up to the way it is subject to constant i. impact pressure there is a danger of the fibers breaking here you can see a small bulge we are going to measure that one is 1.3 millimeters for me that means I have to make a quality report and show it to the construction people and static this blade goes through another quality control if it does not meet the high demands it will be scrapped later the blades are firmly fixed to the rotor hub the main rotor with a diameter of 11 meters rotates at a speed of up to 383 rpms centrifugal forces Extremely strong pull on the star-shaped component Rotor hubs are created in metal cutting departments High-tech milling machines shape forged titanium blanks with an accuracy of a thousandth of a millimeter after we are halfway through the processing we let the cube rest the causes of the processing Stresses build up in the blank and give them time to work out they dissipate.
If we do not allow the material to rest, the stresses will only be released after we are done and we could not agree on the tolerances the bushing has to be absolutely round that is why it is given up to ten days rest the 15 kilogram bushing is finished worth 25,000 euros the main rotor blades next stop is the rotor test stand here the blades are balanced when you have released the keypads when the blades have set we let them run for about 15 to 20 minutes then look at the data up there you can see that red thing at the top which is the telemetry that transmits the data to the control room we also have a camera here and the camera measures the distance between the rotor blades during the flight from the safety of the control room technicians increase speed telemetry system sends large amount of test data to control room technicians use that data for e find and if necessary correct any weak points in this set of rotor blades juergen lool i will now balance the blades similar to a car tire achieving the perfect balance eliminates dangerous vibrations i am here on the rotor blade these two parts are they call trembley's bending these two trembley influences the aerodynamic characteristics of the blade depending on how the engineer bends these two pieces of metal the rotor will tilt during flight this aerodynamic balance is extremely important so that the helicopter can even start juergen lu ly climbs on the elevator to get to the rotor blade balance chamber this is another place where you can change the center of gravity now you can see the springs the purpose of these springs is to push the trim weights to the front and then you see these weights, you can shift these weights to the left or right to influence the dynamic behavior of the sheet ha, we have the leaves Focus gravity here on the death of theblade and when I change these weights then it pitches forward or backward and its 45 or 90 grams is enough to do it these four blades are now perfectly balanced and you can hear it more accurately the b The loads happen the quieter the prop is In the Bavarian town of Bod Totes, there has been a helicopter that can take off without rotor blades since 2008.
The Bavarian Alpine Rescue Team has a simulation facility here where rescue professionals practice how to deal with various extreme situations in the high-speed training room. technology with 18 meter high ceilings there is a practice helicopter connected to a complex system of rails and cables the system is completely independent of the outside weather here teams can fly 24 hours a day without using a single liter of fuel every year around More than 1,000 active air rescue teams come here to practice handling emergency conditions. The training rooms in the room are incredibly realistic The helicopter has a number of special features A wind machine imitates the deafening sound and huge wind of the helicopter Special main rotor strobe Simulates the sun shining through the rotor blades The pot examiner goes let's watch thre The rescuers with a dog the specialists are about to take an important test each rescuer must be recertified once a year it's good to see you here for the annual certification you have everything with you at that time let's start training the tension is rising the winch operator gives final instructions and then the test begins for rescuer Thomas tickle and his colleague until good old Elias it's just a practice run but I'm nervous even here in the simulator you're hanging 15 meters in the air a mistake can be fatal scenario today this Mountaineer is trapped in a rock wall has severe arm injury and unable to extricate himself rescue team boards helicopter pilot takes off and places simulator 15 meters above victim first alpine rescuer is lowered and uses a safe place to prepare rescue bag rescuer number two also goes down he has to rescue the victim and get him safely off the wall the winch rope he is hanging on can be dropped a full 90 meters he is doing everything right yes in a situation like this it is difficult for the rescuer assess the severity of the mountaineer's injuries quickly but carefully puts on his seatbelt with a lei Telugu hand signal tells his colleague to start the winch first the injured person is carried out of the danger zone the Mountaineer still it is not ready to be transported for transport th omas t keel has prepared the rescue bag with the integrated vacuum mattress we have secured it here on the bed of va cles and now we are pumping air out of the bed the bottom becomes very stiff so you can lie flat flat now would you secure it here close it and prepare to be transported by helicopter the victim is now safe in the rescue bag the hook is lowered again and Tomas T still gives the signal to start the winch the helicopter's rescue winch can lift up to 600 pounds, the Alpine rescue team and the winch operator maneuver the Mountaineer into the helicopter, but headfirst, the first little mistake today, will they still be recertified?
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I saw there that it was a bit complicated the way you brought it. in the helicopter it is best to take the patient feet first so he is certified and we will meet again for another test next year the two alpine rescuers are now re certified for another year and can continue saving lives on the bavarian mountains the helicopter factory in donna view above in the assembly of main components employees are busy riveting the cabin frame to the helicopter airframe riveted joints are much more flexible than bolts or welded seams on the roof of the helicopter h 145 they are installing a firewall the firewall is there to protect the material because the motors will be installed on the left and right here there are very, very high thermal loads and that stresses the material the two motors can heat up to 200 degrees celsius it is not a problem for firewall because titanium melts at 1600 68 degrees next door 50 employees are laying electrical cables depend depending on the equipment of the h 145 which can take up to 18 days several thousand meters of cable all the helicopters go in except the factory experts they always have a clear view you can't go out and make a big group and just drop everything in one time the roots of the cable bundle the cables must be separated where the cables must go has been carefully calculated every gram in the wrong place changes the center of gravity and therefore the flight behavior of the rescue helicopter the center of the complicated wiring is the main console in the cockpit the center console is the base for all the wiring or all the equipment for the pilot and co-pilot, wow this gets very specific what display equipment the pilot has at his disposal what kind of customer he is and what functions do you need if you are flying rescue missions or it is for private use there are clear differences here a monstrous task thousands of connectors and connections have to be correctly in installed we have to really concentrate there are 20 kilometers of cables here and quite a few connections it is important that you do not make any mistakes otherwise there could be complications during the flight which of course would be bad for the pilot and even life threatening after three weeks , this h 145 is fully wired here on the roof of the h 145 r2 shaft turbine engines that drive the two rotors even if one of the 825 horsepower engines were to fail mid-flight the helicopter would have no problem continuing its way today in final assembly the engines are going to be mounted on the helicopter despite the robust technology the employees must be very careful slowly and carefully the crane lifts the 130 kilogram engine into the air the shaft turbine is specially designed for the propulsion of helicopters this type of engine was used for the first time in 1977, with millimeter precision, the mechanics placed the second With the motor next to the firewall, as you can see it fits quite well because the firewall is in the way and of course there are also cables and pipes, the crane operator has to work slowly and with great concentration to get the motor into position and we have to see that we connect everything well that we do not damage anything that the engines work well the helicopter now has sixteen hundred and fifty horsepower mounted in its rear once both engines are connected a drive shaft connects them to the rotor hub one heat resistant cover made of composite material seals the engine the h 145 is now in the final stretch the tail arm is bolted to the helicopter the tail rotor has a diameter of 115 centimeters and for safety reasons is fully encased the interior is sealed placing the last parts 11 of these parts of the interior wall are being installed then all the cables will be covered and this is what the conf Basic iguration of the h 145 looks like configurations specific to this helicopter are the accessories for narrow seats that we see here the black accessories from the front to the back the equipment dash will be installed in them where the medical technology is stored and secured here are accessories for the ceiling rails where you can hang infusions the patient will lie here on this side or the other side that's the basic setup uration of this chopper it takes the men ten days to put up the interior panels and tailor them to the client's needs after little more four months a new rescue helicopter worth eight million euros leaves the hangar is about to make its first Flight with a Hella lift An employee brings the helicopter to its starting position on the factory airfield All integrated helicopters do not its maiden flight in the vast 170,000 square meter factory Floor Test Pilot Test Habit Kistler and flight test engineer Molly o hummus takes off the new h 145 from the ground for the first time an optical check is carried out followed by a so-called ground function test the pilot starts both turbines without kissing and the rotor starts to rotate without getting up All instruments are checked from the ground while the engines are running, the values shown on the screens must meet very exact standards, only once the helicopter is shown to be working perfectly, the pilots can take the employees of the factory of Helicopters have done their best for this moment there is now a new h 145 rescue helicopter flying through the air the test pilot flies an established protocol with mandatory maneuvers hover forward lateral rotation around the vertical axis and nose down During these maneuvers, test flight engineer Molly Johannes compares the data displayed on the screens with normal protocol values.
Subsequently, in rescue missions, the helicopter will have to start flying and landing in very difficult conditions. This machine gets top marks. Now the helicopter is officially licensed. In order to fly in public airspace, however, you cannot take part in any rescue missions, but all medical technical equipment must still be installed. The simulation center in Bod Totes is the moment of truth for alpine rescuer Martin Klutz and his four year old search dog Conda they are both avalanche rescue specialists and they are about to practice dropping the important thing about this training is that we practice going in and out when we are in the air, the wind, the weather, the noises, not knowing what a helicopter is, that's a really challenging thing for a dog when he has to work in completely different conditions than what he has down below. on the ground that's what we're training for the mission starts slowly the helicopter rises helicopters are not unfamiliar to Conda but she is skeptical the background noise of the simulator is realistic and as loud as a real helicopter for the dog with his sensitive ears the noise is stressful the examiner colonel Sheila monitors the mission from below and checks that all processes are correct the pilot directs the cockpit to the correct position under the ceiling of the room we are now 14 meters above the floor of the room and in only in a moment we'll get to the position where we got out even if it's just training it's still dangerous getting out of the helicopter it's a dangerous moment and requires a lot of concentration especially if there's an animal involved the rescue team is now hanging 14 meters above the floor of the room the winch operator lowers the - to the depths after an avalanche Martine klutz and Conda would be lowered from a helicopter to search for survivors a situation in which seconds can make all the difference to those buried under the snow today the rescue team only has a very brief contact with the ground then the winch operator pulls both of them back again returning to board worked fine too the dog and the human are back in the chopper the dog is shaking a bit but he's taking it pretty well a bit scared at first oh i have to get out again though it worked pretty good and in the air hanging from the winch everything was quite relaxed the pilot lands the machine after 10 minutes Conda and Martine klutzo Donna the canine human rescue team has been recertified thank you see you next year in Dona vera a brand new H 145 took off from the ground for first time and thoroughly revised. estimated that the machine has been approved for flight operations and will now be equipped with life-saving medical equipment at the moment there is nothing inside the machine apart from the technical instruments needed to fly it and two seats for the pilots 450 kilometers away in the sunken Agustín and The H 145 becomes a real rescue helicopter.
Here they are specialized in installing the necessary interior accessories and medical equipment. First of all, everything except the electrical system is taken out again. The team exposes all the interfaces so that they can install the specialized technology in the next few weeks new analog and digital radio communication systems are installed a weather radar new software applications in the searchlight cabin the rear door lock is changed and now it can be opened and closed with one hand all the interior fittings must be very robust and at a price a piece of equipment like this has to be able to withstand a lot of punishment taking the surfaces of th These seats for example you have to be able to draw blood from them or disinfectant in aviation, getting something approved for production, no matter what it is, is expensive, so a seat like this can cost between five and eight thousand euros and the stretcher at a price of thirty thousand euros is not exactly a bargain for the stretcher of the team installs a special system of rails with quick releases 400 sentence of Allah facilitates the entry of the arriving patient stick here with the stretcher and it slides into this slot then you just have to put it on the rails after the stretcherreach the central cabinet where the medicines and the medical team will be kept then the team places the seats for the doctor and assistants that can be easily put on and taken off thanks to the quick release fasteners, however their position inside the helicopter is defined with precision.
I'm a linear fish, a mastery of positions, everyone has a specific mass in a specific position, the problem. em is that moving them moves the center of gravity of the helicopter. You can slide the seats back and forth on the rails. It is also very good, very important and useful. They can rotate so you have optimal access to the patient. It is also important that the doctor or paramedic can access the oxygen supply 400,000 euros which is what it costs to install the medical equipment after 50 days the helicopter is now a real rescue helicopter and can fly its first mission rescue operations as the DRF the german air rescue team flies over 1,000 times a year from the emergency hospital in berlin this helicopter rescue team is preparing for their shift the team consists of a pilot a paramedic and a doctor the high tech helicopter it's been in operation since 2016 this is an intensive care ventilator then we have four perf users those are these syringe drivers we use when drugs need to be delivered continuously like in an intensive care unit so of course we have a lot very important onboard oxygen are kept at the back of the machine here we have a compact monitor with a bluetooth interface which means the monitor itself can be undocked we can take it with us without any cables connected basically we have a complete mini the pilot from the intensive care unit tomas hi emma learned to fly in the army and has been with the team of air rescue since 1992 in your cockpit you get all the important information in this popup window we see information that the control center sends us possibly about the mission scenarios of accident scenes attract people or someone has fallen out of a window or something that it's the kind of information that might appear on the screen here things we can assess while we're in the air to know what to expect possibly also information about the landing site the site is on a sports field next to the road it has been prepared not prepared the police are there all these are data that the control center sends us directly to the cabin the control center rdination of the emergency hospital in Berlin receives an emergency call the patient has four syringe pumps ok and you still have to intubate yes ok and would you say it is a heart attack or how would you describe it ok we are in our we will be with you in about 30 minutes ok thanks we got a call from a hospital outside Berlin in Ghana nzy one of your patients has to be transferred to the Cardiac Center here in Berlin she is experiencing so called cardiogenic shock you have to think of it this way the patient has a heart that no longer pumps cannot sustain life so she will have to be transferred to the Cardiac Center to be connected to a cardiac support system the patient's condition is life-threatening they must move quickly age 145 is already waiting on the roof from the hospital just moments after the emergency call comes in the helicopter is already in the air the DRF rescue team usually enters ar in action when it comes to a matter of life and death bon hangul ah annually thousand pilots come here to be trained specifically for situations like these in these giant helicopter simulators pilots trained to handle real emergencies all possible scenarios can be arranged in these magical spheres of 12 million euros.
We have a 240 degree landscape, 180 degree portrait in the database. we have the whole world at our fingertips offshore operations day operations night vision the full range flight trainer under the cloak Schmitt steps into one of the simulators together with rescue pilot Hector Hecht Hecht already has 5,200 flight hours in his credit, but constant ongoing training is a necessity part of his job the men climb into the simulator coach cab schmitt has chosen a massive freeway crash the simulator is ready to run time for maximum concentration ok, so let's get this going the maneuver begins at coblentz airport the high-tech simulator very realistically imitates the movements of the h 145 helicopter the pilot's senses take on a perfect illusion the internal led projector shows landscapes and buildings that have been generated from real aerial photographs quickly arrive at the crash site we head to that area again where e we can't leave the valley, so we'll land.
The crash site is under a large bridge and is south. surrounded by high voltage power lines, which means maximum vigilance for the crew the simulator is moving downward, which means a slow descent the helicopter is approaching the landing site in a field now the pilot is paying special attention to the lifeguards on the ground no one is allowed on the landing zone but pilots are often needed after landing especially if there are a lot of people injured especially with the situation we just simulated we may need to lend a hand, whether transporting medical support equipment what kind of things can happen the flight simulators at Bourn are so realistic that practice sessions in them count as actual flight time for the pilot the DRF air rescue team is on its way to an emergency a patient is in mortal danger dr.
Johnson and his team have to transfer her from a small hospital on the outskirts of Berlin to a cardiac center. Yes, there is a patient where she has gone into cardiogenic shock and has not yet been intubated, but for the flight where she wants to breathe her through intubation, the helicopter cannot land. from the hospital they pick up the patient at a nearby heliport the woman's heart beats weakly she is in an artificial coma and she must be transferred by plane to the Cardiac Center so that they can operate on her as quickly as possible together the four rescuers lower the patient to the hospital helicopter as shake free as possible everything is fine we can start betting the pilot takes off it's 65 kilometers to the Berlin Heart Center the helicopter travels up to 250 kilometers per hour and you don't have to worry about traffic jams it's the fastest way to get the patient to the cardiac clinic, she is being ventilated during the flight, if they didn't, she would die, the doctor and the paramedic keep a close watch on her all the time pressures good pressures medium good 50 pressures medium 17 perf users are all running yes so the patient is what we call analgesic sedation she is receiving medication to block the pain and so that she is not conscious anesthesia medication without our medication and without our respirator the patient would not survive this sick she is in less than 30 minutes the rescue team lands on the roof of the Heart Center the patient can now have her life saving operation this rescue helicopter flies faster Out of 1,000 missions per year, the helicopter and its crew have just saved a life and are already on their way to their next mission.
The H 145 is a high-tech rescue helicopter. From the first assembly step to the finished helicopter, it takes four months. flying intensive care unit costs 8 million euros the first lifeguards on board risked their own lives to help people in trouble the pilots go through complex training to be able to fly one of the most maneuverable rescue helicopters in the world most than 100 thousand rescue missions are flown in Germany every year when the alarm sounds they take off with the mission to save human lives
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