A Brief History Of Cartography: How Our Ancestors Mapped The World | Face Of The World | TimelineApr 30, 2023
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has fascinated people of all ages and cultures we have the
in our hands in the form of a map of the Earth we know where the mountains are where the rivers flow and how far the oceans extend though we have never been there the invention of maps and charts is a fascinating chapter in human
historyhit network how do humans find their way around their planet? how do they know what lies beyond the sea or where a path leads? Did Marco Polo have an atlas to show you the route to China? Did the Romans search? the borders of your empire on maps for thousands of years unknown distant lands kept their secrets and yet were described in travel books and imaginative maps the
has fascinated people of all ages and cultures we have the
in our hands in the form of a map of the Earth we know where the mountains are where the rivers flow and how far the oceans extend though we have never been there the invention of maps and charts is a fascinating chapter in human
historyin the beginning there fantastic descriptions mystical representations later on maps and charts for sailors and soldiers of their limited resources people of bygone ages try to create a world picture of their own region and faraway lands with their eyes fixed on faraway goals Traders discover new trade routes the soldiers conquer new territories warlords take possession of the world and impose their rule over foreign peoples the map is an instrument of their foreign power showing us the world in a series of detailed maps completed one hundred years ago early cultures they scratch their concepts of the world on clay tablets or chisel them out of stone others are not what they know the ancient greeks write what they have seen of the world there is a long way from the first inaccurate descriptions of the world to today's maps that guide us eerily to any dot on the face of the globe a road full of adventures and mistakes the art of
cartographydates back to the time of the sumerians the earth floats in an ocean above it curves heaven and below lies hell this is how the Sumerians see their Cosmos the Euphrates and Tigris rivers are the sources of prosperity and a sophisticated culture five thousand years ago the Sumerians know the geography of their empire the map is scratched in clay it was made 600 years before Christ shows the course of the two rivers to the sea and the main cities the map is a base for the functional administration of the empire in 2300 a. in Babylon a geography textbook is produced even long ago Caravans travel from southern Arabia to the Mediterranean at that time no one could know who would later benefit from the geographical knowledge of these ancient cultures at that time it was not It's obvious that Europeans were going to discover the world, but if we're going to pinpoint the beginning of European expansion, then we'd probably place it in the eighth century. century BC In this century, the ancient Greeks began to extend their power by establishing subsidiary cities, colonies in the Black Sea, the north coast of Africa, the western Mediterranean region in Sicily and the other islands, reflects Giza and a response to the founding of these colonies is apparently that in the VIII century a.
C., homo wrote the story of Odysseus, the story of his voyages across the seas, so Odysseus is probably the first European whose voyages were narrated. Homer's Odyssey is not only the story of a great journey for the people of that time, it is at the same time also a fascinating description of the Known World the Mediterranean world The Odyssey traces the roots of the great cities temples and holy places describes the route maritime from Greece to Sicily the reader learns how to get to the Colossus of Rhodes Homer sends his hero Odysseus on a great voyage presumably based on the descriptions of navigators who knew exactly where to go and how to get there thanks to their heritage their estate planners as these navigation aids are ancient and represent the first explorations of the world by people as merchants and sailors, but also scholars and poets.
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Odysseus is just one among many, for example, or Herodotus, who traveled the world and left us descriptions of what they had seen. the mediterranean also knew the troubled waters of the atlantic and north sea contemporary sources suggest they were trade links stretching from the mediterranean to northern europe one thing is certain the phoenicians sailed east to india they circumnavigated africa sailing from to the west it is possible that the Phoenicians reach the British Isles and even further north they speak of a land they call Thule where the sun never sets all over the world people have been traveling for thousands of years the ship is the most important means and effective for exploring the world, but the knowledge of those ancient maritime explorers has been lost.
Homer's Odyssey is an exception. Other written accounts have been destroyed or never existed in the first place. Three thousand years ago, on the islands of the southern seas, people sailed into the unknown. who sail long distances their settlements extend over an area as large as the surface of the moon they sail without compasses or charts a nautical marvel they sail from island to island guided by experience only by word of mouth oral tradition their picture of the world is not something What they hold in their hands instead is expressed in foreign words at the same time thousands of kilometers to the west there are ships sailing regularly between Arabia and India again their crews know nothing of sea charts Arab navigators sail only by the stars yet they they own the Indian Ocean and find their way unerringly to the ports of India from there they bring rare spices to Arabia their familiarity with the sea The roots make them rich and they write their valuable knowledge about the sea in nautical manuals here Sailors find information about the winds and currents over the shallows and safe harbors forced from the air the initial concepts of the earth begin to emerge in antiquity among natural philosophers some of them conceive the world as a disk like a rectangle others still and these images are Used to collect all the knowledge collected from seafarers merchants and scholars, the gathered wisdom of ancient times was finally brought together in the late period by the geographers Pomponius Mela and Ptolemy and established as a man's map.
Maps became the undisputed standard in the Middle Ages and are still of importance today for our geographical picture of the world using the descriptions set forth by Pomponius Mailer's cartographers. They drew maps of the Roman world showing Europe, Africa and Asia, but more important to the romans than a picture of the world is the knowledge of the Road of the Empire Red in the year 80 at the time of pomponius Mela the network of roman roads stretches to Scotland 75,000 kilometers of roads link Rome with its most distant province in their travels the romans were presumably guided by these maps initially they were the soldiers on the roads the military had priority the map shows the route through Gaul and then to Gamalia or most people at that time the Roman Empire only existed in In their minds this is still the case centuries later or Charlemagne who sees himself as the successor to the Roman emperors Carl is in the year 800 on Christmas Day Charles, King of the Franks and Lombards, his emperor crowned in Rome it is a mark of his triumph a triumph that was signaled in 774 when Charles conquered the Lombard Empire and thus created the link between Franconia and Italy when he died here, but even before his coronation Charles had also considerably extended the Franconian Empire towards the east with the annexation of bavarius and north with his conquest of the saxons to the idle line essentially this was the creation of the core of europe how charlemagne came to know the shape and size of his empire is a puzzle pictorial maps Gone are Roman maps, along with their functions, so for his journey across the Alps, Charles must rely on verbal descriptions of the root that This is how flocks of pilgrims find their way to Rome.
Charlemagne was a great general, but how did he lead his army from, say, speaking or Frankfurt or Worms to Rome, Spain or Saxony? The answer is simpler than you might think. On the one hand, there were still some Roman roads usable, and on the other hand, the land was not as cultivated as it was later, when the swamps dried up and the forest was cleared, so there were relatively few roads to travel the rivers. they could only be crossed at a few fronts therefore travelers tended to cluster in certain places, this made it relatively easy to find their way to Rome.
There were only two passes to the south suitable for an Armature cross and the other was the valley of Arista. Similarly, there were only two roads to Saxony, one from Frankfurt and the other the famous Helveig through Dortmund into the Vasa Valley, so it was relatively easy to find your way to Rome from Middle Franconia, you just had himself and knew how many stages the journey consisted of for the king with or without his army the journey was measured in units of days from one castle to the next or from way station to weigh stations there are no maps in the Middle Ages , however, merchants and soldiers travel with confidence across Europe they are guided by rivers and landmarks verbal descriptions serve instead as maps and guide Travelers safely to their destinations the migration of entire peoples is also a step towards the unknown how they knew the route to Rome or Carthage no one knows but the legendary vikings also managed without Maps lore has it that the age of The vikings begin with the sack of Lindisfarne in the year 793.
Over the next few decades the vikings they appear mainly as the raiders of Western Europe and the later Iberian Peninsula. However, in the 10th and 11th centuries they were also the founders of several entirely new empires. the duchy of Normandy the kingdom of Sicily and even the state of Russia were also the first Europeans to cross the North Atlantic to the American continent through Iceland which they discovered and settled at the end of the 9th century and Greenland where settlements were permanently established late 10th century as far as Newfoundland Labrador and maybe even as far as New England with their fast ships they conquer new worlds wherever they appear sailors spread fear and terror vikings attack settlements and plunder cities like Paris but how do they sail on the open sea remains a mystery their ships sail to the Mediterranean and North America a map is said to have shown them the route across the Atlantic according to the Viking sagas Beyond the sea lies Vinland, where grapes grow in abundance and pastures are plentiful evidence that the clear image of the world of the Vikings is the Vinland map, but today cartographers are sure that the Vinland map is a fake.
The Vikings sailed without Maps. The Vinland map was not drawn until the 20th century in the Middle Ages. the knowledge of antiquity has been forgotten or lost without a trace now it is the church that decides what the world looks like the picture of the world is determined by christian faith and no longer by scientific knowledge but it is not correct to call this the Middle Ages rulers have a clear picture of the extent and borders of their empires Scholars know the Earth is round or dispute whether the size of its circumference is foreign The First Crusade begins in 1096 Christian powers want to recapture the Holy Land from In the hands of Muslims for the next three centuries, the crusaders' goal is Jerusalem, but who shows these knights from northern and western Europe the way to the Holy Land? they navigate the coastline they rule by sun and stars while maps drawn according to religious beliefs are inaccurate as nautical guides they cannot be fully trusted christians know the sea they live surrounded by the sea and from here begins a great stage of global exploration Venice is alive with fantastic tales about lands far to the east in the 13th century European ideas are shaped by assumptions and rumors Real experiences come richly decorated Legends say that the emperor of China is the richest man from the world of China come the rare spices with which the Venetians trade and become prosperous in China it is said that there is an abundance of gold and silk Marco Polo is the first to bring the Venetians a true account of this land Marco Polo is not the first European to travel to China but the tale of his travels becomes more widely known than any other foreigner Polo set sail in 1271. he is 17 years old he cannot suspect that it will be many years before he returns abroad travels by ship from Venice to the Holy Land Marco Polo is accompanied by his father and uncle his purpose is to establish new trade links for Venice the merchants nikolo and mafeo polo had already ventured east on a six year journey they had traveled from venice through the crimea and across the deserts from Asia to the court of the Mongol Emperor Kublai Khan they wish to return there the journey to the far peak will take four years from Arabia The three men travel overland further east they cross Afghanistan and the taklam Khan and Gobi deserts will not have depended on maps but in the local knowledge of the indigenous people their stories and descriptions how far it is to reach the topit is not written somewhere where the right path leads only the guide knows it the route to its destination only exists in the mind of the traveler his knowledge is fed by stories and his own experience meanwhile Marco Polo is 21 years old traveling worlds and cultures strangers without a map 300 years later his account of his travels is still read in more than a hundred different manuscripts it circulates throughout Europe after 24 years Marco Polo returns to Europe by sea the account of his voyage forms the basis of the first European maps the portulane each port is marked a first map of the world has been drawn but systematic mapping only arises thanks to an entirely different event the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Sultan Osman is a major milestone in westward expansion now Europeans find it more difficult to find routes to Asia to India or even further who must have been born at this time probably in 1451 it is Columbus who later concludes that to get east you have to sail west you have to take a completely different route Japan and Cathay to reach China and even India during the 1450s undeterred, the Portuguese continue to seek routes south since 1434 under Henry the Navigator they have pushed exploration of the coast of Africa and by the 1450s they have already reached West Africa this success is only possible because Henry the Navigator has founded a research center the navigation school in sagres here the geographical knowledge of the time is systematically collected and evaluated the navigation school provides portuguese sea captains with the first reliable maps with the help of these charts they examine the newly discovered coastlines step by step adding new information with each trip the maps become more and more accurate and extensive the later Christian conquest of the world is a consequence of the art of
cartographythe sign of the cross testifies the success of this scientific mapping Henry the Navigator is an honorary title never to be seen but he finances the voyages of exploration and everyone lifts a little the veil that hides the undiscovered world the first great step into the unknown has been taken how do they find humans their way around their planet how do they know what lies beyond the sea or where a road leads marco polo had an atlas to show him the route to china did the romans record the borders of their empire on maps for thousands of years?
Unknown distant lands kept their secrets and yet they were described in travel books and imaginative maps. The face of the world has fascinated people of all ages and cultures at the point where the sun. The world of the Europeans is sinking It is coming to an end out there in the wild Atlantic The threat of the end of the world is looming Medieval sailors mistrust the Open Sea They hug the coast sailing along high cliffs Trees or mountains They have no instruments of measurement or precision Charts seascapes that could show them how the lucrative trade with the Far East is conducted more safely on earth.
Christian Europe has a firmly established picture of the world above Earth, bending the sky and from Heaven God rules the destiny of humanity on the geographical plane. The center of the Christian world is Jerusalem Jerusalem Gold is the spiritual center and therefore the center of the earthly world, but again and again this divine world order is challenged by other peoples and religions. Islam is a new and expanding power and, like Christianity, its adherence is inspired to turn the world Islam and its warriors conquer North Africa the Near East and holy Jerusalem Islamic conquerors destroy ancient empires like the of Byzantium the Byzantine capital Constantinople has long withstood attacks by Islamic invaders but in 1453 the once mighty city cannot hold out for more than a thousand years after its founding the walls of Constantinople break down well so this means the loss of a powerful trading partner suddenly the future seems uncertain but other European powers will seek new routes to Asian wealth Mongol in a European design The Mongol invasion opened the Silk Road to Europeans The collapse of the Mongol Empire closed it again but by then the Europeans had developed an appetite for goods and merchandise from the East, so they sought new routes to the Far East in the 15th century, the Portuguese King Henry the Navigator sent his sailors, surveyors and explorers to find a route around Africa to the east shortly thereafter there were reports that someone else was looking for a route sailing west sailing west to land in the east Austin Columbus and indeed that was how the route to China was discovered how it was explored the world and even the world was understood as a globe the world is a huge picture in which Europe was just a small On Friday, Henry the Navigator, King of Portugal, feeds his hunger for gold in North Africa.
His soldiers invade the city of Saint, in North Africa. This will be the starting point for the search for the legendary gold treasures of the interior of Africa, but the Portuguese find their way blocked. through a sea of sand only nomads can find their way through the desert no European can survive here so Henry orders new roots to be found in Africa and Asia by sea Henry the Navigator will never see himself in their name the Navigators venture into the unknown Atlantic Ocean and explore the shores of undiscovered worlds, but these maritime explorers not only search for the path to the east or discover sources of gold and silk, they must also take possession of new lands, thus that wherever they set foot on the coast they plant the cross signaling the claim to rule of their prince and financial backer Henry the Navigator thanks 1300 feet um the Portuguese foreigner who for two decades had been systematically outfitting expedition after expedition to explore the west coast of Africa for this purpose established a navigation school and an Arsenal on the rocky promontory of Sagres by Cake, in the extreme southwest of Europe, it is difficult to find sources that prove the existence of this school, but it is a fact that with the means of Those he ordered as Grand Master of the Order of Christ Henry were able to promote and finance systematic voyages of exploration by the Portuguese The Nautical School at Sagres on the Atlantic coast of Portugal is an international research center under the command of Henry Jewish astronomers and cartographers Arabs and Italians prepare for the first European voyages of exploration The only sea charts currently in existence are more products of the human imagination and completely useless for navigation, so sailing on the open sea is a high-risk adventure.
Only with accurate charts would Henry's captains have a chance to find the sea route to the east at sagres the observations and experiences of the navigators are recorded and collated from their descriptions and information emerges the first sea charts with each voyage the charts they become more accurate with each voyage the picture of the world changes when Henry the Navigator sent out his explorers there were no maps they had to record every item of navigational information and they had to know how to measure wind direction compass headings distances between points distances sailed per day and then how to transfer that data to a graph in this way a number of graphs were produced but unfortunately in the 18th century they were all destroyed in the Great Fire of Lisbon as a result we do not know in detail each stage in the exploration of the world those first steps taken by the portuguese still marked the beginning of global exploration by europeans now equipped with the charts provided by the school of sagres the portuguese advance further and further along the african coast discover worlds completely unknown to them return to sagres what they have seen and described is assessed and recorded on new charts and maps on the african coasts they do not find gold at first but they do find other human beings who seem strange to the european invaders instead of gold.
The humans now become the loot and are transported back to Europe. This is the beginning of a new chapter in an old story. The history of slavery will cost lives. millions and enriching others in a trade that spans centuries more than 50 ships sail along the African coast under Henry's flag in 1444 one of Henry's most cherished ambitions is achieved thanks to his voyages and his maps the portuguese now they find direct access to the goal of Africa the rule of Arab gold traders has been broken Foreigners have enjoyed a clear superiority over Europeans who are so far from their own environment for centuries that Arabs have felt so at home home in the open sea as in the trackless desert that their ships fly regularly between Arabia and India bringing rare spices and precious materials.
The secret of its success lies in the charts of the Arabian Sea. These depictions of the known world with their trade routes exactly
mappedout are an invaluable asset. The captains of the Arabian Sea have the world in their hands for a long time. before the europeans got old, the chinese were as technically advanced as the arabs at a time when a sea voyage in europe is still a risky adventure fleets of chinese junks equipped with accurate maps and compasses are spreading across the high seas, it sounds unbelievable but china is well on its way to discover the world while the portuguese are taking their first uncertain steps even in them yes in them portuguese in the same year as Capitan and ushers in the portuguese expansion in just this year the emperor is trapped in P The king forbids further exploration by Chinese sailors earlier, Chinese sea captain Cheng HEI had traveled as far as the east coast of Africa and the Persian Gulf, but the Imperial Court was not interested and prevented China from discovering the world now that the way was open for the Portuguese. road that for many decades would take them along the coast of Africa to the southern tip of the Cape of Good Hope discovered by Bartholomew and onward to India in 1498 the Portuguese sailor Vasco de Gama dropped anchor in Calicut in India now the road it was open for a thriving trade between asia and europe india india almost 80 years have passed since the founding of the sailing school in sagres hundreds of sailors have lost their lives in the atlantic ships are lost but each returning crew brings information valuable the charts are getting more accurate now the captains know the roots along the coast of africa the breakthrough is imminent Vasco dagama is the first European to sail around the Cape of Good Hope the sea route to India has been discovered in may 1498 after a journey of many weeks he arrives in calicut in india the picture of the world becomes clearer europe has just come a little closer to distant india a new era has begun for europeans it was not just them confirmed their picture of the world and confirmed it from experience that the world was round that all points could be reached by boat now they began to establish settler colonies in Asia in East Asia and these colonies later had an effect on the mother countries they became colonial powers they competed with each other to acquire most of the largest the richest colonies and thus began a new Age that only came to an end in the 20th century foreign cartographers systematically assess the unique knowledge brought back from the Voyages of Discovery without Maps Portugal's rise to colonial power status is unthinkable only Possession of increasingly rare sea charts may open a safe route to the Far East for wealth and power, making charts worth more than gold and are kept under lock and key outside the sailing school.
They are known only to ship captains and only one copy can be taken on board Portugal's political rivals pay thieves to steal the cards Venetian merchants and Spanish nobles spend large sums of money stealing examples of the unique cards Portuguese letters from this period are lost in fires in the archives or for sheer use on board a ship Portugal has a great rival Spain the Spanish are also looking for the sea route to India they too dream of silk and spices of gold and slaves and they are also driven by the lustful power and wealth that an Italian sailor offers to find a route Christopher Columbus a native of Genoa since the Earth is round all you need to do is sail west and sooner or later you will reach the India is his solution it takes some time before he can put his plan into action geographers cast doubt on his calculations in their opinion Columbus has no chance of reaching India they prophesy that the long voyage will end with the crew dying of hunger and thirst but investors are finally found to finance the voyage to the riches of India in 1492 three small ships put to sea while the Portuguese continue to sail along the coast of Africa in search of gold Columbus heads west a voyage lasts 12 weeks later Columbus landed in India or so he believes for the rest ofhis life, as he sees it alone in the Atlantic lies between Europe and India for years to come Columbus makes more voyages to his India refuses to acknowledge that he has discovered an unknown land numerous navigators follow in his wake it takes a long time before they the certainty that a completely new foreign continent has been discovered upon his return Columbus met the Portuguese king Don jual II in the port of Lisbon in contrast to Columbus who did not realize the importance of his discovery and never did. would Don jual had a very clear understanding of the importance of the discovery of America the result was a treaty a treaty between the Throne of Portugal and the throne that According to which a line was drawn from north to south across the Atlantic some 2100 kilometers west of the Azores and Cape Verde islands all newly discovered lands west of this line should belong to Spain all east to Portugal so the world was divided the Portuguese were left with the discovery of Africa and the sea route to india indeed to asia to the spanish the road to america was now open mainly south and central america and the growth of a vast colonial empire in the new world the new world brings unsuspected riches to impoverished spain the church is adorned with stolen gold worldly rulers use stolen gold to buy political power now there are regular shipments of gold and silver from the americas to europe in unbelievable amounts what the europeans take to america is fatal to the indigenous people there the population is decimated by disease even now unknown hundreds of thousands of Indians perish as slaves in the gold and silver mines the gold of the Incas is brought across the Atlantic by ships that navigate the routes traced with pinpoint precision in Europe the gold and silver of America causes inflation but in the final analysis europe benefits from the new world and indigenous high cultures are destroyed when columbus first set foot on the islands of central america he definitely believed he had landed in the old world in india or even china he did not know he had discovered a new continent, however, people had to be able to find their way around, this meant giving these newly discovered islands names and names. from home country nicknames the sailors had brought with them, so a part was called New Spain Amsterdam New Amsterdam was the name given to a city founded by the Dutch. series of names imported from the old world that were now associated with the new world in this way out of all these new places and lands the new world was created for the poor europeans the new world seems like a paradise gigantic trees animals and fruits never seen before all this ignites the imagination of the conquerors but where did these animals that apparently did not sail in Noah's ark come from there is another unknown creator as well as the Christian god not all this must have been created by god after the end of the old world so the church justifies the existence of the new continent after the seventh day of creation God went back to work and created another world a new world and now it is the right and duty of the faithful to govern this new world and Christianize it New of God The gardens are tempting, nourishing and tasty.
Sugarcane grows here like the grass of the large plantations. The first pure sugar arrives in Europe. Labor is scarce in the New World. European plantation owners buy cheap labor from Africa. exploiting nature and the slave trade abroad maps of the world show how the geographical horizon of Europe has widened and that the world now looks like a sphere if he had not been convinced of this Columbus would never have ventured into the Atlantic is in this time, the map maker Martin behind builds the first globe, makes the roots of the world's spices easier to see or the interested merchants behind meticulously describe which fruits grow, where and what kind of trade can still take place on this first globe the american continent columbus was deeply involved with east asia in you very well the literature on east asia that had appeared in the middle ages had studied it closely wrote extensive commentaries about her that's probably the reason she wasn't really able to see the value of her Discovery at the end of her days she believed she landed in Asia because that's what she dedicated her life to achieving like all the other Sailors wanted to get to East Asia as a new double continent world which by the way the Spanish called India yes the whale in the 18th century as a new world the double continent was probably discovered by Amerigo Vespucci and decorated this explains why the German cartographer Martin Valdse Muller gave the continent the name of America in honor of Amerigo Vespucci in a map he published in 1507 in San Diego. copies of the valsimula world map world maps revolutionize navigation Nautical measuring instruments, such as the sextant, simplify orienteering on the high seas.
The compass points the way to distant ports and keeps the ship on the charted course. Portuguese ships sail for the first time in Chinese ports. new global empires arise and colonial claims to conquered territories are entered on the maps, but white spots still remain, the vast expanses of the silent oceans are yet to be navigated, the interiors of the continents yet to be trodden, our view of the world is still incomplete thank you How do humans find their way around their planet? How do they know what lies beyond the sea or where a path leads? Did Marco Polo have an atlas to show you the route to China?
Did the Romans record the borders of their empire on maps for thousands of years, unknown distant lands kept their secrets, and yet they were described in travel books and imaginative maps. The face of the world has fascinated people of all eras and foreign cultures. The true image of the Earth. The blue planet has fascinated the people of all ages. and culture, but thousands of years pass before people can decipher the shape, measure the size and reveal the secrets of their world, what lies beyond the mountains, where does this ravine lead, what does this ravine see, flow river towards each culture, seek answers to these questions and form their own image of the world influenced by myths and fantasies created by curiosity and scientific research ancient philosophers had their image of the world just like people living in the Middle Ages medieval scholars had long ago begun to put together an accurate picture of the earth the earth was a non-flat sphere but at the equator the heat was so great because the earth was so close to the sun but everything there was in danger of evaporating burning or melting You could get past this barrier and how it looked on the other side, but she didn't make everything there turn to ice.
Sound ideas like this still preoccupied the crews of the great explorers. the uncertainty was in the Middle Ages. if there were human beings living on the other side of the earth if their legs would stick to our faces or if they would fall off the surface of the earth frequently asked questions even ancient philosophers had said that such speculations were meaningless, yet they would They don't go off and terrorize people before Early Modern explorers could report on what things were really like in the southern hemisphere, but no boiling seeds. The explorers report that their ships are not attacked by sea monsters and their sails are. does not melt In the heat of the sun and where the sun sinks in the west there is also life, people do not fall off the face of the Earth, instead the Intrepid Travelers quickly put together a fairly accurate picture of the world, in fact They captured Earth. on paper as a sphere cartographers draw the world and skilled craftsmen build the images of the globe working in Nuremberg his hometown made his famous globe mockingly called the bayheim potato was a craftsman and later traveled to Portugal is supposed to have sailed on various Portuguese expeditions including on the famous voyage commanded by Diego he later became a cosmographer in the service of King John II of Portugal in this work he acquired a very detailed knowledge of the appearance of the world the fact that he built a globe in 1492 shows that even at the end of the Middle Ages, it was believed that the Earth was so fierce.
Possibly Columbus knows of this globe. Anyway, it starts from the assumption that the Earth is round, but scholars argue about the size of the Earth due to the size of the circumference. it will determine if a ship can sail from Europe to India. The voyage should not last more than 40 days because at the latest by then all the provisions will have been eaten and the fresh water undrinkable, but along with the sober worldview that merchants and seafarers have. there is also still a picture of the world seen in strictly Christian terms at the center of this world is the holy city of Jerusalem according to Christian cosmology everything revolves around the world that God has created faith alone determines how this world should be perceived and understood world Faith also dictates how maps should be drawn on medieval maps of the world.
Jerusalem, of course, stands at the center, even in the larger world. The teaching of the church proved to be very stubborn and inflexible in the face of all scientific knowledge in the 16th century Copernicus made a breakthrough when he declared that the sun was at the center of the planetary system, a departure from the geocentric point of view where the Earth is. in the middle. However, almost a hundred years later, the famous Tuscan scholar Galileo Galilei was forced by the church to stand trial for recanting and outrageously declaring more or less that the heliocentric system was a heresy.
The church continued to hold its view for a long time. and the defender of the heliocentric system Galileo Galilei was rehabilitated only in 1992. Galileo Galilei remains standing before the feared doctrinal tribunal of the church the heresy of the inquisition is a serious accusation in the eyes of the church it can lead to condemnation but everything what he has said is that the earth revolves around the sun for galileo the man of science this statement could mean his death the church refuses to accept the truth of Galileo's observations sees that his power is threatened the church cannot accept that the God's creation Earth is just a small planet revolving around the mighty Sun against his best understanding The celebrated scientist must confess his mistake as seen by the Church and repudiate his discoveries The judgment drives a deep wedge between the Church and the science the threats of the Inquisition are so intimidating that despite himself Galileo acknowledges the worldview of the church the planets revolve around the Earth they are supposed to be words but it moves are a 17th century invention discoveries made on the other side of the oceans concern the church scientists and sailors meet animals and plants of the people that are not mentioned in the Bible but even for America until now completely unknown the church finds an explanation after God created the old world that he made the new world that must now be colonized in the Name of Christ after the discovery of America events move at a breakneck pace European invaders find gold in quantities beyond their wildest dreams with the gold of the Incas impoverished Spain becomes a wealthy colonial power the amount of gold brought to Europe is so great that it causes inflation gold enriches the few and impoverishes the many the conquistadores exercise destructive rule over the indigenous peoples of the Americas Spanish law dictates that the indians must work for 18 months in the gold and silver mines broken by forced labor and ravaged by infectious diseases imported by the europeans the natives die like flies the indians are not only robbed by christians they are also forced to pray to the christian god and enslaved or not enslaved the riches of America cannot be fully exploited crossing the equator is the death of all moral precepts States an 18th century English politician the first American to discover Columbus made an unhappy discovery claims a European philosopher in the same century the European voyages of discovery arrive father and father their goals are clearer defined navigators conquer new worlds with ever larger ships equipped with ever more accurate charts as well as the Spanish and Portuguese now the French and English ships they constantly sail the seas in search of their share of the legendary riches of India Africa and numerical and now the search expands towards the southern hemisphere to the great continent of Terra Australis after 300 years of exploration the geographical information is so extensive and the charts nautical so accurate that a new era begins the second age of discovery which I know is in the second half of the 18th century Europeans are embarking on a new age of discovery in my opinion there are two main reasons one isthe European vision of Terra Australis and the fantastically embellished southern continent is supposed to be a sort of counterpart to the lonely northern landmasses of the hemisphere which resulted in both nations competing fiercely for victory in being the first to discover Terra Australis is in 1766 under a French commission and Dean sailed to the South Seas and took possession of Tahiti which is still a French colony today in 1768 he was followed by James Cook acting under the instructions of the British Royal Geographic Society on this first voyage he was the first to chart New Zealand but failed to land in 1769 and 1770, Cook became the first to discover the areas of Australia that were later settled by European colonies.
Two other great voyages followed, on the second of which Cook died in Hawaii. The second age of discovery differs fundamentally from the first in that European nations now competed with each other on a truly systematic scale. They were scientifically prepared and equipped and both cooked. and Bougainville and others were accompanied by a host of scientists and experts who inspected and charted collected zoological and botanical specimens and studied the languages of the indigenous peoples they found most notably James Cook makes maps and charts of all newly discovered islands in this way records that these territories are now possessions of the British multitude for years travels in the unknown southern hemisphere for almost three years sails across the Pacific Ocean his search for Terra Australis becomes desperate discovers and surveys three thousand kilometers of an unknown coastline and then sails so far north toward the arctic circle that their advance is only halted when their ships encounter a solid wall of ice.
James Cook convinces his men to eat sauerkraut, rich in vitamin C. This vegetable prevents the terrible disease of scurvy. Cook's voyages of discovery are also voyages. of scientific research Among the basic equipment of the fired ships are Provisions for the crew Sextant and compass for navigation and a team of naturalists who observe draw and describe each new thing they encounter crossing the foreign equator would melt or burn in flames or no one Sailing through the Southern Ocean would freeze. These voyages also established the existence of a southern continent which turned out to be very different from what had been expected, now stretching across the globe reaching not only North America and parts of Africa but actually covering the world a filter twice as long James Cook set sail again for the Pacific voyages last for years European sailors learn about the maritime world from Polynesians they call themselves who sail long distances on a notion vast as the surface of the Moon sail confidently from island to island navigating solely by the stars charts of their sea lanes stretching thousands of miles are in their heads they know nothing of maps drawn in the constantly wet conditions of small craft anyway, these charts wouldn't last long.
Foreign. Polynesians rarely use braided navigation. AIDS scientists can only guess what the sticks and shells might mean to Polynesians. They indicate currents and hazards around the islands that Cook is painstakingly examining. James Cook has much more. more accurate picture of the world than Columbus and his contemporaries who had neither telescopes nor a realistic idea of the size of the Earth the ship's compass becomes an increasingly accurate instrument fixing position at sea vitally important where everything looks the same becomes almost as easy as on land, the industrial revolution with its steam engines and a relentless stream of technical inventions gives Europe and its shipping a technological advantage that it will benefit from well into the 20th century, but just as in the centuries before, the newly discovered maps and charts of seas and ships Continents are closely guarded Secret maps mean economic power and that means they are often stolen or deliberately forged to lure political rivals to the Rocks, so to speak on all high culture maps, they are a valuable asset that only kings and their ministers can control the world. your hands or whoever owns the maps knows well the roots of the earth's riches by now those roots have been almost completely surveyed all the more important is the need to explore the white spots left in the picture of the world than the spots white marks the interior of Asia and Africa attracts scientists Traders and adventurers have all heard of the roots of caravans and oacs all want to discover sunken cities and fairy tale treasures are fascinated by the fabulous stories that come to Europe from all the corners of the world tell of the source of the Blue Nile of exotic peoples and strange cultures and dream of fantastic riches and for this they risk life and limb in tortuous journeys with no sure outcome and because they write everything down and make detailed sketches, they are often thought to be spies so they travel disguised as the german explorer cast and knee brace commissioned by the king of denmark travels the arabian peninsula their orders are to study the geography and biology of this unknown land from arabia nibor travels to india draws along the Euphrates and discovers the site of Biblical Babylon dressed as a Muslim is the first European to reach the holy sites of Islam for seven years nibor remains in Arabia is the first to describe and map the Arabian lands since nibor The first Europeans receive precise information about the size of Arabia and its culture great voyages of discovery had revealed the world as a whole but there were still many white spots and it was not only scientists who were leaving now but also adventurers like Cecil Rhodes or Livingston in search of the source of the Nile Attempts to travel through Arabia or to reach the North or South Pole information and knowledge resulted in ever more detailed maps of the world and in this way also revealed the number and the variety of human cultures, as well as the seemingly endless variety of languages spoken around the world. the world saw humanity as a whole in all its various cultural expressions an image was made of what we foreign imperators are today or an image of the world that is that accurate there are people willing to pay good money in 1850 a company was financed international expedition by the british crosses the Sahara with the purpose of opening new commercial routes the leader of the expedition is the german geographer heinrichbard wherever he travels Bart collects information about the land and its people so as not to be treated as a foreigner Bart dresses as Muslim not recognized as a spy makes detailed drawings of his journey starting from Tripoli crosses the desert and becomes the first European to reach the legendary trading city of Timbuktu on the Niger River calculates the distance he has traveled this is the basis for the first map of the desert that has traveled 20,000 kilometers now after a journey that lasted five years and five months for the Europeans the Sahara is no longer a white spot on the map foreigners The maps represent a victory over the conquered territories that can be had in hands what the colonies are like, Europeans learn from stories and descriptions, but where in the world the colonies are can only be known from maps and paper atlases, people can trace the roots from London to India, Arabia and even the heart of Africa from Paris. look for Egypt and the Nile delta from Madrid you can follow the long seaway over the Atlantic to South America fully equipped millions of Europeans now spill over to the conquered continents and European cartographers are now drawing the face of the world one of the greatest cartographers important is Lawrence of Arabia England wants to extend its power in Egypt for this you need accurate maps of the country Lawrence comes to Egypt as an intelligence officer in the field spies use ancient rules disguise themselves as scientific explorers and get to work making maps of the Middle East and they divide it this is how Syria Iraq Jordan Lebanon Palestine and Arabia arise the borders of these new states are completely arbitrary cartographers the lines drawn on the map the armed revolts of the Arabs against the new regime are doomed to fail to fail , the British not only possess superior weaponry, but their extensive maps of the region allow them to plan military actions with great precision.
Egypt and the Near East are now administered by Great Britain and France. National borders in North Africa and Arabia still look like they were drawn with a ruler almost a hundred years ago by politicians and cartographers Humans began looking at their world thousands of years ago Looking at the stars Constellations allowed people to find their way around their planet Guided by the stars they embarked on the first great voyages across the oceans and conquered new worlds they travel without navigation instruments without nautical charts always following the winds and currents the true face of the world remains hidden from them the charts nautical instruments and the compass are creations of the Modern Age Centuries pass before they become reliable instruments of navigation.
The world's first accurate images are drawn in the sea. Sailors survey the shorelines and cartographers lay out the information on paper. Maps 2 become more and more reliable and ships find their way more easily in the seas. today ships navigate by computer to fix their position a captain now does not need a compass or chart the ship's course is plotted on the screen the computer has replaced the foreign chart
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